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THE NEW Ywf'x 

public librarv 



R 1623 L 

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Dedication and Preface. 

To THE Memory of those who so kindly assistedthe author in his work, and to the city of 
Trenton, its institutions and enterprises, this volume is dedicated. 

While it has been an interesting labor to gather from the oldest citizens their reminis- 
cences of events occurring in the first settlement of Grundy county, and to carefully search 
the old volumes of newspapers, whose editors had given a weekly resume of the current events 
of the times, who had urged forward and joined in many of the enterprises and were con- 
nected with the earlier institutions of the county, and like " sea shells found where the ocean 
had been, to tell that the great tide of life was once there." The task has been long, tedi- 
ous and wearisome, with difficulties envix'oning the way at every step, and it has only been 
accomplished by the exercise of patient research and perseverance. 

It has been the earnest aim of the writer to record only such facts as are based on the most 
reliable and trustworthy authority, and to this end every available source, of creditable infor- 
mation has been exhausted. No effort has been made at mere rhetorical embellishment. 

There may be a few errors in the book — none are perfect. Typographical errors are found 
in all works and this will doubtless not prove an exception, but the intelligent reader will find 
them no obstacle to a clear and easy understanding of the subjects before him. 

There will be found biogTaphies of a number of the best and most useful citizens of the 
county. Future generations will want to know of what composed the manhood and 
womanhood of an era that tried the stamina of the bravest, the truest and the best. 

Much has been given to local matters, and the county's history in all its phases has been 
brought from the realms of obscurity into the broad light of day. Much more could have been 
written about very many of the oldest and best citizens of Grundy county who have aided us 
in securing valuable matter for this history, and to one and all the publishers and author re- 
turn their sincere thanks for the courtesy extended. They would, however, more especially 
mention the following, who have been unremitting in their kindness, and earnest in their en- 
deavor to secure us all available information in their power: Mayor Collier, County Clerk 
D. C. Pugh, Deputy Clerk E. B. Cooper, the press of Trenton, Judge A. H. Burkeholder, Prof. 
T. B. Pratt, Preston W. Bain, Jesse Bain, Thomas Torpey, G. P. Hammer, William C. 
Swayze, Major John C. Griffin, and many of the old pioneers, Dr. and William N. Peery, I. 
M. White, and the county officials of Livingston county. To the above named gentlemen, 
who have rendered us invaluable assistance, the publishers and author return their sincere 
thanks, and to their kind and persevering effort much of the value of this history is due. 

Having objection to extended prefatory remarks, the writer, in making his parting salaam, 
would adopt the advice of an old author, " Forbear the prelude, and give the contents of thy 
tale." The Authok. 





ILouisiANA PuBCHASE.- Brief Historical Sketch. ..9-12 


Descriptive and Geooraphioal.- Name— Ex- 
tent — Surface — Rivers — Timber— Climate- 
Prairies— Soil— Population by Counties 13-18 


■Geology of Mis-oubi.— Classiflcatiou of Rocks 
—Quaternary Formations— Tf-rtiary— Cretace- 
ous — Carboniferous — Devoiiiau — Silurinn— 
Azoic— Economic Geolosy— Coal— Iron — Lead 
--Copper - Ziuc — Lluildiug Stone— Marble- 
Gypsum — Lime - - Clay— Paints — Springs — 

Water Power 18-23 


Title and Early Settlements.— Title to Mis- 
souri Lands-- Rights of Di3covery--Title of 
France and Spain- -Cession to the United 
States— Territjrial Changes— Treaties with In- 
dians—First SettlemeLt— Ste. Genevieve and 
New Bourbon— St. Louis— When Incorpora- 
ted— Potosi— St. Charles— Portage des Sioux- 
New Madrid— St. Francois County— Perry- 
Mississippi— Loutre Island— " Boon's Lick" 
—Cote Sans Dessien- Howard County— Some 
First Things— Counties— When Organized. . .23-28 


Terkitoeial Organization. --Organization, 1812 
—Council— House of Representatives — Wil- 
liam Clark, first Territorial Governor— Edward 
Hempstead, First Delegate— Spanish Gran^' - 
FirstGeneralAssembly— Proceedings— Second 
Assembly — Proceedings— Population of Ter- 
ritory—Vote of Territory --Rulus Easton— 
Absent Members— Third Assembly— Proceed- 
ings — Application for Admission 23-31 


Admitted to the Union. —Application of Mis- 
souri to be Admitted into the Union- Agita- 
tion of the Slavery Qaestiou— "Missouri tlom- 
promise"— Constitutional C -nventiou of 1820 
—Constitution Presented to Congress- Fur- 
ther Resistance to Admission— Mr. Clay and 
his Committee Make Report — Second Compro- 
mise-Missouri Admitted 31-34 


Missouri as a State.- First Election of Governor 
and Other .state Officers -Senators and Repre- 
sentatives to General Assembly— Sheriffs and 
Coroners. -U. tS. Senaiors--Kepreseiitativc3 in 
Cougres8--Supremo ('ouit Judges— Counties 
Organized— Capital Moved to St. Charles- 
Official Kecorct of Territorial and State Offi- 
cers .35-38 


Civil War in Missouri.— Fort Sumter Fired 
Upon— Call for 7.5()0i»Meu— Governor Jackson 
Refuses to Furnish :i Man U. S. Arsenal at 
Liberty, Missouii, S^iz-d— Proc anritiou of 
Governor Jacksoj— Order No. 7 — 
Legi lature Convenes- Camp Jacison Orgau- 


Ized-Sterlin'j Price Appointed Major-general 
-Frost's Letter to Lyon— Lyon's I-etter to 
Frost- Surrender of I'ainp Jackson— Procla- 
mation of General Ilaruey— Conference Be- 
tween Price and Harney— Harney Superseded 
by Lyon- Second Conference- Governor Jack- 
son Burns the Bridges Behind him— Procla- 
mation of Governor Jackson— General Blair 
Takes Possession of Jefferson C ity— Procla- 
mation of J,yon— Lvon at f- pi iugfleld— State 
Offices Declared Vacant— General Fremont 
Assumes Cnmmaud— Proclamation of I^ieu- 
tenaut-goveruor Reynolds- Proclamation of 
Jefferson Thompson and Governor Jackson- 
Death of General Lyon— Succeeded by Stur- 
gis— Proclamation of McfuUough and Gamble 
—Martial Law Declared— Second Proclamation 
of Jeff. Thompjou-Tho President Modifies 
Fremont's Order— Fremont Kelieved by Hun- 
ter-Proclamation of Price— Hunter's Order 
of Assessment— Hunter Declares Martial Law— 
OrdT Relating to Newspapers— Halleck Suc- 
ceeds Hunter— Halleck'8 Order No. 81— Simi- 
lar Order hyHMeck— Boone Couiify Stand- 
ard Confiscated- Execution of Prisoners at 
Macon and Palmyra— General E wing's Order 
No. 11- General Kosecrans takes Command- 
Massacre at Ceutralia— Death of Bill Anderson 
—General Dodge Succeeds General Rosecrans 
—List of Battles 39 46 


Early Military Record.- Black Hawk War- 
Mormon Difficulties— Florida War — Mexican 

War I'^-SO 


Agricultural and Material Wealth.— Mis- 
souri as an Agricultural State--The Difierent 
Crops-- Live Stock --Horses— Vlules — Milch 
Cows- Oxen and Other Cattle— Sheep— Hogs— 
Comparisons- >)i8>ouri Adapted to Live Stock 
—Cotton— Broom-corn and other Products- 
Fruits — B-rries —Grapes -- Railroads —First 
Neigh of the "Iron Horse" in Missouri- 
Names of Railroads — Manufactures— Great 

Bridge at St. Lcuis 50-54 


Education.- Public School System of Missouri- 
Lincoln Institute-Officers of Public School 
System— Certificates of Teachers— University 
of Missouri— Schools— Colleges— Instiiutions 
of Learumij- Locatiou--Libraries--Newspa- 
pers and Periodicals -Number of School Chil- 
dceu— Amount Expeu ed— Value of Grounds 
and Buildings—' Tue Press " 55-61 

Religious Denominations.— Baptist Church— Its 
History- Congregational — When Founded— 
Its His'tory- (-'hnstian Church— Its History- 
Cumberland Presbyterian Church— Its History 
-Methodist Episcopal Church— Its History- 
Presbyterian Church— Its History Protestant 
Episcopal Church— Its Histo'-y-United Pres- 
byterian Church-Its History — Unitarian 
Church— Its History— Roman Calhohc Church 
Its History " ^'-^^ 



St. Louis. -First Settlement -Arrival of the First 
Steamboat — Removal of the Capital to Jeffer- 
son «.iity--WhPn Incorporated— Populalion by 
Dev-ades— First Lighted by Gas— Deatti of one 


of Uer Founders, Pierre Chouteau — Ceme- 
teries-Financial Crash — Bondholders and 
Coupou-clipiiers — Value of Real and Personal 
Property — Manufacturers— Criticism 66-76 


Kansas City. Missouri.— A Sketch— The New 
Life — Its First Settlement— Steamboat Events 
from 1840 to 1846— Mexican War— Santa Fe 
Trade — Railroads— Commercial Advancement 
— Stock Market— Pork-packing— Elevators and 

Grain Receipts — Coal Receipts — Buildings — 
Railroad Cuauges — Banks — Newspapers — 
Churches — Secret Societies -I'nblio Schools — 
Mauufactnriug Center — Her Position and 
Trade— Assessed Valuation— Close 77-96 


St. Joseph, Missouri. --Early Settlements — The 
First Settlement at Blackstone Hills— Robi- 
doux— Biographical Sketch— At the Bluffs- 
Then at Roy's branch and Blacksnake Hills — 

1834-1836— Robidoux'sHome— Employes — Ser- 
vant— Ferry— From 1837 to 1840— Rival Towns 
—Wolves 97-117 


HoMEi^TEAD Exemption I, aw. — Husband not Lia- 
ble—Rights of Married Women -Hedges 
Trimmed — Changing School house Sites — 
Marriage License— Purchasing Books by Sub- 

gcriiition — Forms of Deeds, Leases and Mort- 
gases — Notes — Orders — Receipts — Valuable 
Kules — Weights and Measures 118-129 


Population of the United States.— By Races — 
Increase — Miles of Railroad in United States 
— Telegraph Lines and Wires — Cotton Crop- 

Coal Fields- Cereal Production — Presidential 
Votu from 1789 to 1880-Dates of Presidents' 
Births 130-134 



Iktroductort. —Geological Formation— Surface- 
Boundaries— Name— Early Inhabitants— The 
Home of the Indian— Irresistible March of 
Civilization — When Grundy County was Set- 
tled — The Van-guard of Progress—" The Good 
Old Times "—Reverence for the Pioneer. . .135-137 

PlONEEES.— Early Settler8-1833-1834— First Store 
— Heatherly Gang— 18j8-18:W-New Settlement 
— Mormon Family — (;ampaign, 1840 — Women 
Pioneers — Wedding Tours — Marriage Record 
—First Coffin— Cheaper Market— Hard Cider 
Campaign — Names of Old Settlers — Tetherow 
and Lomax— The Commg County Seat Strug- 
gle— Poem— 1841 137-170 

Grundy County Organized. — Metes and Bounds 
— First £lections--First Road— School Lands 
— First School Organization — Township 
Boundaries— County Organization— Hon. Felix 
Grundy — First Sheriff — County Justices — 
First Circuit Court — County Seat Imbruglio — 
Writ of Error — Election of County Officers — 
New Court-house— First Deed— Stray Notices 
— Original Townships — Me.'cicau War — Free- 
man of Color— Naturalization— In Court.. 170-208 


The Gold Feveu.— N^w El Dorado— .\ Deficiency 
— Contest of 1861— Union and Confederate 
Meetings— The Twenty-tl;ird Missouri — Pitts- 
burg Landing--Fiel<l of Shiloh — Death of Tin- 
dall — Tribute to his Memory — Eulogy of 

Woolfolk— Roll of Company B— Confederates 
— Grundy County Battalion — The Forty-fourth 
--riace— The Blue and the Gray— The Dark 
Days of the Civil War, 1862.65 209-233 

Coming Dawn. — Miscellaneous — Railroads — 
"Look Out for th'2 Cars" — First Officers — 
Description— County and Town Subscription- 
Economy— The Jail — The Most Accomplished 
Unfortunate — Iron Bridge — New Townships 
— Metes and Bounds — Township Registration 
— Election — Low Assessment of Railroad Prop- 
erty — Poor-farm — -The Centennial Year — 
Hail, Rain and Wind Storm — New Judicial 
Districts — Wool-Growers' A lociation— First 
Marriage License— The County Debt 234-251 


EE.SOUBCES. -Central Location — Surface — Coal — 
Building Stoue— Timber and Prairie— Climate- 
Soil— Cereals—— Average Crop— Fruits 
and Vegetables — Vintage— Grasses — Stock — 
Number of Head of Live-stock 252-264 


Ageicultdral and Mechanical Association. — 
Organization — Incorporators — First Officers — 
New Organization— Board of Directors— Con- 
stitution and By-laws— Grounds 267-274 


Patrons of Hushandey. — When Organized — 
First Olticers— List of Granges— Declaration 
of Purposes— 200 Wagons and 10,000 Bushels 
of Wheat 274-280 


ecHOOLS OF 6BUSDY CoCNTY.- Educational -Ex- 
DloriuK the KecordH-School Organization— 
Enumera'ion in 1847-Number of Children. 
185.3 and 1854— School mone.VB-ProgresB from 
1865— Hchool CommiBsioners-New Era-Su- 
periuteudei t'8 Keport-bchool Fuud, 1874- 
Steadv Growth -Letter from State Supenn- 
tendeiit-School Fuud by Townships, 1875— 
1876— bounty Supcrintendeufs Report, 18 1 9 — 
1880 -Value of >chool Property and Report 
forl881-" The Men Who Have Guided ". .281-291 

MiscELLANT.-Counly Map-Cyclone, 1880-Po- 
litical --Population and its Increase- Census 
of 1880- Comparison— Official Vot- of Grundy 
County, 1880— Tenth District for 1880— Valua- 
tion of Property— Assessment by Townships, 
1874_As8e8sment, 1879— Valuation, 1881— Im- 
migration— Grundy County's Advantage.. .292-304 


CocNTY Officials.— Election in 1842— Sheriffs— 
Defalcation— Circuit and Cornty Clerks— Mis- 
sing Funds- Cost of Suit— Circuit Clerks- 
County Treasurers- Probate Judges- Salaries 
—Members of the Legislature— State Senators 
—Circuit Judges— Circuit and County Attor- 
neys-Judicial, Senatorial and Congressional 
Districts— Congressmen — County Judges- 
County Officers, 1881 304-314 


. Treston Township.— Description— Boundary- 
First Election— Steady Progress -ITie Com- 
ing Storm- -Railroad Fever— Quincy, Missouri 
& Pacific Railroad-.SiOjOOO Raised— Rejoicing 
—Schools, etc.— Biographies 314-340 


City of Trentos— Commanding Situation--Xew 
Life — Business— Second Railroad— Manufac- 
turing— Deed of the Town Site— The City 
Charter— Plat of 'L'rentoc— Incidents— Con- 
tinued Progress— Miliv Wagon—" Iron Horse 
and Joy rnspeabable'"— Crossing the Line 
-Machine-shops— Close of 1871 341-360 


SOMETHISG OF A BooM.— Onward March, 1872— 
First Fire-compiny— Building Association— 
lirewerv--Financiai— Crash - Railroad Basi- 
ness- PubUc Library— Gas Works- Hotels- 
Banks- Trenton Silver Cornet Band-Passing 
Events — Prehistoric — Gala Day — Depot 
Burned -- Telegraph — Trenton's Business 

Houses 360-377 


The Early Bab, Etc.— Early History— Bar of 
1841— Juries— Important Case— The Present 
Bar- Trenton High School History— Its Rise 
and Progress— Its Present Condition— Coal- 
Trial Shalt— The First Company— The Xew 
Organization— Depth of Shaft— The Coal Vein 
—Woolen and Flouring-mill — Cost— Weather 
and Crops— Below and Above Zero--Crops In- 
jured—A Revie\» of its Effects— Trenton's 
Officials, 1857-1881— Places and Distances .. 378-387 


The Press of TjiKSTOn.— Trenton Pioneer- 
Herald— Christian Pioneer— Trenton Ile- 
pablican— Its Changes of Name and Proprie- 
tors-Its Political Course— Incidents in its 
Ca.T6iT— Grundy County Times— Organ of 
the Democracy— More Vfooa—Oaily Bazar- 
Trenton Weekly Star— First Appearance— 
Monthly Star— Daily Star-Ua Principles— 
"What Becomes of Editors'!''— Daily Even- 
ing Bepublican—X Forward Movement. . .388-397 


Churches, Lodges, Etc.— Presbyterian— Meth- 
odist— Catholic- Christian— Baptist— Colored 
Baptist- Colored Methodist— When they were 


Organized— When Built— Named of Pastors — 
MemberHhii)- General History — Trenton Poet- 
office — The First Pontmaster — Names of all 
the Po»tmaHter8--Qiiarterly Retnnm— Money 
Order Department— Itn Receipts — Secret Or- 
ders and Societies— Odd Fellows— KniKhts of 
Pythias — Order of United Workmen- Knights 
of Honor — Golden Spray Tabernacle 397-4l:J 


Medical Society, Crimes, ICtc— Trenton Col- 
lege — When Incorporated- .Medical Society— 
When Organized— Qualiticat ion of Members- 
Railroad aud Machine-shop- — Number of Em- 
ployes — Expenditures — Coal Consumed — 
Waste and Oil Used— .VlanagerB — Crimes — The 
War Period— Robbery and Murder— Burglar 
Shot and Captured — Biographies— Alphabet- 
ical List of Sketches- -Prominent Citizeus of 
Trenton 413-491 


Fbanklis Township. — Its Location — One of the 
Group of Seven--It8 Roil, Creeks, Woodlands 
and Prairies— Its First Settlers- The First 
"Corn-cracker'' — The First Cabin— Early 
Events — Elections -- Churches — Schools — 
Spickardsville- Its Incorporation— Mayor and 
Trustees— Additions— A Shipping Point— Its 
Schools and Churches --Its Business in 1881 — 
Names of its Business Men— Biographical 
Sketches 492-519 


Mabion Township. — Its Boundary Lines— 1838 
to 1842— The Heatherly War— Tue Redskins— 
$70,000 Cost — Thomas":; Grove— Churches — 
Schools— The First SchDOl-house— An Elope- 
ment — Preparing for Battle, an Incident — The 
Indian Outbreak of 1842 The GulUver War- 
Assassination —Description— First Elections — 
Township Officers — Lindley— Its First Settlers 
— Incorporation — Business Houses — Its Fa- 
mous Mineral Spring— Biographies 520-555 


Madison Tow-sshtp.— Jletes and Bounds— Acres 
of Land— When Settled— The First Birth in 
the County-Old Settlers-The F.-ight- Saved 
Their >^calp3— The First school— The First 
Wedding— Mi'ls-Edinbnrg-Grand River Col- 
lege — When First Started— A Complete His- 
tory — Business — Petition for Incorporation — 
Incorporated— 1881— Biographies 556-601 


Lincoln Township.— Its Municipal Boundary- 
Woodland, Prairies and Running Waters— Its 
First Settlers— The Bain Settlement- Death 
of Riason Bain— Union Church--Trading with 
the Indians— The First School and School- ^ 
house — The First Church— New Settler"— War 
Period— When Organized- Public Servants 
Incident-i — .A Memorable Tramp- .A SoUdNote 
— Assessed Valuation — Biographies 601-639 


Wilson Township.— Early Settlement —Silken 
Bonds Into the World, and Out— Schools and 
Churches -First Uuiversalist Church— Organ- 
ization — Population, etc.— Tragic Events- 
Town of Alpha— Petition to Incorporate — 
Present Officers- -Business Directory— Biogra- 
phies 640-656 


Taylor Township.— When Organized— Old Zack 
—The Early Pioneers— The First Cabinet- 
shop in Grundy County— The Silent Dead- 
Schools and Churches— Old Mrs. Duncan— Its 
First Officers— The Mormon Troubles— Dark 
Deeds and Darker Crimes— Biographies 656-669 


Washington Township.— -An Original Township 
— Organized by Livingston County Court in 
1839— Its Present Boundary— First Settlement 



— The Old Pioneers— Prairies aud Timter — Its 
Living WaterH— Its First (!biirch aud Minis- 
ter — The ijld Log School house — Its Present 
Officers — An Accident — Noble Ktl'ort - A Mem- 
ber of the Legislature — Kioaraphies 669-676 


Jackson Township. — Its Early Settlement — From 
Indiana, lUiiKas and Virginia — Trading-point 
— Forest and Streams — Prairie — Hirths and 
Deaths— First Physician — Wedding Bells — 
Christianity aud Education — Extett of Do- 
main — First Towusliip Dfticern — Where they 
Met — Population — Prtsent Township Board — 
Biographies 677-689 


Mters Township.— Its Location— Organized in 
1872 — Running Streams — Undulating Prairies 
— Forests of Timber — When Settled — Indians 
and Wild Game - 1840-41 -Institutions of 
Learning — Methodist and Christian Chur. hes 
— The First Baby— Cartmill Rickets Nuptials 
— Spinning-wheel and Loom— Its First and 
Present Township Officers— Biographies. 689-704 



LiBEHTT Township.— Settled in 1838— Named in 
1845- The Old Pioneers — Marriages— Birth* 
au'l Deaths — Ministers and Doctors — Schools 
-The First Divorce in Grundy County— Val- 
uation— Railroad — Towu of Gault— Biogra- 
phies 705-709 

Harbison Township.— When it was Organized — 
Acres of Laud — Boundaries— Population — Its 
Schools arid f'hurches— History ot the Church- 
es— The Old Pioneers— How They Lived, What 
They Saw aud How They Coutjuered- Early 
Marriages and D-aths— Its Political Status — 
Township Officers— Biographies ....709 726- 


Jefferson Township— How Situated — Area in 
Acres — When Organized — Its Metes and 
hounds — Early Settlers — Fancy Sketch — First 
Election, 183T — Pioneer Incidents — Schools 
and School-houses — The Cost of the First 
School-house — Pioneer i ransportation — Cli- 
I' a'e. Soil and Prosperity — Township Officers, 
1881— Biographies 727-739 


Col. John H. Shankliu 141 

Col. Jacob T. Tiudall 163 

Col. W. B. Rogers 197 

Hon. George H. Hubbell 231 

Hon. A. H. Burkeholder 265 

Hon. B. A. DeBolt 299 

Judge Stephen Peery 333 

Hon. E. F. Horton 367 

Judge George Hall 401 

Gilbert U. Smith 435 

M. G. Kennedy 469' 

I-uther Collier 503 

Judge George A, Spickard 53T 

History of Missouri. 



The purchase of the vast territory, west of the Mississippi River, by the 
United States, extending through Oregon to the Pacific coast and south to the 
Dominions of Mexico, constitutes the most important event that ever occurred m 
the history of the nation. 

It gave to our Republic, additional room for that expansion and stupendous 
growth, to which it has since attained, in all that makes it strong and enduring, 
and forms the seat of an empire, from which will radiate an influence for good 
unequaled in the annals of time. In 1763, one hundred and eighteen years ago, 
the immense region of country, known at that time as Louisiana, was ceded to 
Spain by France. By a secret article, in the treaty of St. Ildefonso, concluded in 
1800, Spain ceded it back to France. Napoleon, at that time, coveted the island 
of St. Domingo, not only because of the value of its products, but more especially 
because its location in the Gulf of Mexico would, in a military point of view, 
afford him a fine field, whence he could the more effectively guard his newly acquired 
possessions. Hence he desired this cession, by Spain should be kept a profound 
secret until he succeeded in reducing St. Domingo to submission. In this under- 
taking, however, his hopes were blasted, and so great was his disappointment, that 
he apparently became indifferent to the advantages to be derived to France from 
his purchase of Louisiana. 

In 1803 he sent out Laussat as prefect of the colony, who gave the people of 
Louisiana the first intimation that they had had, that they had once more become 
the subjects of France. This was the occasion of great rejoicing among the inhabi- 
tants, who. were Frenchmen in their origin, habits, manners and customs. 

Mr. Jefferson, then President of the United States, on being informed of the 
retrocession, immediately dispatched instructions to Robert Livingston, the 
American Minister at Paris, to make known to Napoleon that the occupancy of 
New Orleans, by his government, would not only endanger the friendly relations 
existing between the two nations, but, perhaps, oblige the United States to make 
common cause with England, his bitterest and most dreaded enemy ; as the 
possession of the city by France, would give her command of the Mississippi, 
which was the only outlet for the produce of the Western States, and give her also 


control of the Gulf of Mexico, so necessary to the protection of American 
commerce. Mr. Jefferson was so fully impressed with the idea that the occupancy 
of New Orleans, by France, would bring about a conflict of interests between the 
two nations, which would finally culminate in an open rupture, that he urged Mr. 
Livingston, to not only insist u[)on the free navigation of the Mississippi, but to 
negotiate for the purchase of the city and the surrounding country. 

The question of this negotiation was of so grave a character to the United 
States that the President appointed Mr. Monroe, with full power, to act in con- 
junction with Mr. Livingston. Ever equal to all emergencies, and prompt in the 
Cabinet, as well as in the field, Napoleon came to the conclusion that, as he 
could not well defend his occupancy of New Orleans, he would dispose of it, on 
the best terms possible. Before, however, taking final action in the matter, he 
summoned two of his Ministers, and addressed them as follows : 

** I am fully sensible of the value of Louisiana, and it was my wish to repair 
the error of the French diplomatists who abandoned it in 176;^. I have scarcely 
recovered it before I run the risk of losing it ; but if I am obliged to give it up, it 
shall hereafter cost more to those who force me to part with it, than to those to 
whom I shall yield it. The English have despoiled France of all her northern 
possessions in America, and now they covet those of the South. I am determined 
that they shall not have the Mississippi. Although Louisiana is but a trifle com- 
pared to their vast possessions in other parts of the globe, yet, judging from the 
vexation they have manifested on seeing it return to the power of France, I am 
certain that their first object wi be to gain possession of it. They will probably 
commence the war in that quarter. They have twenty vessels in the Gulf of 
Mexico, and our affairs in St. Domingo are daily getting worse since the death of 
LeClerc. The conquest of Louisiana might be easily made, and I have not a 
moment to lose in getting it out of their reach. I am not sure but that they 
have already begun an attack upon it. Such a measure would be in accordance 
with their habits; and in their place I should not wait. I am inclined, in order 
to deprive them of all prospect of ever possessing it, to cede it to the United States. 
Indeed, I can hardly say that I cede it, for I do not yet possess it ; and if I wait 
but a short time my enemies may leave me nothing but an empty title to grant to 
the Republic I wish to conciliate. I consider the whole colony as lost, and I 
believe that in the hands of this rising power it will be more useful to the political 
and even commercial interests of France than if I should attempt to retain it. 
Let me have both your opinions on the subject." 

One of his Ministers approved of the contemplated cession, but the other 
opposed it. The matter was long and earnestly discussed by them, before the 
conference was ended. The next day, Napoleon sent for the Minister, who had 
agreed with him, and said to him: "The season for deliberation is over. I 
have determined to renounce Louisiana. I shall give up not only New Orleans, 
but the whole colony, without reservation. That I do not undervalue Louisiana, 
I have sufficiently proved, as the object of my first treaty with Spain was to 
recover it. But though I regret parting with it, I am convinced it would be folly 
to persist in trying to keep it I commission you, therefore, to negotiate this affair 
with the envoys of the United States. Do not wait the arrival of Mr. Monroe, but 
go this very day and confer with Mr. Livingston. Remember, however, that I 
need ample funds for carrying on the war, and I do not wish to commence it by 
levying new taxes. For the last century France and Spain have incurred great 
expense in the improvement of Louisiana, for which her trade has never indemnified 
them. Large sums have been advanced to different companies, which have never 
been returned to the treasury. It is fair that I should require repayment for these. 
Were I to regulate my demands by the importance of this territory to the United 
Slates, they would be unbounded; but, being obliged to part with it, I shall be 
moderate in my terms. Still, remember, T must have fifty millions of francs, and 


I will not consent to take less. I would rather make some desperate effort to 
preserve this fine country." 

That day the negotiations commenced. Mr. Monroe reached Paris on the 
1 2th of April, and the two representatives of the United States, after holding a 
private interview, announced that they were ready to treat for the entire territory. 
On the 30th of April, 1803, eighteen days afterward, the treaty was signed, and on the 
2ist of October, of the same year, congress ratified the treaty. The United States 
were to pay $11,250,000, and her citizens to be compensated for some illegal cap- 
tures, to the amount of $3,750,000, making in the aggregate the sum of $15,000,- 
000, while it was agreed that the vessels and merchandise of France and Spain 
should be admitted into all the ports of Louisiana free of duty for twelve yiars. 
Bonaparte stipulated in favor of Louisiana, that it should be, as soon as poss ble, 
incorporated into the Union, and that its inhabitants should enjoy the same riglits, 
privileges and immunities as other citizens of the United States, and the clause 
giving to them these benefits, was drawn up by Bonaparte, who presented it to the 
plenipotentiaries with these words: "Make it known to the people of Louisiana, 
that we regret to part with them; that we have stipulated for all the advantages 
they could desire; and that France, in giving them up, has insured to them the 
greatest of all. They could never have prospered under any European govern- 
ment as they will when they become independent. But while they enjoy the priv- 
ileges of Uberty let them remember that they are French, and preserve for their 
mother country that affection which a common origin inspires." 

Complete satisfaction was given to both parties in the terms of the treaty. 
Mr. Livingston said : "I consider that from this day the United States takes rank 
with the first powers of Europe, and now she has entirely escaped from the power 
of England," and Bonaparte expressed a similar sentiment when he said: "By 
this cession of territory I have secured the power of the United States, and given 
to England a maritime rival, who, at some future time, will humble her pride." 
These were prophetic words, for within a few years afterward the British met with 
a signal defeat, on the plains of the very territory of which the great Corsican 
had been speaking. 

From 1800, the date of the cession made by Spain, to 1803, when it was pur- 
chased by the United States, no change had been made by the French authorities 
in the jurisprudence of the Upper and Lower Louisiana, and during this period 
the Spanish laws remained in full force, as the laws of the entire province; a fact 
which is of interest to those who would understand the legal history and some of 
the present laws of Missouri. 

On December 20th, 1803, Gens. Wilkinson and Claiborne, who were jointly 
commissioned to take possession of the territory for the United States, arrived in 
the city of New Orleans at the head of the American forces. Laussat, who had 
taken possession but twenty days previously as the prefect of the colony, gave up 
his command, and the star-spangled banner supplanted the tri-colored tiag of 
France. The agent of France, to take possession of Upper Louisiana from the 
Spanish authorities, was Amos Stoddard, captain of artillery in the United States 
service. He was placed in possession of St. Louis on the 9th of March, 1804, by 
Charles Dehault Delassus, the Spanish commandant, and on the following day he 
transferred it to the United States. The authority of the United States in Mis- 
souri dates from this day. 

From that moment the interests of the people of the Mississippi Valley be- 
came identified. They were troubled no more with the uncertainties of free navi- 
gation. The great river, along whose banks they had planted their towns and vil- 
lages, now afforded them a safe and easy outlet to the markets of the world. Un- 
der the protecting aegis of a government. Republican in form, and having frv e 
access to an almost boundless domain, embracing in its b-oad area the divers-ificil 
climates of the globe, and possessing a soil unsurpassed for fertility, beauty of 


scenery and wealth of minerals, they had every incentive to push on their enter- 
prises and build up the land wherein their lot had been cast. 

In the purchase of Louisiana, it was known that a great em lire had been se- 
cured as a heritage to the people of our country, for all time to come, but of its 
grandeur, its possibilities, its inexhaustible resources and the important relations it 
would sustain to the nation and the world were never dreamed of by even Mr. 
Jefferson and his adroit and accomplished diplomatists. 

The most ardent imagination never conceived of the progress, which 
would mark the history of the "Great West." The adventurous pioneer, whc 
fifty years ago pitched his tent upon its broad prairies, or threaded the dark laby- 
rinths of its lonely forests, little thought, that a mighty tide of physical and in- 
tellectual strength, would so rapidly flow on in his footsteps, to populate, build 
up and enrich the domain which he had conquered. 

Year after year, civilization has advanced further and further, until at length 
the mountains, the plains, the hills and the valleys, and even the rocks and the 
caverns, resound with the noise and din of busy millions. 

** I beheld the westward marches 
Of the unknown crowded Nations. 
All the land was full of people. 
Restless, struggling, toiling, striving. 
Speaking many tongues, yet feeling 
But one heart-beat in their bosoms. 
In the woodlands rang their axes, 
Smoked their towns in all the valleys ; 
Over all the lakes and rivers 
Rushed their great canoes of thunder." 

In 1804, Congres-?, by an act, passed in April of the same year, divided 
Louisiana into two parts, the "Territory of Orleans," and the "District ol 
Louisiana," known as "Upper Louisiana." This district, included all that por- 
tion of the old province, north of "Hope Encampment," on the Lower Missis- 
sippi, and embraced the present State of Missouri, and all the western region of 
country to the Pacific Ocean, and all below the forty-ninth degree of north lati- 
tude not claimed by Spain. 

As a matter of convenience, on March 26th, 1804, Missouri was placed 
within the jurisdiction of the government of the Territory of Indiana, and its 
government put in motion, by Gen. William H. Harrison, then governor of 
Indiana. In this, he was assisted by Judges Griffin, Vanderberg and Davis, 
who established in St. Louis, what were called. Courts of Common Pleas. The 
District of Louisiana, was regularly organized into the Territory of Louisiana by 
Congress, March 3d, 1805, and President Jefferson, appointed Gen. James 
Wilkinson, Governor, and Frederick Bates, Secretary. The Legislature of the 
Territory, was formed by Governor Wilkinson and Judges R. J. Meigs, and John 
B. C. Lucas. In 1807, Governor Wilkinson was succeeded by Captain Mc;ri- 
wether Lewis, who had become famous by reason of his having made the expe- 
dition with Clark. Governor Lewis committed suicide in 1809 and President 
Madison, appointed Gen. Benjamin Howard, of Lexington, Kentucky, to fill his 
place. Gen. Howard resigned October 25, 1810, to enter the war of 1812, 
and died in St. Louis, in 1814. Captain William Clark, of Lewis and Clark's 
expedition, was appointed Governor in 18 10, to succeed Gen. Howard, and 
remained in office, until the admission of the State into the Union. 

The portions of Missouri, which were settled, for the purposes of local 
government were divided into four districts. Cape Girardeau was the first, and 
t-mbraced the territory, between Tywappity Bottom and Apple Creek. Ste. 
Genevieve, the second, embraced the territory from Apple Creek to the Meramec 


River. St. Louis, the third, embraced the territory between the Meramec and 
Missouri Rivers. St. Charles, the fourth, included the settled territory, between 
the Missouri and Mississippi Rivers. The total population of these districts at 
that time, was 8,670, including slaves. The population of the district of Louis- 
iana, when ceded to the United States was 10,120. 


N'ame — Extent — Surface — Rivers — Timber — Climate — Prairies — Soils — Population by Cotinties. 


The name Missouri, is derived from the Indian tongue and signifies muddy. 


Missouri is bounded on the north by Iowa (from which it is separated for 
about thirty miles on the northeast, by the Des Moines River), and on the east 
by the Mississippi River, which divides it from Illinois, Kentucky and Tennessee, 
and on the west by the Indian Territory, and by the states of Kansas and Nebraska. 
The state lies (with the exception of a small projection between the St. Francis 
and the Mississippi Rivers, which extends to 36°), between 36° 30' and 40° 36' 
north latitude, and between 12° 2' and 18° 51' west longitude from Washington. 

The extreme width of the state east and west, is about 348 miles ; its widtli 
on its northern boundary, measured from its northeast corner along the Iowa 
line, to its intersection with the Des Moines River, is about 210 miles ; its width 
on its southern boundary is about 288 miles. Its average width is about 235 miles. 

The length of the state north and south, not including the narrow strip 
between the St. Francis and Mississippi Rivers, is about 282 miles. It is about 
450 miles from its extreme northwest corner to its southeast corner, and from the 
northeast corner to the southwest corner, it is about 230 miles. These limits 
embrace an area of 65,350 square miles, or 41,824,000 acres, being nearly as 
large as England, and the states of Vermont and New Hampshire. 


North of the Missouri, the state is level or undulating, while the portion 
south of that river (the larger portion of the state) exhibits a greater variety of 
surface. In the southeastern part is an extensive marsh, reaching beyond the 
state into Arkansas. The remainder of this portion between the Mississippi and 
Osage Rivers is rolling, and gradually rising into a hilly and mountainous district, 
forming the outskirts of the Ozark Mountains. 

Beyond the Osage River, at some distance, commences a vast expanse of 
prairie land which stretches away toward the Rocky Mountains. The ridges 
forming the Ozark chain extend in a northeast and southwest direction, separat- 
ing the waters that flow northeast into the Missouri from those that flow southeast 
into the Mississippi River, 


No state in the Union enjoys better facilities, for navigation than Missouri. 
By means of the Mississippi River, which stretches along her entire eastern 
boundary, she can hold commercial intercourse with the most northern territory 


and state in the Union ; with the whole valley of the Ohio ; with many of the 
Atlantic States, and with the Gulf of Mexico. 

"Ay, gather Europe's royal rivers all — 

The snow-swelled Neva, with an Empire's weight 

On her broad breast, she yet may overwhelm ; 

Dark Danube, hurrying, as by foe pursued, 

Through shaggy forests and by palace walls, 

To hide its terrors in a sea of gloom ; 

The castled Rhine, whose vine-crowned waters flow. 

The fount of fable and the source of song ; 

The rushing Rhone, in whose cerulean depths 

The loving sky seems wedded with the wave ; 

The yellow Tiber, chok'd with Roman spoils, 

A dying miser shrinking 'neath his gold ; 

The Seine, where fashion glasses the fairest forms ; 

And Thames that bears the riches of the world j 

Gather their waters in one ocean mass, 

Our Mississippi rolling proudly on. 

Would sweep them from its path, or swallow up, 

Like Aaron's rod, these streams of fame and song." 

By the Missouri River she can extend her commerce to the Rocky Mountains, 
and receive in return the products which will come in the course of time, by its 
multitude of tributaries. 

The Missouri River coasts the northwest line of the State for about 250 miles, 
following its windings, and then flows through the State, a little south of east, to 
its junction with the Mississippi. The Missouri River receives a number of trib- 
utaries within the limits of the State, the principal of which are the Nodaway, 
I'latte, Loutre and Chariton from the north, and the Blue, Sniabar, Grand, Osage 
and Gasconade from the south. The principal tributaries of the Mississippi within 
the State, are the Salt River, north, and the Maramec River south, of the Missouri. 

The St. Francis and White Rivers, with their branches, drain the southeastern 
part of the State, and pass into Arkansas. The Osage is navigable for steamboats 
for more than 275 miles. There are a vast number of smaller streams, such as 
creeks, branches and rivers, which water the State in all directions. 

Timber. — Not more towering in their sublimity were the cedars of ancient 
Lebanon, nor more precious in their utiHty were the almung-trees of Ophir, than 
the native forests of Missouri. The river bottoms are covered with a luxuriant 
growth of oak, ash, elm, hickory, cottonwood, linn, white and black walnut, and 
in fact, all the varieties found in the Atlantic and Eastern States. In the more 
barren districts may be seen the white and pin oak, and in many places a dense 
growth of pine. The crab apple, papaw and persimmon are abundant, as also 
the hazel and pecan. 

Climate. — The climate of Missouri is, in general, pleasant and salubrious. 
Like that of North America, it is changeable, and subject to sudden and sometimes 
extreme changes of heat and cold; but it is decidedly milder, taking the whole 
year through, than that of the same latitudes east of the mountains. While the 
summers are not more oppressive than they are in the corresponding latitudes on 
and near the Atlantic coast, the winters are shorter, and very much milder, except 
during the month of February, which has many days of pleasant sunshine. 

Prairies. — Missouri is a prairie State, especially that portion of it north and 
northwest of the Missouri River. These prairies, along the water courses, abound 
with the thickest and most luxurious belts of timber, while the "roUing" prairies 
occupy the higher portions of the country, the descent generally to the forests or 
bottom lands being over only declivities. Many of these prairies, however, ex- 


hibit a gracefully waving surface, swelling and sinking with an easy slope, and a 
full, rounded outline, equally avoiding the unmeaning horizontal surface and the 
interruption of abrupt or angular elevations. 

These prairies often embrace extensive tracts of land, and in one or two in- 
stances they cover an area of fifty thousand acres. During the spring and summer 
they are carpeted with a velvet of green, and gaily bedecked with flowers of 
various forms and hues, making a most fascinating panorama of ever changing 
color and lovehness. To fully appreciate their great beauty and magnitude, they 
must be seen. 

Soil. — The soil of Missouri is good, and of great agricultural capabilities, but 
<he most fertile portions of the State are the river bottoms, which are a rich allu- 
vium, mixed in many cases with sand, the producing qualities of which are not 
excelled by the prolific valley of the famous Nile. 

South of the Missouri River there is a greater variety of soil, but much of it 
is fertile, and even in the mountains and mineral districts there are rich valleys, 
and about the sources of the'VVhite, Eleven Points, Current and Big Black Rivers, 
the soil, though unproductive, furnishes a valuable growth of yellow pine. 

The marshy lands in the southeastern part of the State will, by a system of 
drainage, be one of the most fertile districts in the State. 

POPULATION BY COUNTIES IN 1870, 1876, 1880. 

1870. 1876. 1880. 

Adair ii,449 i3'774 i5>i9o 

Andrew I5.i37 i4>992 16,318 

Atchison , 8,440 10,925 14,565 

Audrain 12,307 i5>i57 19.739 

Barry 10,373 11,146 14,424 

Barton 5,087 6,900 10,332 

Bates 15,960 17,484 25,382 

Benton 11,322 11,027 12,398 

Bollinger 8,162 8,884 11,132 

Boone 20,765 3^923 25,424 

Buchanan 35, 109 38,165 49,824 

Butler 4,298 4,363 6,011 

Caldwell 11,390 12,200 13 654 

Callaway 19,202 25,257 23,670 

Camden 6,108 7,027 7,269 

Cape Girardeau 17,558 17,891 20,998 

Carroll 17,440 21,498 23,300 

Carter 1,440 i,549 2,168 

Cass 19,299 18,069 22,431 

Cedar 9,471 9,897 10,747 

Chariton 19,136 23,394 25,224 

Christian 6,707 7,936 9,632 

Clark 13,667 14,549 15,631 

Clay 15,564 15,320 15,579 

Clinton 14,063 13,698 16,073 

Cole 10,292 14,122 15,519 

Cooper 20,692 21,356 21,622 

Crawford .... 7,982 9,39i 10,763 

Oade 8,683 11,089 12,557 

^'las 8,383 8,073 9,272 

i^^viess 14,410 16,557 19,174 

DeKalb 9,858 11,159 13, 343 

Dent 6,357 7,401 10,647 


Douglas 3*915 

Dunklin , . . . 5,982 

Franklin 30>098 

Gasconade iO;093 

Gentry 11,607 

Greene 21,549 

Grundy 10,567 

Harrison * 14 635 

Henry 17.401 

Hickory 6,452 

Holt 11,652 

Howard 17,233 

Howell 4,218 

Iron 6,278 

Jackson 55,°4i 

Jasper 14,928 

Jefferson 15,380 

Johnson 24,648 

Knox 10,974 

Laclede 9,380 

Lafayette 22,624 

Lawrence 13 °67 

Lewis . . '. , 15,^^4 

Lincoln 15,960 

Linn 15,906 

Livingston 16,730 

McDonald 5,226 

Macon 23,230 

Madison 5,^49 

Maries 5,9 '6 

Marion 23,780 

Mercer ii,557 

Miller 6,616 

Mississippi 4,9^2 

Moniteau - 13-375 

Monroe I7,i49 

Montgomery 10,405 

Morgan 8.434 

New Madrid 6,357 

Newton 12,821 

Nodaway i4,75i 

Oregon , 3^287 

Osage 10,793 

Ozark 3,363 

Pemiscot 2,059 

Perry 9,877 

Pettis 18,706 

Phelps 10,506 

Pike • 23,076 

Platte ." 17,352 

Polk 14,445 

Pulaski 4.714 

Putnam 11,217 

Ralls 10,510 

Randolph 15,908 






























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18 074 




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4 579 
































Ray 18,700 18,394 20,196 

Reynolds 3>756 4,7i6 5,722 

Ripley S.^TS 3,9^3 5»377 

St. Charles 21,304 21,821 23,060 

St. Clair : . . . . 6,742 11,242 14,126 

St. Francois 9.742 11,621 13,822 

Ste. Genevieve 8,384 9,409 10,309 

£t. Louis* 351,189 . . . 31,888 

Saline 21,672 27,087 29,912 

Schuyler 8,820 9,881 10,470 

Scotland 10,670 12,030 12,507 

Scott 7,317 7,312 8,587 

Shannon 2,339 3,236 3,44i 

Shelby 10,119 13-243 14,024 

Stoddard 8,535 10,888 13,432 

Stone 3,253 3,544 4,405 

Sullivan 11 907 14,039 16,569 

Taney 4,407 6,124 5,605 

Texas 9>6i8 10,287 12,207 

Vernon 11,247 I4,4i3 i9,37o 

Warren^ 9,^73 10,321 10,806 

Washington • 11,719 13,^00 12,895 

Wayne 6,068 7,006 9,097 

Webster 10,434 10,684 12,175 

Worth 5,004 7,164 8,208 

Wright 5,684 6,124 9,733 

City of St. Louis ... 350,522 

1,721,295 1,547,030 2,168,804 

Males 1,127,424 

Females 1,041,380 

Native 1,957,564 

Foreign 211,240 

White 2,023,568 

Coloredt i45;236 


Classification of RocJts — Quatenary Formation — Tertiary — Cretaceous — CarJioniferous — Dmonian 
— Silurian — Azoic — Economic Geology — Coal — Iron — Lead — Cop(^er — Zinc — Building Stone 
—Marble — Gypsum — Lime — Clays — Paints — Springs — Water Power. 

The stratified rocks of Missouri, as classified and treated of by Prof. G. C. 
Swallow, belong to the following divisions: I. Quatenary; II. Tertiary; III. 
Cretaceous ; IV. Carboniferous ; V. Devonian ; VI. Silurian , VII. Azoic. 

**The Quatenary formations, are the most recent, and the most valuable to 
man : valuable, because they can be more readily utilized. 

«■ St. Louis city and county separated in 1877. Population for 1876 not given. 
\ Including 92 Chinese, 2 half Chinese, and 96 Indians and half-breeds. 


The Quatenary formation in Missouri, embraces the Alluvium, 30 feet 
thick; Bottom Prairie, 30 feet thick; Bluff, 200 feet thick; and Drift, 155 feet 
thick. The latest deposits are those which constitute the Alluvium, and includes 
the soils, pebbles and sand, clays, vegetable mold, bog, iron ore, marls, etc. 

The Alluvium deposits, cover an area, within the limits of Missouri, of more 
than four millions acres of land, which are not surpassed for fertility by any 
region of country on the globe. 

The Bluff Prairie formation is confined to the low lands, which are washed 
by the two great rivers which c )urse our eastern and western boundaries, and 
while it is only about half as extensive as the Alluvial, it is equally as rich and 

"The Bluff formation," says Prof. Swallow, *'rests upon the ridges and river 
bluffs, and descends along their slopes to the lowest valleys, the formation cap- 
ping all the Bluffs of the Missouri from Fort Union to its mouth, and those of the 
Mississippi from Dubuque to the mouth of the Ohio. It forms the upper stratum 
beneath the soil of all the high lands, both timber and prairies, of all the counties 
north of the Osage and Missouri, and also St. Louis, and the Mississippi counties 
on the south. 

Its greatest development is in the counties on the Missouri River from the 
Iowa line to BoonviUe. In some localities it is 200 feet thick. At St. Joseph it 
is 140 ; at Boonville 100 ; and at St. Louis, in St. George's quarry, and the Big 
Moui d, it is about 50 feet ; while its greatest observed thickness in Marion 
couniy was only 30 feet." 

The Drift formation is that which lies beneath the Bluff formation, having, as 
Prof. Swallow informs us, three distinct deposits, to-wit : "Altered Drift, which 
are strata of sand and pebbles, seen in the banks of the Missouri, in the north- 
western portion of the state. 

The Boulder formation is a heterogeneous stratum of sand, gravel and 
boulder, and water-worn fragments of the older rocks. 

Boulder Clay is a bed of bluish or brown sandy clay, through which pebbles 
are scattered in greater or less abundance. In some localities in northern 
Missouri, this formation assumes a pure white, pipe-clay color." 

The Tertiary formation is made up of clays, shales, iron ores, sandstone, and 
sands, scattered along the bluffs, and edges of the bottoms, reaching from Com- 
merce, Scott county, to Stoddard, and south to the Chalk Bluffs in Arkansas. 

The Cretaceous formation hes beneath the Tertiary, and is composed of 
variegated sandstone, bluish-brown sandy slate, whitish-brown impure sandstone, 
fine white clay mingled with spotted flint, purple, red and blue clays, all being 
in the aggregate, 158 feet in thickness. There are no fossils in these rocks, and 
nothing by which their age may be told. 

The Carboniferous system includes the Upper Carboniferous or coal- 
measures, and the Lower Carboniferous or Mountain limestone. The coal- 
measures are made up of numerous strata of sandstones, limestones, shales, clays, 
marls, spathic iron ores, and coals. 

The Carboniferous formation, including coal-measures and the beds of iron, 
embrace an area in Missouri of 27,000 square miles. The varieties of coal found 
in the State are the common bituminous and cannal coals, and they exist in 
quantities inexhaustible. The fact that these coal measures are full of fossils, 
which are always confined to the coal measures, enables the geologist to point 
them out, and the coal beds contained in them. 

The rocks of the Lower Carboniferous formation are varied in color, and are 
quarried in many different parts of the State, being extensively utilized for build- 
ing and other purposes. 

Among the Lower Carboniferous rocks is found the Upper Archimedes 
Limestone, 200 feet ; Ferruginous Sandstone, 195 feet ; Middle Archimedes, 50 


feet; St. Louis Limds'orie, 250 feet; OSlitic Limestone, 25 feet; Lower Archi 
medes Limestone, 350 feet ; and Encrinital Limestone, 500 feet. These lime- 
stones generally contain fossils. 

The Ferruginous limestone is soft when quarried, but becomes hard and du- 
rable after exposure. It contains large quantities of iron, and is found skirting the 
eastern coal measures from the mouth of the Des Moines to McDonald county. 

The St. Louis limestone is of various hues and tints, and very hard. It is 
found in Clark, Lewis and St. Louis counties. 

The Lower Archimedes limestone includes partly the lead bearing rocks of 
Southwestern Missouri. 

The Encrinital limestone is the most extensive of the divisions of Carbonifer- 
ous limestone, and is made up of brown, buff, gray and white. In these strata are 
found the remains of corals and mollusks. This formation extends from Marion 
county to Greene county. The Devonian system contains : Chemung Group, 
Hamilton Group, Onondaga limestone and Oriskany sandstone. The rocks of the 
Devonian system are found in Marion, Ralls, Pike, Callaway, Saline and St. Gene- 
vieve counties. 

The Chemung Group has three formations, Chouteau limestone, 85 feet; Ver- 
micular sandstone and shales, 75 feet; Lithographic limestone, 125 feet. 

The Chouteau limestone is in two divisions, when fully developed, and when 
first quarried is soft, it is not only good for building purposes but makes an ex- 
cellent cement. 

The Vermicular sandstone and shales are usually buff or yellowish brown, and 
perforated with pores. 

The Lithographic limestone is a pure, fine, compact, evenly-textured lime- 
stone. Its color varies from light drab to buff and blue. It is called "pot met- 
al," because under the hammer it gives a sharp, ringing sound. It has but few 

The Hamilton Group is made up of some 40 feet of blue shales, and 170 feet 
of crystalline limestone. 

Onondaga limestone is usually a coarse, gray or buff crystalline, thick-bedded 
and cherty limestone. No formation in Missouri prei:ents such variable and wide 
ly different lithological characters as the Onondaga. 

The Oriskany sandstone is a light, gray limestone. 

Of the Upper Silurian series there are the following formations : Lower Hel- 
derburg, 350 feet ; Niagara Group, 200 feet; Cape Girardeau limestone, 60 feet. 

The Lower Helderberg is made up of buff, gray and reddish cherty and ar- 
gillaceous limestone. 

Niaga^-a Group. The upper part of this group consists of red, yellow and ash- 
colored shales, with compact limestones, variegated with bands and nodules of 

The Cape Girardeau limestone, on the Mississippi River near Cape Girardeau, 
is a compact, bluish-gray, brittle limestone, with smooth fractures in layers from 
two to six inches in thickness, with argillaceous partings. These strata contain a 
great many fossils. 

The Lower Silurian has the following ten formations, to-wit : Hudson River 
Group, 220 feet; Trenton limestone, 360 feet; Black River and Bird's Eye lime- 
stone, 175 feet; first Magnesian limestone, 200 feet; Saccharoidal sandstone, 125 
feet; second Magnesian limestone, 250 feet; second sandstone, 115 feet; third 
Magnesian limestone, 350 feet ; third sandstone, 60 feet ; fourth Magnesian lime- 
stone, 350 feet. 

Hudson River Group: — There are three formations which Prof. Swallow re- 
fers to in this group. These formations are found in the bluff above and below 
Louisiana; on the Grassy a few miles northwest of Louisiana, and in Ralls, Pike, 
Cape Girardeau and Ste. Genevieve Counties. 


Trenton limestone : — The upper part of this formation is made up of thick 
beds of hard, compact, bluish gray and drab limestone, variegated with irregular 
cavities, filled with greenish materials. 

The beds are exposed between Hannibal and New London, north of Salt 
River, and near Glencoe, St. Louis county, and are 75 feet thick. 

Black River and Bird's Eye limestone the same color as the Trenton lime- 

The first Magnesian limestone cap the picturesque bluffs of the Osage in Ben- 
ton and neighboring counties. 

The Saccharoidal sandstone has a w^e range in the state. In a bluff about 
two miles from Warsaw, is a very striking change of thickness of this formation. 

Second Magnesian limestone, in lithological character, is like the first. 

The second sandstone, usually of yellowish-brown, sometimes becomes a pure 
white, fine-grained, soft, sandstone as on Cedar Creek, in Washington and Frank- 
lin counties. 

The third Magnesian limestone is exposed in the high and picturesque bluffs 
of the Niangua, in the neighborhood of Bryces' Spring. 

The third sandstone is white and has a formation in moving water. 

The fourth Magnesian Hmestone is seen on the Niangua and Osage Rivers. 

The Azoic rocks lie below the Silurian and form a series of silicious and other 
slates which contain no remains of organic life. 


Coal. — Missouri is particularly rich in minerals. Indeed, no State in the 
Union, surpasses her in this respect. In some unknown age of the past — long 
before the existence of man, nature, by a wise process, made a bountiful provis- 
ion, for the time, when in the order of things, it should be necessary for civilized 
man — to take possession of these broad, rich prairies. As an equivalent for lack 
of forests, she quietly stored away beneath the soil, those wonderful carboniferous 
treasures for the use of man. 

Geological surveys, have developed the fact, that the coal deposits in the 
State, are almost unnumbered, embracing all varieties of the best bituminous coal. 
The southeast boundary of the State, has been ascertained, to be one continuous 
coal field, stretching from the mouth of the Des Moines River, through Clark, 
Lewis, Scotland, Adair, Macon, Shelby, Monroe, Audrain, Callaway, Boone, 
Cooper, Pettis, Benton, Henry, St. Clair, Bates, Vernon, Cedar, Dade, Barton, 
and Jasper, into the Indian Territory, and the counties on the northwest of this 
line contain more or less coal. Coal rocks exist in Ralls, Montgomery, Warren, 
St. Charles, Moniteau, Cole, Morgan, Crawford, and Lincoln, and during the 
past few years, all along the lines of all the railroads in north Missouri, and along 
the western end of the Missouri Pacific, and on the Missouri River, between 
Kansas City and Sioux City, has systematic mining, opened up hundreds ol 
mines in different localities. The area of our coal beds, on the line of the south- 
western boundary of the State alone, embrace more than 26,000 square miles, ol 
regular coal measures. This will give of workable coal, if the average be one 
foot, 26,800,000,000 tons. The estimates from the developments already made, 
in the different portions of the State, will give 134,000,000,000 tons. 

The economical value of this coal, to the State ; its influence in domesti'' 
hfe ; in navigation, commerce and manufactures, is beyond the imagination o. 
man to conceive. Suffice it to say, that in the possession of her developed, and 
undeveloped coal mines, Missouri has a motive power, which in its influences 
for good, in the civilization of man, is more potent than the gold of CaHfornia. 

Iron. — Prominent among the minerals, which mcrease the power and pros- 
perity of a Nation, is iron. Of this ore, Missouri has an inexhaustible quantity, 
and like her coal fields, it has been developed in many portions of the State, 


and of the best and purest quality. It is found in great abundance in the coun- 
ties of Cooper, St. Clair, Green, Henry, Franklin, Benton, Dallas, Camden, 
Stone, Madison, Iron, Washington, Perry, St. Francois, Reynolds, Stoddard, 
Scott, Dent and others. The greatest deposit of iron, is found in the Iron 
Mountain, which is two hundred feet high, and covers an area of five hundred 
acres, and produces a metal, which is shown by analysis, to contain from 65 to 
69 per cent of metallic iron. 

The ore of Shepherd Mountain contains from 64 to 67 per cent of metallic 
iron. The ore of Pilot Knob, contains from 53 to 60 per cent. 

Rich beds of iron, are also found at the Big B )gy Mountain, and at Russell 
Mountain. This ore has in its nude ^ate, a variety of colors, from the red, 
dark red, black, brown, to a light bluish gray. The red ores are found in 21 or 
more counties of the State, and are of great commercial value. The brown 
hematite iron ores, extend over a greater range of country, than all the others 
combined; embracing about 100 counties, and have been ascertained to exist in 
these in large quantities. 

Lead. — Long before any permanent settlements were made in Missouri, by 
the whites, lead was mined within the limits of the state, at two or three points on 
the Mississippi. At this time more than five hundred mines are opened, and 
many of them are being successfully worked. These deposits of lead cover an 
area, so far as developed, of more than 7,000 square miles. Mines have been 
opened in Jefferson, Washington, St. Francis, Madison, Wayne, Carter, Reynolds, 
Crawford, Ste. Genevieve, Perry, Cole, Cape Girardeau, Camden, Morgan and 
many other counties. 

Copper and Zinc. — Several varieties of copper ore are found in Missouri. The 
copper mines of Shannon, Madi^^on, and Franklin counties have been known for 
years, and some of these have been successfully worked, and are now yielding 
good results. 

Deposits of copper have been discovered in Dent, Crawford, Benton, Maries, 
Green, Lawrence, Dade, Taney, Dallas, Phelps, Reynolds, and Wright counties. 

Zinc is abundant in nearly all the lead rtiines in the southwestern part of the 
state, and since the completion of the A. & P. R. R. a market has been furnished 
for this ore, which will be converted into valuable merchandise. 

Building Stone and Marble. — There is no scarcity of good building stone in 
Missouri. Limestone, sandstone, and granite exist in all shades of buff, blue, red, 
and brown, and are of great beauty as building material. 

There are many marble beds in the state, some of which furnish very beauti- 
ful and excellent marble. It is found in Marion, Cooper, St. Louis, and other 

One of the most desirable of the Missouri marbles is in the 3d Magnesian 
limestone, on the Niangua. It is fine-grained, crystalline, silico-magnesian lime- 
stone, light-drab, slightly tinged with peach blossom, and clouded by deep flesh- 
colored shades. In ornamental architecture it is rarely surpassed. 

Gypsum and Lime. — Though no extensive beds of gypsum have been discovered 
in Missouri, there are vast beds of the pure white crystalline variety on the line of 
the Kansas Pacific Railroad, on Kansas River, and on Gypsum Creek. It exists 
Iso in several other localities accessible by both rail and boat. 

All of the limestone formations in the State, from the coal measures to the 
fourth Magnesian, have more or less strata of very nearly pure carbonate of pure 

Clays and Paints. — Clays are found in nearly all parts of the State suitable for 
making bricks. Potters' clay, and fire-clay are worked in many locahties. 

There are several beds of purple shades in the coal measures which possiess the 
properties requisite for paints used in outside work. Yellow and red ochres are 


found in considerable quantities on the Missouri River. Some of these paints have 
been thoroughly tested and found fire-proof and durable. 


No State is, perhaps, better supplied with cold springs of pure water than 
Missouri. Out of the bottoms there is scarcely a section of land but has one or 
more peiennial springs of good water. Even where there are no springs good 
water can be obtained by digging from twenty to forty feet. Salt springs are 
abundant in the central part of the State, and discharge their brine in Cooper, 
Saline, Howard, and adjoining counties. Considerable salt was made in Cooper 
and Howard counties at an early day. 

Sulphur springs are also numerous throughout the State. The Chouteau 
springs in Cooper, the Monagaw springs in St. Clair, the Elk springs in Pike, and 
the Cheltenham springs in St. Louis county have acquired considerable reputation 
as salubrious waters, and have become popular places of resort. Many other 
counties have good sulphur springs. 

Among the Chalybeate springs the Sweet springs on the Blackwater, and the 
Chalybeate spring in the University campus are, perhaps, the most popular of the 
kind in the State. There are, however, other springs impregnated with some of 
the salts of iron. 

Petroleum springs are found in Carroll, Ray, Randolph, Cass, Lafayette, 
Bates, Verno;i, and other counties. The variety called lubricating oil is the more 

The wa^er power of the State is excellent. Large springs are particularly 
abundant on the waters of the Maramec, Gasconade, Bourbeuse, Osage, Niangua, 
Spring, White, Sugar, and other streams. Besides these, there are hundreds of 
springs sufficiently large to drive mills and factories, and the day is not far distant 
when these crystal fountains will be utilized, and a thousand saws will buzz to 
their dashing music. 


Title to Missouri Lands — Right of Discovery — Title of France and Spain — Cession to the United 
States — Teiritorial Changes — Treaties with Indians — First Settlemetit — Ste. Genevieve and 
New Bou'bon — St. Louis — When Incorporated — Potosi — St. Charles — Portage des Sioux — 
New AJ ad id — St. Francois County — Perry — Mississippi — Loutre Islattd — "Boon^s L.ick^^ — 
Coti Sans Dessein — Howard County — Some First Things — Counties — When Organized. 

The title to the soil of Missouri, was, of course, primarily vested in the 
original occupants who inhabited the country prior to its discovery by the whites. 
But the Indians, being savages, possessed but i^vq rights that civilized nations 
considered themselves bound to respect, so when they found this country in 
the possession of such a people, they claimed it in the name of the King of 
France, by the right of discovery. It remained under the jurisdiction of P'rance 
until 1763. 

Prior to the year 1763, the entire continent of North America, was divided 
between France, England, Spain, and Russia. France held all that portion th; t 
now constitutes our national domain west of the Mississippi River, except Texo^", 
and the territory which we have obtained from Mexico and Russia. The vast 


region, while under the jurisdiction of France, was known as itsc "" Province of 
Louisiana," and embraced the present State of Missouri. At the close of the 
"Old French War," in 1763, France gave up her share of the continent, and 
^pain came into the possession of the territory west of the Mississippi River, 
while Great Britain retained Canada and the regions northward, having obtained 
'.hat territory by conquest, in the war with France. For thirty-seven years the 
territory now embraced within the limits of Missouri, remained as a part of the 
possession of Spain, and then went back to France by the treaty of St. Ildefonso, 
October ist, 1800. On the 30th of April, 1803, France ceded it to the United 
States, in consideration of receiving $11,250,000, and the liquidation of certain 
claims, held by citizens of the United States against France, which amounted to 
the further sum of $3,750,000, making a total of $15,000,000. It will thus be 
seen that France has twice, and Spain once, held sovereignty over the territory 
embracing Missouri, but the financial needs of Napoleon afforded our government 
an opportunity to add another empire to its domain. 

On the 3TSt of October, 1803, an act of Congress was approved, authorizing 
the President to take possession of the newly acquired territory, and provided 
for it, a temporary government, and another act approved March 26th, 1804, 
authorized the division of the "Louisiana Purchase," as it was then called, into 
two separate territories. All that portion south of the 33d parallel of north 
latitude, was called the "Territory of Orleans,'^ and that north of the said 
parallel was known as the " District of Louisiana," and was placed under the 
jurisdiction of what was then known as " Indiana Territory." 

By virtue of an act of Congress, approved March 3, 1805, the " District of 
Louisiana," was organized as the "Territory of Louisiana," with a territorial 
government of its own, which went into operation July 4th, of the same year, 
and it so remained till 181 2. In this year the " Territory of Orleans," became 
the State of Louisiara, and the "Territory of Loui-iana," was organized as the 
" Territory of Missouri." 

This change took place under an act of Congres^s, approved June 4th, 18 12. 
In 1819, a portion of this territory was organized as " Arkansaw Territory," and 
in 1 82 1, the State of Missouri was admitted, being a part of the former " Terri- 
tory of Missouri." 

In 1836, the " Platte Purchase," then being a part of the Indian Territory, 
and now composing the counties of Atchison, Andrew, Buchanan, Holt, Noda- 
way, and Platte, was made by treaty with the Indians, and added to the State, 
It will be seen then, that the soil of Missouri belonged : 

I St. — To France with other territory. 

2d. — In 1768, with other territory it was ceded to Spain. 

3d. — October ist, 1800, it was ceded with other territory from Spain, back 
to France. 

4th. — April 3©t"i, 1803, it was ceded with other territory by France, to the 
United States. 

5th. — October 31, 1803, a temporary government was authorized by Con 
gress, for the newly acquired territory. 

6th. — October i, 1804, it was included in the "District of Louisia^ia," and 
placed under the territorial government of Indiana. 

7th. — July 4, 1805, it was included as a part of the "Territory of Louisiana," 
then organized with a separate territorial government. 

8th. — June 4, 181 2, it was embraced in what was then made the ■' Territory 
of Missouri." 

9th. — August 10, 182 1, it was admitted into the Union as a State. 

loth. — In 1836, the " Platte Purchase" was made, adding more territory to 
the State. 

The cession by France April 30, 1803, vested the title in the United States, 





subject to the claims of the Indians, which it was very justly the policy of the 
government to recognize. Before the government of the United States could vest 
clear title to the soil in the grantee it was necessary to extinguish the Indian title 
by purchase. This was done accordingly by treaties made with the Indians, at 
different times. 


The name of the first white man who set foot on the territory now embraced 
in the State of Missouri, is not known, nor is it known at what precise period the 
first setdements were made. It is, however, generally agreed that they were made 
at Ste. Genevieve and New Bourbon, tradition fixing. the date of these settle- 
ments in the autumn of 1735. These towns were settled by the French from 
Kaskaskia and St. Philip in Illinois. 

St. Louis was founded by Pierre Laclede Lignest, on the 15th of February, 
1764. He was a native of France, and was one of the members of the company 
of Laclede Lignest, Antoino Maxant & Co., to whom a royal charter had been 
granted, confirm ng the privilege of an exclusive trade with the Indians of the 
Missouri as far north as St. Peter's River. 

While in search of a trading post he ascended the Mississippi as far as the 
mouth of the Missouri, and finally returned to the present town site of St. Louis. 
After the village had been laid off he named it St. Louis, in honor of Louis XV, 
of France. 

•The colony thrived rapidly by accessions from Kaskaskia and other towns on 
the east side of the Mississippi, and its trade was largely increased by many of the 
Indian tribes, who removed a portion of their peltry trade from the same towns to 
St. Louis. It was incorporated as a town on the 9th day of November, 1809, by 
the court of Common Pleas of the district of St. Louis; the town trustees being 
Au^uste Chouteau, Edward Hempstead, Jean F. Cabanne, Wm. C. Carr andWm. 
Christy, and incorporated as a city December 9, 1822. The selection of the 
town site on which St. Louis stands was highly judicious, the spot not only being 
healthful and having the advantages of water transportation unsurpassed, but sur- 
rounded by a beautiful region of country, rich in soil and mineral resources. St. 
Louis has grown to be the fifth city in population in the Union, and is to-day, the 
great center of internal commerce of the Missouri, the Mississippi and their trib- 
utaries, and, with its railroad facilities, it is destined to be the greatest inland city 
of the American continent. 

The next settlement was made at Potosi, in Washington County, in 1765, by 
Francis Breton, who, while chafing a bear, discovered the mine near the present 
town of Potosi, where he afterward located. 

One of the most prominent pioneers who settled at Potosi was Moses Austin, 
of Virginia, who, 'in 1873, received by grant from the Spanish government a league 
of land, now known as the "Austin Survey." The grant was made on condition 
that Mr. Austin would establish a lead mine at Potosi and work it. He built a 
pa'atial-residence, for that day, on the brow of the hill in the little village, which 
was, for many years, known as " Durham Hall." At this point the first shot- 
tower and sheet-lead manufactory were erected. 

Five years after the founding of St. Louis the first settlement made in North- 
ern Missouri was made at or near St. Charles, in St. Charles county, in 1769. 
The name given to it, and which it retained till 1784, was Les Petites Coies, signi- 
fying, Little Hills. The town site was located by Blanchette, a Frenchman, sur- 
named LeChasseur, who built the first fort in the town and established there a 
military post. 

Soon after the establishment of the military post at St. Charles, the old 
French village of Purtage des Sioux, was located on the Mississippi, just below 
the mouth of the Illinois river, and at about the same time a Kickapoo village 


was commenced at Clear Weather Lake. The present town site of New Madrid, 
in New Madrid county, was settled in 1781, by French Canadians, it then being 
occupied by Delaware Indians. The place now known as Big River Mills, St. 
Francois county, was settled in 1796, Andrew Baker, John Alley, Francis 
Starnater, and John Andrews, each locating claims. The following year, a 
settlement was made in the same county, just below tl%e present town of Farm- 
ington, by the Rev, Wm. Murphy, a Baptist minister from East Tennessee. In 
1796, settlements were made in Perry county by emigrants from Kentucky and 
Pennsylvania; the latter locating in the rich bottom lands of Bois Brule, the 
former generally settling in the '* Barrens," and along the waters of Saline Creek. 

Bird's Point, in Mississippi county, opposite Cairo, 111., was settled August 
6th, iSoo, by John Johnson, by virtue of a land-grant from the commandant 
under the Spanish Government. Norfolk and Charleston, in the same county, 
were settled respectively in 1800 and 1801. Warren county was settled in 1801. 
Loutre Island, below the present town of Herman, in the M ssouri River was 
settled by a few American families in 1807. This little company of pioneers 
suffered greatly from the floods, as well as from the incursions of thieving and 
blood-thirsty Indians, and many incidents of a thrilling character could be 
related of trials and struggles, had we the time and space. 

In 1807, Nathan and Daniel Boone, sons of the great hunter and pioneer, in 
company with three others went from St. Louis to " Boone's Lick," in Howard 
county, where they manufactured salt, and formed the nucleus of a small 

Co/g Sans Desseiu, now called Bakersville, on the Missouri River, in 
Callaway county, was settled by the French in 1801. This little town was 
considered at that time, as the " Far West " of the new world. Daring the war 
of 181 2, at this place many hard fought battles occurred between the whites and 
Indians, wherein woman's fortitude and courage greatly assisted in the defense 
of the settlement. 

In 18 10, a colony of Kentuckians numbering one hundred and fifty families 
immigrated to Howard county, and settled in the Missouri River boUom, near the 
present town of Franklin. ' 

Such, in brief, is the history of some of the early settlements of Missouri, 
covering a period of more than half a century. 

These settlements were made on the water courses ; usually along the banks 
of the two great streams, whose navigation afforded them transportation for their 
marketable commodities, and communication with the civilized portion of the 

They not only encountered the gloomy forests, settling as they did by the 
river's brink, but the hostile incursion of savage Indians, by whom they were for 
many years surrounded. 

The expedients of these brave men who first broke ground in the Territory, 
have been succeeded by the permanent and tasteful improvements of their 
descendants. Upon the spots where they toiled, dared, and died, are seen the 
comfortable farm, the beautiful village, and thrifty city. Churches and school 
houses greet the eye on every hand ; railroads diverge in every direction, and, 
indeed, all the appliances of a higher civilization, are profusely strewn over the 
smiling surface of the State. 

Culture's hand 
Has scattered verdure o'er the land ; 
And smiles and fragrance rule serene 
Where barren wild usurped the scene. 



The first marriage that took place in Missouri was April 20, 1 766, in St. Louis. 

The first baptism was performed in May, 1766, in St. Louis. 

The first house of wership, (Catholic), was erected in 1775, at St. Louis. 

The first ferry established in 1805, on the Mississippi River, at St. Louis. 

The first newspaper established in St. Louis, {Misscuri Gazette), in 1808. 

The first postoffice was established in 1804, in St. Louis — Rufus Easton, post- 

The first Protestant church erected at St. Genevieve, in 1806 — Baptist. 

The first bank established, (Bank of St. Louis), in 1814. 

The first market house opened in 181 r, in St. Louis. 

The first steamboat on the Uj^per Mississippi was the General Pike, Capt. 
Jacob Ried; landed at St. Louis 18 17. 

The first board of trustees for public schools appointed in 181 7, St. Louis. 

The first college buiit, (St. Louis College), in 1S17. 

The first steamboat that came up the Missouri* River as high as Franklin was 
the Independence, in 1819; Capt. Nelson, master. 

The first court house erected in 1823, in St. Louis. 

The first cholera appeared in St. Louis in 1832. 

The first railroad convention held in Si. Louis, April 20, 1836. 

The first telegraph lines reached East St. Louis, December 20, 1847. 

The. first great fire occurred in St. Louis, 1849. 


Organization 18 r2 — Council — House of Representatives — IVm. CI irk first Terriforial Governor — 
Edward He77ipstead first Delegate — Spanish Grants — First General Assembly — Proceedings — 
Second Assembly — Proceed ngs — Population of Territory — Vote of Territory — Rufus £aston — 
Absent Members — Third Assembly — Proceedings — Application for Admission. 

Congress organized Missouri as a Territory, July 4, 1812, with a Governor 
and General Assembly. The Governor, Legislative Council, and House of Rep- 
resentatives exercised the Legislative power of the Territory, the Governor's 
vetoing power being absolute 

The Legislative Council was composed of nine members, whose tenure of 
office lasted five years. Eighteen citizens were nominated by the House of Rep- 
resentatives to the President of the United States, from whom he selected, with 
the approval of the Senate, nine Councillors, to compose the Legislative Council. 

'I'he Ho -se of Representatives consisted of members chosen every two year? 
by the people, the basis of representation being one member for every five 
hundred white males. The first House of Representatives consisted of thirteen 
members, and, by Act of Congress, the whole number of Representatives could 
not exceed twenty-five. 

The judicial power of the Territory, was vested in the Superior and Inferior 
Courts, and in the Justices of the Peace; the Superior Court having three Judges, 


whose term of office continued four years, having original and appellate jurisdiction 
in civil and criminal cases. 

The Territory could send one delegate to Congress. Governor Clark issued 
a proclamation, October ist, 1812, required by Congress, reorganizing the districts 
of St. Charles, St. Louis, Ste, Genevieve, Cape Girardeau, and New Madrid, into 
five counties, and fixed the second Monday in November following, for the 
election of a delegate to Congress, and the members of the Territorial House of 

William Clark, of the expedition of Lewis and Clark, was the first Territorial 
Governor, appointed by the President, who began his duties 181 3. 

Edward Hempstead, Rufus Easton, Samuel Hammond, and Mathew Lyon 
were candidates in November for delegates to Congress. 

Edward Hempstead was elected, being the first Territorial Delegate to Con- 
gress from Missouri. He served one term, declining a second, and was instrumental 
in having Congress to pass the act of June 13, 181 2, which he introduced, con- 
firming the title to lands which were claimed by the people by virtue of Spanish 
grants. The same act confirmed to the people "for the support of schools," the 
title to village lots, out-lots or common field lots, which were held and enjoyed by 
them, at the time of the cession in 1803. 

Under the act of June 4, 1812, the first General Assembly held its Session 
in the house of Joseph Robidoux, on the 7th of December, 1812. The names of 
the members of the House were : 

St. Charles. — John Pitman and Robert Spencer. 

St. Louis. — David Music, Bernard G. Farrar, William C. Carr, and Richard 

Ste. Genevieve — George Bullet, Richard S. Thomas, and Isaac McGready. 

Cape Girardeau. — George F. Bollinger, and Spencer Byrd. 

New Madrid. — John Shrader and Samuel Phillips. 

John B. C. Lucas, one of the Territorial Judges, administered the oath of 
office. William C. Carr was elected Speaker, and Andrew Scott, Clerk. 

The House of Representatives proceeded to nominate eighteen persons from 
whom the President of the United S;ates, with the Senate, was to select nine for 
the Council. From this number the President chose the following : 

St. Charles. — James Flaugherty and Benjamin Emmons. 

St. Louis. — Auguste Chouteau, Sr., and Samuel Hammond. 

Ste. Genevieve. — John Scott and James Maxwell. 

Cape Girardeau. — William Neeley and Joseph Cavenor. 

New Madrid. — Joseph Hunter. 

The Legislative Council, thus chosen by the President and Senate, was 
announced by Fredrick Bates, Secretary, and Acting-Governor of the Territory, 
by proclamation, June 3, 1813, and fixing the first Monday in July following, as 
the time for the^meeting of the Legislature. 

In the meantime the duties of the executive office were assumed by WilHam 
Clark. The Legislature accordingly met, as required by the Acting-Governor's 
proclamation, in July, but its proceedings were never officially published. Con- 
sequently but little is known in reference to the workings of the first Territorial 
Legislature of Missouri. 

From the imperfect account, published in the Missouri Gazette, of that day ; 
a paper which had been in existence since 1808, it is found that laws were passed 
regulating and establishing weights and measures; creating the office of Sheriff ; 
providing the manner for taking the census ; permanently fixing the seats of 
Justices, and an act to compensate its own members. At this Session, laws were 
also passed defining crimes and penalties; laws in reference to forcible entry and 
detainer; establishing Courts of Common Fleas 5 incorporating the Bank of St 


Louis; and organizing a part of Ste. Genevieve county into the county of 

The next session of the Legislature convened in St. Louis, December 6, 1813. 
George Bullet, of Ste. Genevieve county, was speaker elect, and Andrew Scott, 
clerk, and William Sullivan, doorkeeper. Since the adjournment of the former 
Legislature several vacancies had occurred, and new members had been elected to 
fill their places. Among these was Israel McGready, from the county of Wash- 

The president of the legislative council was Samuel Hammond. No journal 
of the council was officially published, but the proceedings of the house are found 
in the Gazet'e. 

At this session of the Legislature many wise and useful laws were passed, hav- 
ing reference to the temporal as well as the moral and spiritual welfare of the peo- 
ple. Laws were enacted for the suppression of vice and immorality on the Sab- 
bath day ; for the improvement of public roads and highways ; creating the offices 
of auditor, treasurer and county surveyor; regulating the fiscal affairs of the 
Territory and fixing the boundary lines of New Madrid, Cape Girardeau, Wash- 
ington and St. Charles counties. The Legislature adjourned on the 19th of Jan- 
uary, 1 8 14, sine die. 

The population of the Territory as shown by the United States census in 1810, 
was 20,845. The census taken by the Legislature in 1814 gave the Territory a 
population of 25,000. This enumeration shows the county of St. Louis contained 
the greatest number of inhabitants, and the new county of Arkansas the least — 
the latter having 827, and the former 3,149. 

The candidates for delegate to Congress were Rufus Easton, Samuel Ham- 
mond, Alexander McNair and Thomas F. Riddick. Rufus Easton and Samuel 
Hammond had been candidates at the preceding election. In all the counties, 
excepting Arkansas, the votes aggregated 2,599, of which number Mr. Easton re- 
ceived 965, Mr. Hammond 746, Mr. McNair 853, and Mr. Riddick (who had 
withdrawn previously to the election) 35. Mr. Easton was elected. 

The census of 18 14 showing a large increase in the population of the Terri- 
tory, an apportionment was made increasing the number of Representatives in the 
Territorial Legislature to twenty-two. The General Assembly began its session in 
St. Louis, December 5, 18 14. There were present on the first day twenty Repre- 
sentatives. James Caldwell of Ste. Genevieve county was elected speaker, and 
Andrew Scott, who had been clerk of the preceding assembly, was chosen clerk. 
The President of the Council was William Neely, of Cape Girardeau county. 

It appeared that James Maxwell, the absent member of the Council, and Seth 
Emmons, member elect of the House of Representatives, were dead. The county 
of Lawrence was organized at this session, from the western part of New Madrid 
county, and the corporate powers of St. Louis were enlarged. In 18 15 the Ter- 
ritorial Legislature again began its session. Only a partial report of its proceed- 
ings are given in the Gazette. The county of Howard was then organized from 
St. Louis and St. Charles counties, and included all that part of the State lying 
north of the Osage and south of the dividing ridge between the Mississippi and 
Missouri Rivers. 

The next session of the Territorial Legislature commenced its session in De- 
cember, 1816. During the sitting of this Legislature many important acts were 
passed. It Avas then that the "Bank of Missouri" was charted and went into 
operation. In the fall of 181 7 the " Bank of St. Louis " and the " Bank of Mis- 
souri were issuing b Us. An act was passed chartering lottery companies, char- 
tering the academy at Potosi, and incorporating a board of trustees for superin- 
tending the schools in the town of St. Louis. Laws were also passed to encour- 
age the "killing of wolves, panthers and wild-cats." 

The Territorial Legislature met again in December, 181 8, and, among other 


thing", organized the counties of Pike, Cooper, Jefferson, Franklin, Wayne, Lin- 
coln, Madison, Montgomery, and three counties in the Southern part of Arkan 
sas. In 1 819 the Territory of Arkansas was formed into a separate government 
of its own. 

The people of the Territory of Missouri had been, for some time, anxious 
that their Territory should assume the duties and responsibilities of a sovereign 
State. Since i8i2,the date of the organization of the Territory, the population 
had rapidly increased, many counties had been established, its commerce had 
grown into importance, its agricultural and mineral resources were being devel- 
oped, and believing that its admission into the Union as a State would give fresh 
impetus to all these interests, and hasten its settlement, the Territorial Legislature 
of 1 8 18-19 accordingly made application to Congress for the passage of an act 
authorizing the people of Missouri to organize a state government. 


Amplication of Missouri to be Admitted into the Union — Agitation of the Slavery Question — <' Mis- 
souri Compromise''^ — Constitutional Convcjition of 1820 — Constitution presented to Congress — 
Further Kesistatice to Admission — Air. Clay and his Committee make Keport — Second Compro- 
mise — Missouri Admitted, 

With the application of the Territorial Legislature of Missouri for her admis- 
sion into the Union, commenced the real agitation of the slavery question in the 
United States. 

Not only was our National Legislature the theater of angry discussions, but 
everywhere throughout the length and breadth of the Republic the " Missouri 
Question " was the all-absorbing theme. The political skies threa.ened, 

"In forked flashes, a commanding tempest," 

Which was liable to burst upon the nation at any moment. Through such a cri- 
sis our country seemed destined to pass. The question as to the admission oi 
Missouri was to be the beginning of this crisis, which distracted the public coun- 
sels of the nation for more than forty years afterward. 

Missouri asked to be admitted into the great family of States. " Lower Louis 
iana," her twin sister Territory, had knocked at the door of the Union eight years 
previously, and was admitted as stipulated by Napoleon, to all the rights, privileges 
and immunities of a State, and in accordance with the stipulations of the same 
treaty, Missouri now sought to be clothed with the same rights, privileges and 

As what is known in the history of the United States as the " Missouri Com- 
promise," of 1820, takes rank among the most prominent measures that had up to 
that day engaged the attention of our National Legislature, we shall enter some- 
what into its details, being connected as they are with the annals of the State. 

February i^lh 18 ig. — After the House had resolved itself into a Committee 
of the Whole on the bill to authorize the admission of Missouri into the Union, 
and after the question of her admission had been discussed for some time, Mr. 
Tallmadge, of New York, moved to amend the bill, by adding to it the following 
proviso : 

" And Provided, That the further introduction of slavery or involuntary serv- 
itude be prohibited, except for the puishment of crime, whereof the party shall 


have been duly convicted, and that all children born within the said State, after 
the admission thereof into the Union, shall be free at the age of twenty-five years." 

As might have been expected, this proviso precipitated the angry discussions 
which lasted for nearly three years, finally culminating in the Missouri Compro- 
mise. All phases of the slavery question were presented, not only in its moral 
and social aspects, but as a great constitutional question, affecting Missouri and 
the admission of future States. The proviso, when submitted to a vote, was 
adopted — 79 to 67, and so reported to the House. 

Hon. John Scott, who was at that time a delegate from the Territory of Mis- 
souri, was not permitted to vote, but as such delegate he had the privilege of 
participating in the debates which followed. On the i6th day of February the 
proviso was taken up and discussed. After several speeches had been made, among 
them one by Mr. Scott and one by the author of the proviso, Mr. Tallmadge, the 
amendment, or proviso, was divided into two parts, and voted upon. The first 
part of it, which included all to the word "convicted," was adopted — 87 to 76. 
The remaining part was then voted upon, and also adopted, by 82 to 78. By a 
vote of 97 to 56 the bill was ordered to be engrossed for a third reading. 

The Senate Committee, to whom the bill was referred, reported the same to 
the Senate on the 19th of February, when that body voted fi.rst upon a motion to 
strike out of the proviso all after the word " convicted," which was carried by a 
vote of 32 to 7. It then voted to strike out the first entire clause, which prevailed 
— 22 to 16, thereby defeating the proviso. 

The House declined to concur in the action of the Senate, and the bill was 
again returned to that body, which in turn refused to recede from its position. 
The bill was lost, and Congress adjourned. This was most unfortunate for the 
country. The people having already been wrought up to fever heat over the agi- 
tation of the question in the National Councils, now became intensely excited. 
The press added fuel to the flame, and the progress of events seemed rapidly 
tending to the downfall of our nationality. 

A long interval of nine months was to ensue before the meeting of Congress. 
That body indicated by its vote upon the ** Missouri Question," that the two great 
sections of the country were politically divided upon the subject of slavery. The 
restrictive clause, which it was sought to impose upon Missouri as a condition of 
her admission, would in all probability be one of the conditions of the admission 
of the Territory of Arkansas. The public mind was in a state of great doubt and 
uncertainty up to the meeting of Congress, which took place on the 6th of Decem- 
ber, 1819. The memorial of the Legislative Council and House of Representa- 
tives of the Missouri Territory, praying for admission into the Union, was presented 
to the Senate by Mr. Smith, of South CaroUna. It was referred to the Judiciary 

Some three weeks having passed without any action thereon by the Senate, 
the bill was taken up and discussed by the House until the 19th of February, when 
the bill from the Senate for the admission of Maine was considered. The bill for 
the admission of Maine included the "Missouri Question," by an amendment 
which read as follows : 

" And be it further enacted. That in all that territory ceded by France to the 
United States, under the name of Louisiana, which lies north of thirty six degrees 
and thirty minutes, north latitude (excepting such part thereof as is) included 
within the limits of the State, contemplated by this act, slavery and involuntary 
servitude, otherwise than in the punishment of crimes, whereof the party shall have 
been convicted, shall be and is hereby forever prohibited ; Frovidtd, ahvays, That 
any person escaping into the same from whom labor or service is lawfully claimed, 
in any State or Territory of the United States, such fugitive may be lawfully re- 
claimed and conveyed to the person claiming his or her labor or services as afore- 


The Senate adopted this amendment, which formed the basis of the " Missouri 
Compromise," modified afterward by striking out the words, '■^ excepting only such 
^art thereof y 

The bill passed the Senate by a vote of 24 to 20. On the 2d day of March 
the House took up the bill and amendments for consideration, and by a vote of 
134 to 42 concurred in the Senate amendment, and the bill being passed by the two 
Houses, constituted section 8, of " An Act to authorize the people of the Missouri 
Territory to form a Constitution and State Government, and for the admission of 
such State into the Union on an equal footing with the original States, and to 
prohibit slavery in certain territory." 

This act was approved March 6, 1820. Missouri then contained fifteen organ- 
ized counties. By act of Congress the people of said State were authorized to 
hold an election on the first Monday, and two succeeding days thereafter in May, 
1820, to select representatives to a State convention. This convention met in St. 
Louis on the 12th of June, following the election in May, and concluded its labors 
on the 19th of July, 1820. David Barton was its President, and Wm. G. Pettis, 
Secretary. There were forty-one members of this convention, men of ability and 
statesmanship, as the admirable constitution which they framed amply testifies. 
Their names and the counties represented by them are as follows : 

Cape Girardeau. — Stephen Byrd, James Evans, Richard S. Thomas, Alexan- 
der Buckner and Joseph McFerron. 

CV^/rr. — Robert P. Clark, Robert Wallace, Wm. Lillard. 

Fruf.klin. — John G. Heath. 

Howard. — Nicholas S. Burkhart, DufF Green, John Ray, Jonathan S. Find- 
ley, Benj. H. Reeves. 

Jfj^eison. — Daniel Hammond. 

Lincoln. — Malcolm Henry. 

Montgo7nery. — Jonathan Ramsey, James Talbott. 

Madison. — Nathaniel Cook. 

New Madrid. — Robert S. Dawson, Christopher G. Houts. 

Fike. — Stephen Cleaver. 

St. Charles. — Benjamin Emmons, Nathan Boone, Hiram H. Baber. 

Ste. Genevieve. — John D, Cook, Henry Dodge, John Scott, R. T. Brown. 

St. Louis. — David Barton, Edward Bates, Alexander McNair, Wm. Rector^ 
John C. Sullivan, Pierre Chouteau, Jr., Bernard Pratte, Thomas F. Riddick. 

W^ashington. — John Rice Jones, Samuel Perry, John Hatchings. 

Wayne. — Elijah Bettis. 

On the 13th of November, 1820, Congress met again, and on the 6th of the 
same month Mr. Scott, the delegate from Missouri, presented to the House the 
Constitution as framed by the convention. The same was referred to a select com- 
mittee, who made thereon a favorable report. 

The admission of the State, however, was resisted, because it was claimed 
that its constitution sanctioned slavery, and authorized the Legislature to pass laws 
preventing free negroes and mulattoes from settling in the State. The report of 
the committee to whom was referred the Constitution of Missouri was accompanied 
by a preamble and resolutions, offered by Mr. Lowndes, of South Carolina. The 
preamble and resolutions were stricken out. 

The application of the State for admission shared the same fate in the Senate. 
The question was referred to a select committee, who, on the 29th of November, 
reported in favor of admitting the State. The debate, which followed, continued 
for two weeks, and finally Mr. Eaton, of Tennessee, offered an amendment to the 
resolution as follows : 

" Provided, That nothing herein contained shall be so construed as to give 
the assent of Congress to any provision in the Constitution of Missouri, if any such 
there be, which contravenes that clause in the Constitution of the United States, 


which declares that the citizens of each State shall be entitled to all the privileges 
and immunities of citizens in the several States." 

The resolution, as amended, was adopted. The resolution and proviso 
were again taken up and discussed at great length, when the committee agreed to 
report the resolution to the House. 

The question on agreeing to the amendment, as reported from the committee 
of the whole, was lost in the House. A similar resolution afterward passed the 
Senate, but was again rejected in the House. Then it was that that great states- 
man and pure patriot, Henry Clay, of Kentucky, feeling that the hour had come 
when angry discussions should cease 

' ' With grave 
Aspect he rose, and in his rising seem'd 
A pillar of state ; deep on his front engraven 
Deliberation sat and public care; 
And princely counsel in his face yet shone 
Majestic" hj >i< * * * 

proposed that the question of Missouri's admission be referred to a committee 
consisting of twenty-three persons, (a number equal to .the number of States then 
composing the Union,) be appointed to act in conjunction with a committee of 
the Senate to consider and report whether Missouri should be admitted, etc. 

The motion prevailed ; the committee was appointed and Mr. Clay made its 
chairman. The Senate selected seven of its members to act with the committee 
of twenty three, .and on the 26th of February the following report was made by 
that committee: 

"Resolved, by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United 
States of America in Congress assembled : That Missouri shall be admitted into 
the Union, on an equal footing with the original States, in all respects whatever, 
upon the fundamental condition that the fourth clause, of the twenty-sixth section 
of the third article of the Constitution submitted on the part of said State to Con- 
gress, shall never be construed to authorize the passage of any law, and that no 
law shall be passed in conformity thereto, by which any citizen of either of the 
States in this Union shall be excluded from the enjoyment of any of the privileges 
and immunities to which such citizen is entitled, under the Constitution of the 
United States ; provided. That the Legislature of said State, by a Solemn Public 
Act, shall declare the assent of the said State, to the said fundamental condition, 
and shall transmit to the President of the United States, on or before the fourth 
Monday in November next, an authentic copy of the said act ; upon the receipt 
whereof, the President, by proclamation, shall announce the fact ; whereupon, 
and without any further proceeding on the part of Congress, the admission of the 
said State into the Union shall be considered complete." 

This resolution, after a brief debate, was adopted in the House, and passed 
the Senate on the 28th of February, 1821. 

At a special session of the Legislature held in St. Charles, in June following, 
a Solemn Public Act was adopted, giving its assent to the conditions of admission, 
as expressed in the resolution of Mr. Clay. August loth, 182 1, President 
Monroe announced by proclamation the admission of Missouri into the Union to 
oe complete. 



First Ehclion for Governor and Other State Officers — Senators and Representatives to General As- 
sembly— Sheriff's and Coroners — U. S. Senators — Representatives in Congress — Supreme Coutt 
Judges — Counties Organized— Capital Moved to St. Char/es — Official Record of Territorial and 
State Officers, 

By the Constitution adopted by the Convention on the 19th of July, 1820, 
the General Assembly was required to meet in St. Louis on the third Monday in 
September of that year, and an election was ordered to be held on the 28th of 
August for the Election of a Governor and other Srate officers, Senators and Rep- 
resentatives to the General Assembly, Sheriffs and Coroners, United States Sena- 
tors and Representatives in Congress. 

It will be seen that Missouri had not as yet been admitted as a State, but in 
anticipation of that event, and according to the provisions of the constitution the 
election was held, and the General Assembly convened. 

William Clark (who had been Governor of the Territory) and Alexander 
McNair were the candidates for Governor. McNair received 6,576 votes, Clark 
2,556, total vote of the State 9,132. There were three candidates for Lieutennnt 
Governor, to-wit: William H. Ashley, Nathaniel Cook and Henry Elliot. Ash ey 
received 3,907 votes, Cook 3,212, Elliot 931. A Representative was to be elected 
for the residue of the Sixteenth Congress and one for the Seventeenth. John 
Scott, who was at the time Territorial delegate, was elected to both Congresses 
without opposition. 

The General Assembly elected in August met on the 19th of September, 1820, 
and organized by electing James Caldwell, of Ste. Genevieve speaker, and John 
McArthur clerk, William H. Ashley, Lieutenant-Governor, President of the 
Senate ; Silas Bent, President, pro tern. 

Mathias McGirk, John D. Cook and John R. Jones were appointed Supreme 
Judges, each to hold office until sixty-five years of age. 

Joshua Barton was appointed Secretary of- State; Peter Didier, State Treas- 
urer; Edward Bates, Attorney-General and William Christie, Auditor of Public 

David Barton and Thomas H. Benton were elected by the General Assembly 
to the United States Senate. 

At this session of the Legislature the counties of Boone, Callaway, Chariton, 
Cole, Gasconade, Lillard, Percy, Ralls, Ray and Saline were organized. 

We should like to give in details the meetings and proceedings of the differ- 
ent Legislatures which followed; the elections for Governors and other State of- 
ficers ; the elections for Congressmen and United States Senators, but for want 
of space we can only present in a condensed form the official record of the Ter- 
ritorial and State officers. 


Governors. — Frederick Bates, Secretary and Acting-Governor, 1812-13. 
William Clark, 1813-1820. 


Governors. — Alexander McNair, 1820-24. Frederick Bates, 1824-25. Abra- 
ham J. Williams vice Bates, 1825. John Miller vice Bates, 1826 28. John 
Miller, 1828-32. Daniel DunkUn, 1832-36, resigned; appointed Sur\eyor 


General U. S. Liburn W. Boggs vice Dunklin, 1836. Lilburn W. Boggs, 1836- 
40. Thomas Reynolds, 1840, died 1844. M. M. Marmaduke vice Reynolds — 
John C. Edwards, 1844-48. Austin A. King, 1848-52. Sterling Price, 1852-56. 
Trusten Polk, 1856 57, resigned. Hancock Jackson vice Polk, 1857. Robert 
M. Stewart vice Polk, 1857-60. C. F. Jackson, i860, office vacated by ordinance. 
Hamilton R. Gamble vice Jackson; Gov. Gamble died 1864. William P. Hall, 
1864, vice Gamble. Thomas C. Fletcher, 1864-68. Joseph W. McCIurg, i868- 
70. B. Gratz Brown, 1S70-72. Charles H. Hardin, 1874 76. Jchn S. Phelps, 
1876-80. Thomas T. Crittenden, 1880, and is now Governor. 

Lieutenant-Governors. — William H. Ashley, 1820-24. Benjamin A. Reeves, 
1824-28. Daniel Dunklin, 1828-32. Lilburn W. Boggs, 1832-36. Franklin 
Cannon, 1836-40. M. M. Marmaduke, 184044. James Young, 1844-48. 
Thomas L. Rice, 1848-52. Wilson Brown, 1852-55. Hancock Jackson, 1856- 
60. Thomas C. Reynolds, 1860-61. Williard P. Hall, 1861-64. George Smith, 
1864-68. Edward O. Stanard, 1868-70. Joseph J. Gravely, 1870-72. Chirles 
P. Johnson, 1872-74. Norman J. Colman, 1874-76. Henry C. Biockmeyer, 
1876-80. Robert Campbell, 18S0, and is the present incumbent. 

Secretaries of State. — Joshua Barton, 1820-21. William G. Pettis, 1821-24. 
Hamihon R. Gamble, 1824-26. Spencer Pettis, 1826 28. P. H. McBride, 1829- 
30. John C. Edwards, 1830, term expired 1855, re-appointed 1837, resigned 
1837. Peter G. Glover, 183739. James L. Minor, 1839-45. F. H. Martin, 
1845-49. Ephraim B. Ewing, 1849-52. John M. Richardson, 1852-56. Benja- 
min F. Massey. 1856-60, reelected i860, for four years. Mordecai Oliver, 1861- 
64. Francis Rodman, 1864-68, re-elected 1868, for two years. Eugene F. 
Weigel, 1870-72, re-elected 1872, for two years. Michael K. McGrath, 1874, 
and is the present incumbent. 

State Treasurers. — Peter Didier, 1820 21. Nathaniel Simonds, 1821-28. 
James Earickson, 1829-33. John Walker, 1833-38. Abraham McClellan, 1838- 
43. Peter G. Glover, 1843-51. A. W. Morrison, 1851-60. George C. Bingham, 
1.S62 64. William Bishop, 1864-68. William Q. Dallmeyer, 1868-70. Samuel 
Hays, 1872. Harvey W. Salmon, 1872 74. Joseph W. Mercer, 1874-76. Elijah 
Gates, 1876-80. Phillip E. Chappel, 1880, and present incumbent. 

Atlnmey-Generals. — Edward Bates, 1820-21. Rufus Easton, 1821-26. Robt. 
W. Wells, 1826-36. William B. Napton, 1836-39. S. M. Bay, 1839-45. B. F. 
Stringfellow, 1845-49. William A. Roberts, 1849-51. James B. Gardenhire, 
1851-56. Ephraim W. Ewing, 1856 59. James P. Knott, 1859-61. Aikman 
Welsh, 1861-64. Thomas T. Crittenden, 1864. Robert F. Wmgate, 1864-68. 
Horace P. Johnson, 1868-70. A. J. Baker, 1870-72. Henry Clay Ewing, 
1872-74. John A. Hockaday, 1874-76. Jackson L. Smith, 1876-80. Mclntire, 
1880, and present incumbent. 

' Auditors of Public Accounts. — William Christie, 1820 21. William V. Rector, 
1821-23. Elias Barcroft, 1823-33. Henry Shurlds, 1833-35. Peter G. Glover, 
i835"37- Hiram H. Baber, 1837-45. William Monroe, 1845. J- R- McDer- 
mon, 184-48. George W. Miller, 184849. Wilson Brown, 1849-52. William 
H. Buffington, 1852 60. William S. Moseley, i860 64. Alonzo Thompson, 
186468. Daniel M. Draper, 1868-72. George B. Clark, 1872-74. Thomas 
Holladay, 1874-80. John Walker, 1880, and present incumbent. 

Judges of Supreme Court. — Matthias McKirk, i822-'4i; John D. Cooke, 
i832-'23; Jno. R. Jone-^, 1822-24; Rufus Pettibone, 1823-25; Geo. Tomp- 
kins, 1824-45; Robt. Wash, 1825-37; Jno. C. Edwards, 1837-39; Wm. Scott, 
appointed 1841 till meeting of General Assembly in place of McKirk resigned, ; 
re appointed 1843; P- H. McBride, 1845 3 ^"^^ B. Napton, 1849-52 ; Jno. F. Ry- 
land, 1849-51 ; Jno. H. Birch, 1849-51 ; Wra. Scott, Jno. F. Ryland and Ham- 
ilton R. Gamble elected by the people 1851 for six years; Gamble resigned 1854 ; 
Abiel Leonard elected to fill vacancy of Gamble; William B. Napton (vacated 


by failure to file oath), William Scott and John C. Richardson (resigned), elected 
August, 1857, for six years ; E. B. Ewing, 1859, to fill Richardson's resignation; 
Barton Bates appointed 1862; W. V. N. Bay appointed 1862; John D. S. Dry- 
den appointed 1862; Barton Bates, iS6^-6^; W. V. N. Biy, elected 1863; John 

D. S. Dryden, elected 1863; David Wagner appointed 1865 ; Wallace L. Love- 
lace, appointed 1865; Nathaniel Holmes, appointed 1865; Thomas J. C. Fagg, 
ippointed 1866; James Biker, appointed 1868; David Wagner, elected 1868- 
''70; Philemon Bliss, 1868-70 : Warren Currier, i868-'7i; Washington Adams, 
appointed 1871 to fill Currier's place who resigned; Ephriam B. Ewing, 
elected 1872; Thomas A. Sherwood, elected 1872 ; W. B. Napton, ap])ointed 
1873 in place of Ewing, deceased; Edward A. Seins, appointed 1874, in place of 
Adams, resigned; Warwick Hough, elected 1874; William B. Napton, elected 
1874-80; John E. Henry, 1876-86; Rohert Ray succeeded William B. Napton, 
in 1S80: Elijah H. Norton, appointed in 1S76 — elected in 1878. 

United States Senators. — T. H. Benton, 1820-50; D. Barton, 1820-30; Alex. 
Buckner, 1830-33; L. F.Linn, 1833-43; D. R. Atchison, 1843-55; ^- S- Geyer, 
1S51-57; Jas. M. Green, 1857-61; T. Polk, 185763; Waldo P. Johnson, i86r; 
Robt. Wilson, 1861; B. Gratz Brown, 1863, for unexpired term of Johnson; J. 
B. Henderson, i863 69;Chas. 9. Drake, 1867-70; Carl Schurz, 1869-75; D. F. 
Jewett, 1870, in place of Drake, resigned; F. P. Blair, 1871-77; L. V. Bogy, 
1873; F- M. Cockrell, 1875-81, re-elected 1881; Geo. G. Vest, 1879. 

Representatives to Congress. — Jno Scott, 1820-26; Ed. Bates, 1826-28; Spen- 
cer Pett s, 1828-31; Wm, H. Ashley, 1831-36; John Bull, 1832-34; Albert G. 
Harrison, 1834-39; Jno. Miller, 1836-42 ; John Jameson, 1839-44, re-elected 1846 
for two years; Jno. C. Edwards, 1840-42; Jas. M. Hughes, 1842-44; Jas. H. 
Relfe, 1842-46; Jas. B. Bowlin, 1842-50; Gustavus M. Boner, 1842-44; Sterling 
Price, 1844-46; Wm. McDaniel, 1846; Leonard H. Sims, 1844-46; John S. 
Phelps, 1844-60; Jas. S. Green, 1846-50, re-elected 1856, resigned; Williard P. 
Hall, 1846-53; Wm. V. N. Bay, 1848-61; John F. Darby, 1850-53 ,•* Gilchrist 
Porter, 1850-57; John G. Miller, 1850-56; Alfred W. Lamb, 1852-54; Thos. 
H. Benton, 1852-54; Mordecia Oliver, 1852-57; Jas J. Lindley, 1852-56; Samuel 
Caruthers, 1852-58; Thomas P. Akers, 1855, to fill unexpired term of J. G. Mil- 
ler; Francis P Blair, jr., 1856, re-elected i860, resigned ; Thomas L. Anderson, 
1856-60, James Craig, 1856-60; Samuel H. Woodson, 1856-60; John B. Clark, 
sr., 1857-61 ; J. Richard Barrett, 1S60; John W. Noel, 1858-63; James S. Rol- 
lins, 1860-64; Elijah H. Norton, 1860-63; John W. Reid, 1860-61; William A. 
Hall, 1862-64; Thomas L. Price, 1862, in place of Reid, expelled; Henry T. 
Blow, 1862-66; Sempronius T. Boyd, elected in 1862, and again in 1868, for two 
years; Joseph W. McClurg, 1862-66; Austin A. Ki g, 1862-64; Benjamin F. 
Loan, 1862-69; Jol'in G. Scott, 1863, in place of Noel, deceased; John Hogan, 
1864-66; Thomas F. Noel, 1864-67; John R. Kelsoe, 1864-66; Robt. T. Van 
Horn, 1864-71; John F. Benjamin, 1864-71; George W. Anderson, 1864-69; 
WiUiam A. Pile, 1S66-68 ; C. A. Newcomb 1866-68 ; Joseph E. Gravely, 1866- 
dZ ; James R. McCormack, 1866-73 \ John H. Stover, 1867, in place of McClurg, 
resigned; Erastus Wells, 1868-82; G. A. Finklinburg, 1868-71; Samuel S. 
Burdett, 1S68-71 ; Joel F. Asper, 1868-70; David P. Dyer, 1868-70; Harrison 

E. Havens, 1870-75; Isaac G. Parker, 1870-75; James G. Blair, 1870-72; An- 
drew King, 1870-72; Edwin O. Stanard, 1872-74; William H. Stone, 1872-78; 
Robert A. Hatcher, elected 1872; Richard P. Bland, 1872; Thomas Crittenden, 
1872-74; Ira B. Hyde, 1872-74; John B. Clark, 1872-78; John M. Glover, 1872; 
Aylett H. Buckner, 1872; Edward C. Kerr, 1874-78; Charles H. Morgan, 1874; 
John F. Phelps, 1874; ^- J- Franklin. 1874; David Rea, 1874; Rezin A. De- 
Boet, 1874; Anthony Ittner, 1876; Nathaniel Cole, 1876; Robert A. Hatcher, 
1876-78: R. P. Bland, 1876-78; A. H. Buckner, 1876-78; J. B. Clark, jr., 1876- 
78; T.T.Crittenden, 1876-78; B.J. Franklin, 1876-78; Jno. M. Glover, 1876-78; 



Robt. A. Hatcher, 187678; Chas. H. Morgan, 1876-78; L. S. Metcalfe, 1876-78; 
H. M. Pollard, 1876-78; David Rea, 1876-78; S. L. Sawyer, 1878-80; N. Ford, 
1878-82; G. F. Rothwell, 1878-82; John B. Clark, jr., 1878 82; W. H. Hatch, 
1878-82; A. H. Buckner, 187882; M. L. Clardy, 1878-82; R. G. Frost, 1878-82; 
L. H. Davis, 1878-82; R. P. Bland, 1878-82;]. R. Waddill, 1878 80 ; T. Allen, 
1880-82 ; R. Hazeltine, 1880-82 ; T. M. Rice, 1880-82 ; R. T. Van Horn, 1880-82. 


Adair January 29, 

Andrew January 29, 

Atchison January 14, 

Audrain December 17, 

Barry Janu?ry 5, 

Barton December 12, 

Bates January 29, 

Benton January 3, 

Bollinger March i, 

Boone November 16, 

Buchanan February 10, 

Butler February 27, 

Caldwell December 26, 

Callaway November 25, 

Camden January 29, 

Cape Girardeau October i, 

Carroll January 3, 

Carter March 10, 

Cass September 14, 

Cedar February 14, 

(hariton November 16, 

Christian March 8, 

Clark December 15, 

Clay Januat^y 2, 

Clinton . t January 15, 

Cole November 16, 

Cooper December 17, 

Crawford January 23, 

Dade • • . January 29, 

Dallas December 10, 

Daviess . December 29, ' 

DeKalb February 25, 

Dent Feljruary 10, 

Douglas October 19, 

Dunklin February 14, 

Franklin December il, 

Gasconade November 25, 

Gentry February 12, 

Greene January 2, 

Grundy January 2, 

Harrison ... .... February 14, 

Henry ........ December 13, 

Hickory ...,., . . February 14, 

Holt February 15, 

Howard January 23, 

Howell March 2, 

Iron ........ February 17, 

Jackson ....... December 15, 

Jasper ......... January 29, 

Jeffer.^m December 8, 

Johnson ... .... December 13, 

Knox February 14, 

Laclede . . . February 24, 

Lafayette . November 16, 

Lawrence February 25, 

Lewis January 2, 

Line )ln December 14, 























Linn January 7, 

Livingston January 6, 

McDonald March 3, 

Macon January 6, 

Madison December 14, 

Maries March 2, 

Marion December 23, 

Mercer February 14, 

Miller February 6, 

Mississippi February 14, 

Moniteau February 14, 

Monroe January 6, 

Montgomery iJecember 14, 

Morgan January 5, 

New Madrid October i, 

Newton December 31, 

Nodaway February 14, 

Oregon February 14 

Oage Jauuary 29, 

Ozark January 29, 

Pemiscot February 19, 

Perry November 16, 

Pettis January 26, 

Phelps November 13, 

Pike December 14, 

Flatte December 31, 

Polk March 13, 

Pulaski Decea.ber 15, 

Putnam , . February 28, 

Ralls November 16, 

Randolph January 22, 

Ray November 16, 

Reynolds February 25, 

Ripley January 5, 

St. Charles October i, 

St. Clair Jinuary 29, 

St. Francois December 19, 

Ste. Genevieve Octo er i, 

St. Louis October i, 

SaUne November 25, 

Schuyler February 14, 

Scotland January 29, 

Scott December 28, 

Shannon January 29, 

Shelby January 2, 

Stoddard ■ January 2, 

Stone February 10, 

Sullivan February 16. 

Taney January 

Texas P ebruary 

Vernon February 

Warren January 5, 

Washington August 21, 

Wayne . December il, 

Webster March 3, 

Worth February 8, 

Wright January 29, 






















Fort Sumter fired upon — Call for y^,ooo men — Gov. Jackson refuses to furnish a man — V. S. 
Arsenal at Liberty, AJo., seized — Proclamation of Governor Jackson — General Order No. 
7 — Legislature convenes — Camp Jackson organized — Sterling Price appointed Major- Gen- 
eral — Frost's letter to Lyon — Lyon's letter to Prost — Surrender of Camp Jackson — Procla- 
mation of Gen. Harney — Conference between Price and Harney — Harney superseded by 
Lyon — Second Conference — Gov. Jackson bums the bridges behind him — Proclamation 
of Gov. Jackson — Gen. Blair takes possession of Jefferson City — Proclamation of 
Lyon — Lyon at Springfield — State offices declared vacant — Gen. Fremont assumes com- 
mand — Proclamation of Lieut. Gov. Aeynolds — Proclamation of Jeff. Thompson and Gov. 
Jackson — Death of Gen. Lyofi — Succeeded by Sturgis — Proclamation of McCulloch and 
Gamble — Manial Law declared — 2d Proclamation of Jeff. 7/wmpson — President modifies 
Fremont's Order — Fremont relieved by Hunter — Proclamation of Price — Hutiter's Order 
of Assessment — Hunter declares Martial Law — Order relating to Newspapers — Halleck 
succeeds Hunter — Halleck' s Order 81 — Similar order by Halleck — Boone County Standard 
confiscated — Execution of prisoners at Macon and Palmyra — Gen. Ewing's Order No. 11 — 
Gen. Rosencrans takes command — Massacre at Cent/ alia — Death of Bill Anderson — Cen, 
Dodge succeeds Gen, Rosencrans — List of Battles, 

** Lastly stood war — 

With visage grim, stern looks, and blackly hued, 

^^ ^J^ *3^ ^T^ ^W ?7^ 

Ah ! why will kings forget that they are men? 
And men that they are brethren ? Why delight 
In human sacrifice ? Why burst the ties 
Of nature, that should knit their souls together 
In one soft bond of amity and love ? " 

Fort Sumter was fired upon April 12, 1861. On April 15th, President 
Lincoln issued a proclamation, calling for 75,000 men, from the militia of the 
several States to suppress combinations in the Southern States therein named. 
Simultaneously therewith, the Secretary of War, sent a telegram to all the gov- 
ernors of the States, excepting those mentioned in the proclamation, requesting 
them to detail a certain number of militia to serve for three months, Missouri's 
quota being four regiments. 

In response to this telegram, Gov. Jackson sent the following answer : 

Executive Department of Missouri, 
Jefferson City, April 17, 1861. 
To the Hon. Simon Cameron, 

Secretary of War, Washington, D. C. : 
Sir: Your dispatch of the 15th inst., making a call on Missouri for four 
regiments of men for immediate service, has been received. There can be, I 
apprehend, no doubt but these men are intended to form a part of the President's 
army to make war upon the people of the seceded States. Your requisition, in 
niy judgment, is illegal, unconstitutional, and cannot be complied with. Not one 
man will the State of Missouri furnish to carry on such an unholy war. 

C. F. Jackson, 

Governor of Missouri. 

A]-rIl 21, 1861. U. S. Arsenal at Liberty was seized by order of Governor 



April 2 2, 1 86 1. Governor Jackson issued a proclamation convening the Legis- 
lature of Missouri, on May following, in extra session, to take into consideration 
V the momentous issues, which were presented, and the attitude to be assumed by 

the State in the impending struggle. 

On the 22nd of April, iS6i, the Adjutant-General of Missouri issued the 
following military order : 

Headquarters Adjutaxt-General's Office, Mo., 
Jefferson City, April 22, 1S61. 
{General Orders No. 7.) 

I. 'lo attain a greater degree of efificiency and perfection in organization and 
discipline, the Commanding Officers of the several Military districts in this State, 
having four or more legally organized companies therein, whose armories are 
within fifteen miles of each other, will assemble their respective commands at 
some place to be by them severally designated, on the 3r i day of May, and to go 
into an encampment for a period of six days, as provided by law. Captains of 
companies not organized into battalions, will report the strength of their companies 
immediately to these headquarters, and await further orders. 

II. The Quartermaster-General will procure and issue to Quartermasters of 
Districts, for these commands not now provided for, all necessary tents and camp 
equipage, to enable the commanding officers thereof to carry the foregoing orders 
into effect. 

III. The Light Battery now attached to the Southwest Battalion, and one 
company of mounted riflemen, including all officers and soldiers belonging to the 
First District, will proceed forthwith to St. Louis, and report to Gen. D. M. Frost 
for duty. The remaining companies of said battalion will be disbanded for the 
purpose of assisting in the organization of companies upon that frontier. The 
details in the execution of the foregoing are intrusted to Lieutenant-Colonel John 
S. Bowen, commanding the Battalion. 

IV. The strength, organization, and equipment of the several companies in 
the Districts will be reported at once to these Headquarters, and District Inspec- 
tors will furnish all information which may be serviceable in ascertaining the 
condition of the State forces. 

By order of the Governor. 


Adjutant- General of Missouri. 

May 2, 1 861. The Legislature convened in extra Session. Many acts were 
passed, among which was one to authorize the Governor to purchase or lease 
David Ballentine's foundry at Boonville, for the manufacture of arms and 
munitions of war \ to authorize the Governor to appoint one Major-General ; to 
authorize the Governor, when, in his opinion, the security and welfare of the 
State required it, to take possession of the railroad and telegraph lines of the State; 
to provide for the organization, government, and support of the military forces ; 
to borrow one million of dollars to arm and equip the militia of the State to repel 
invasion, and protect the lives and property of the people. An act was also 
passed creating a "Military Fund," to consist of all the money then in the 
treasury or that might thereafter be received from the one-tenth of one per cent, 
on the hundred dollars, levied by act of November, 1857, to complete certain 
railroads; also the proceeds of a tax of fifteen cents on the hundred dollars of the 
assessed value of the taxable property of the several counties in the State, and the 
proceeds of the two mill tax, which had been theretofore appropriated for educa- 
tional purposes. 

May 3, 1 86 1. ** Camp Jackson," was organized. 

May 10, 1861, Sterling Price appointed Major-General of State Guard. 



May lo, 1861. General Frost commanding "Camp Jackson" addressed 
General N. Lyon, as follows; 

Headquarters Camp Jackson, Missouri Militia, may 10, i«6i. 
Capt. N. Lyon, Commanding U. S. Troops in and about St. Louis Arsenal: 

Sir : — I am constantly in receipt of information that you contemplate an at- 
tack upon my camp, whilst I understand that you are impressed with the idea that 
an attack upon the Arsenal and United States troops is intended on the part of 
the Militia of Missouri. I am greatly at a loss to know what could justify you in 
attacking citizens of the United States, who are in lawful performance of their 
duties, devolving upon them under the Constitution in organizing and instructing 
the militia of the State in obedience to her laws, and, therefore, have been dis- 
posed to doubt the correctness of the information I have received. 

I would be glad to know from you personally whether there is any truth in 
the statements that are constantly pouring into my ears. So far as regards any 
hostility being intended toward the United States, or its property or representa- 
tives by any portion of my command, or, as far as I can learn, (and I think I am 
fully informed,) of any other part of the state forces, I can positively say that 
the idea has never been entertained. On the contrary prior to your taking com- 
mand of the Arsenal, I proffered to Mayor Bell, then in command of the very 
few troops constituting its guard, the services of myself and all my command, 
and, if necessary, the whole power of the State, to protect the United States in the 
full possession of all her property. Upon General Harney taking command of 
this department, I made the same proffer of services to him, and authorized his 
Adjutant-General, Capt. Williams, to communicate the fact that such had been 
done to the War Department. I have had no occasion since to change any of the 
views I entertained at the time, neither of my own volition nor through orders of 
my Constitutional commander. 

I trust that after this explicit statement that we may be able, by fully under- 
standing each other, to keep far from our borders the misfortunes which so unhap- 
pily affect our common country. 

This communication will be handed you by Colonel Bowen, my Chief of 
Staff, who will be able to explain anything not fully set forth in the foregoing, 

I am, sir, very respectfully your obedient servant, 


Commanding Camp Jackson, M. V. M. 

May loth, 1861. Gen. Lyon sent the following to Gen. Frost: 

Headquarters United States Troops, 
St. Louis, Mo., May 10, 186 1. 

Gen. D. M. Frost, Commanding Camp Jackson : 

Sir: — Your command"is regarded as evidently hostile toward the Govern- 
ment of the United States. 

It is, for the most part, made up of those Secessionists who have openly 
avowed their hostility to the General Government, and have been plotting at the 
seizure of its property and the overthrow of its authority. You are openly in 
communication with the so-called Southern Confederacy, which is now at war with 
the United States, and you are receiving at your camp, from the said Confederacy 
and under its flag, large supplies of the material of war, most of which is known 
to be the property of the United States. These extraordinary preparations plain- 
ly indicate none other than the well-known purpose of the Governor of this State, 
under whose orders you are acting, and whose communication to the Legislature 
has just been responded to by that body in the most unparalleled legislation, hav- 


ing in direct view hostilities to the General Government and co-operation with its 

In view of these considerations, and of your failure to disperse in obedience 
to the proclamation of the President, and of the imminent necessities of State 
policy and warfare, and the obligations imposed upon me by instructions from 
Washington, it is my duty to demand, and I do hereby demand of you an imme- 
diate surrender of your command, other conditions than that all persons 
surrendering under this command shall be humanely and kindly treated. Believ- 
ing myself prepared to enforce this demand, one-half hour's time before doing so 
will be allowed- for your compliance therewith. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 


Capt. 2d Infantry, Com?nandmg Troops. 

May TO, i86r. Camp Jackson surrendered and prisoners all released except- 
ing Capt. Emmet McDonald, who refused to subscribe the parole. 

May 12, i86r. Brigadier-General Wm. S. Harney issued a proclamation to 
the people of Missouii, saying " he would carefully abstain from the exercise of 
any unnecessary powers," and only use "the military force stationed in this dis- 
trict in the last resort to preserve peace." 

May 14, i86r. General Harney issued a second proclamation. 

May 21, 1 86 1. General Harney held a conference with General Sterling 
Price of the Missouri State Guards. 

May 31, 1861. General Harney superseded by General Lyon, 

June II, 1861. A second conference was held between the National and 
State authorities in St. Louis, which resulted in nothing. 

June II, I 61. Gov. Jackson left St. Louis for Jefferson City, burning the 
railroad bridges behind him, and cutting telegraph wires. 

June 12, 1861. Governor Jackson issued a proclamation calling into active 
service 50,000 militia, "to repel invasion, protect life, property, etc." 

June 15, 1861. Col. F, P. Blair took possession of the State Capital, Gov. 
Jackson, Gen. Price and other officers having left on the 13th of June for Boon- 

June 17, 1 86 1. Battle of Boonville took place between the forces of Gen. 
Lyon and Col, John S. Marmaduke, 

June 18, 1 86 1, General Lyon issued a proclamation to the people of Mis- 

July 5, 1861, Battle at Carthage between the forces of Gen, Sigeland Gov, 

July 6, 1861. Gen. Lyon reached Springfield, 

July 22, 1861, State convention met and declared the offices of Governor, 
Lieutenant-Governor and Secretary of State vacated, 

July 26, 1861. Gen. John C. Fremont assumed command of the Western 
Department, with headquarters in St. Louis. 

July 31, 1861. Lieutenant-Governor Thomas C. Reynolds, issued a procla- 
mation at New Madrid, 

August I, 186 r. General Jeff, Thompson issued a proclamation at Bloom- 

August 2, 1 86 1. Battle of Dug Springs, between Captain Steele's forces and 
General Rains. 

August 5, 1861. Governor Jackson issued a proclamation at New Madrid. 

August 5, 1 86 1. Battle of Athens. 

August 10, 1 861. Bnttle of Wilson's Creek, between the forces under Gen- 
eral Lyon nnd General McCulIoch, In this engagement General Lyon was killed. 
General Sturgis succeeded General Lyon. 


August 12, 1864. McCulloch issued a proclamation, and soon left Missouri. 

August 20, 1864. General Price issued a proclamation. 

August 24, 1861. Governor Gamble issued a proclamation calling for 32,000 
men for six months to protect the property and lives of the citizens of the State. 

August 30, 186 1. General Fremont declared martial law, and declared that 
the slaves of all persons vi'ho should thereafter take an active part with the enemies 
of the Government should be free. 

September 2, 1861. General Jeff. Thompson issued a proclamation in re- 
sponse to Fremont's proclamation. 

September 7, 1861. Battle at Dry wood creek. 

September 11, 1861. President Lincoln modified the clause in Gen. Fre- 
mont's declaration of martial law, in reference to the confiscation of property and 
liberation of slaves. 

September 12, 1861. General Price begins the attack at Springfield on Colo- 
nel Mulligan's forces. 

September 20, 1861. Colonel Mulligan with 2,640 men surrendered. 

October 25, 1861. Second battle at Springfield. 

November 2, i?6i. General Fremont succeeded by General David Hunter. 

November 7, 1861. General Grant attacked Belmont. 

November 9, 1861. General Hunter succeeded by General Halleck, who took 
command on the 19th of same month, with headquarters in St. Louis. 

November 27, 1861. General Price issued proclamation calling for 50,000 
men, at Neosho, Missouri. 

December 12, 1861. General Hunter issued his order of assessment upon cer- 
tain wealthy citizens in St. Louis, for feeding and clothing Union refugees. 

December 23-25. Declared martial law in St. Louis and the country adja- 
cent, and covering all the railroad lines. 

March 6, 1862. Battle at Pea Ridge between the forces under Generals Curtis 
and Van Dorn. 

January 8, 1862. Provost Marshal Farrar, of St. Louis, issued the following 
order in reference to newspapers : 

Office of the Provost Marshal, 
General Department of Missouri. 
St. Louis, January 8, 1862. 

(General Order No. 10.) 

It is hereby ordered that from and after this date the publishers of newspapers 
in the State of Missouri, (St. Louis City papers excepted), furnish to this office, 
immediately upon publication, one copy of each issue, for inspection. A failure 
to comply with this order will render the newspaper liable to suppression. 

Local Provost Marshals will furnish the proprietors with copies of this order, 
and attend to its immediate enforcement. 

Bernard G. Farrar, 

Provost Marshal General. 

January 26, 1862. General Halleck issued order (No. 18) which forbade, among 
other things, the display of Secession flags in the hands of women or on carriages, 
in the vicinity of the military prison in McDowell's College, the carriages to be 
confiscated and the offending women to be arrested. 

February 4, 1862. General Halleck issued another order similar to Order No, 
18, to railroad companies and to the professors and directors of the State Univer- 
sity at Columbia, forbidding the funds of the institution to be used "to teach 
treason or to instruct traitors." 

February 20, 1862. Special Order No. 120 convened a military commission, 
which sat in Columbia, March following, and tried Edmund J. Ellis, of Columbia, 


editor and proprietor of *' The Boone County Standard,^'* for the publication of 
information for the benefit of the enemy, and encouraging resistance to the United 
States Government. Ellis was found guilty, was banished during the war from 
Missouri, and his printing materials confiscated and sold. 

April, 1862. General Halleck left for Corinth, Mississippi, leaving General 
Schofield in command. 

June, 1862. Battle at Cherry Grove between the forces under Colonel Jos. 
C. Porter and Colonel H. S. Lipscomb. 

June, 1862. Battle at Pierce's Mill between the forces under Major John 
Y. Clopper and Colonel Porter. 

July 22, 1862. Battle at Florida. 

July 28, 1S62. Battle at Moore's Mill. 

August 6, 1862. Battle near Kirksville. 

August II, 1862. Battle at Independence. 

August 16, 1862. Battle at Lone Jack. 

September 13, 1862. Battle at Newtonia. 

September 25, 1862. Ten Confederate prisoners were executed at Macon by 
order of General Merrill. 

October 18, 1862. Ten Cunfederate prisoners executed at Palmyra by order 
of General McNeill. 

January 8, 1863. Battle at Springfield between the forces of General Mar- 
maduke and General E. B. Brown. 

April 26, 1863. Battle at Cape Girardeau. 

August — , 1863. General Jeff. Thompson captured at Pocahontas, Arkan- 
sas, with his staff. 

August 25, 1863. General Thomas Ewing issued his celebrated Order No. 
II, at Kansas City, Missouri, which is as follows : 

Headquarters District of the Border, ) 
Kansas City Mo., August 25, 1863. j 

(General Order No. 11.) 

First. — All persons living in Cass, Jackson and Bates counties, Missouri, and 
in that part of Vernon included in this district, except those living within one 
mile of the limits of Independence, Hickman's Mills, Pleasant Hill and Harrison- 
ville, and except those in that part of Kaw township, Jackson county, north of 
Brush Creek and west of the Big Blue, embracing Kansas City and Westport, are 
hereby ordered to remove from their present places of residence within fifteen days 
from the date hereof. 

Those who, within that time, estabh'i^h their loyalty to the satisfaction of the 
commanding officer of the military station nearest their present places of residence, 
will receive from him certificates stating the fact of their loyalty, and the names 
of the witnesses by whom it can be shown. All who receive such certificate will 
be permitted to remove to any military station in this district, or to any part of the 
State of Kansas, except the counties on the eastern borders of the State. All others 
shall remove out of this district. Officers commanding companies and detach- 
ments serving in the counties named, will see that this paragraph is promptly 

Second. — All grain and hay in the field, or under shelter, in the district from 
which the inhabitants are required to remove within reach of military stations, 
after the 9th day of September next, will be taken to such stations and turned 
over to the proper officer there, and report of the amount so turned over made to 
district headquarters, specifying the names of all loyal owners and the amount of 
such produce taken from them. All grain and hay found in such district after 
the 9th day of September next, not convenient to such stations, will be destroyed. 

Third. — The provisions of General Order No. 10, from these headquarters, 



will at once be vigorously executed by officers commanding in the parts of the 
district, and at the stations not subject to the operations of paragraph First of this 
Order — and especially in the towns of Independence, Westport and Kansas City. 

Fourth — Paragraph 3, General Order No. 10, is revoked as to all who have 
borne arms against the government in the district since August 20, 1863. 
By order of Brigadier-General Ewing. 

H. HANNAHS, Adjutant. 

October 12-13, Battle of Arrow Creek. 

January, 1864, General Rosecrans takes command of the Department. 

September, 1864, Battle at Pilot Knob, Harrison and Little Morceau River. 

October 5, 1864, Battle at Prince's Ford and James Gordon's farm. 

October 8, 1864, Battle at Glasgow. 

October 20, 1864, Battle at Litde Blue Creek. 

September 27, 1864, Massacre at Centralia, by Captain Bill Anderson. 

October 27, 1864, Capt. Anderson killed. 

December — , 1864, General Rosecrans relieved, and General Dodge ap- 
pointed to succeed him. 

Nothing occurred specially, of a military character, in the State after Decem- 
ber, 1864. We have, in the main, given the facts as they occurred without com- 
ment or entering into details. Many of the minor incidents and skirmishes of 
the war have been omitted because of our limited space. 

It is utterly impossible, at this date, to give the names and dates of all the 
battles fought in Missouri during the civil war. It will be found, however, that 
the list given below, which has been arranged for convenience, contains the 
prominent battles and skirmishes which took place within the State : 

Potosi, May 14, 1861. 
Boonville, June 17, 1861. 
Carthage, July 5, 1861. 
Monroe Station, July 10, 1861. 
Overton's Run, July 17, 1861. 
Dug Spring, August 2, 1861. 
Wilson's Creek, August 9, 1861. 
Athens, August 5, 1861. 
Moreton, August 20, t86i. 
Bennett's Mills, September — , 1861. 
Drywood Creek, September 7, 1S61. 
Norfolk, September 10, 1861. 
Lexington, September 12-20, 1861. 
Blue Mills Landing, September 17, 

Glasgow Mistake, September 20, 1861. 
Osceola, September 25, 1861. 
Shanghai, Oct. 13, 1861. 
Lebanon, Oct. 13, 1861. 
Linn Creek, Oct. 15, 1861. 
Big River Bridge, Oct, 15, 1861. 
Fredericktown, Oct. 21, i86i. 
Springfield, Oct. 25, 1861. 
Belmont, Nov. 7, 1861. 
Piketon, Nov. 8, 1861. 
Little Blue, Nov. 10, 1861. 
Clark's Station, Nov. 11, 1861. 
Zion Church, Dec. 28, 187 1. 

Silver Creek, Jan. 15, 1862. 
New Madrid, Feb. 28, 1862. 
Pea Ridge, March 6, 1S62. 
Neosho, April 22, 1862. 
Rose Hill, July 10, 1862. 
Chariton River, July 30, 1862, 
Cherry Grove, June — , 1862. 
Pierces Mill, June — , 1862. 
Florida, July 22, 1862. 
Moore's Mill, July 28, 1862. 
Kirksville, Aug. 6, 1862. 
Compton's Ferry, Aug 8, 1862. 
Yellow Creek, Aug. 13, 1862. 
Independence, Aug. 11, 1862. 
Lone Jack, Aug. 16, 1862. 
Newtonia, Sept. 13, 1862. 
Springfield, Jan. 8, 1863. 
Cape Girardeau, April 29, 1863. 
Arrow Rock, Oct 12 and 13, 1863. 
Pilot Knob, Sept. — , 1864. 
Harrison, Sept. — , 1864. 
Moreau River, Oct. 7, 1864. 
Prince's Ford, Oct. 5, 1864. 
Glasgow, Oct. 8, 1864. 
Little Blue Creek, Oct. 20, 1864. 
Albany, Oct. 27, 1864. 
Near Rocheport, Sept. 23, 1864. 
Centralia, Sept. 27, 1864. 



Black Hawk War — Mormon Difficulties — Florida War — Mexican War. 

On the 14th day of May, 1832, a bloody engagement took place between the 
regular forces of the United States, and a part of the Sacs, Foxes, and Winneba 
goe Indians, commanded by Black Hawk and Keokux, near Dixon's Ferry in 

The Governor (John Miller) of Missouri, fearing these savages would invade 
the soil of his State, ordered Major-General Richard Gentry to raise one thou- 
sand volunteers for the defense of the frontier. Five companies were at once 
raised in Boone county, and in Callaway, Montgomery, St. Charles, Lincoln, 
Pike, Marion, Ralls, Clay and Monroe other companies were raised. 

Two of these companies, commanded respectively by Captain John Jaimison, 
of Callaway, and Captain David M. Hickman, of Boone county, were mustered 
into service in July for thirty days, and put under command of Major Thomas W. 

This detachment, accompanied by General Gentry, arrived at Fort Pike on the 
15th of July, 1832. Finding that the Indians had not crossed the Mississippi into 
Missouri, General Gentry returned to Columbia, leaving the fort in charge of 
Major Conyers. Thirty days having expired, the command under Major Con- 
yers was relieved by two other companies under Captains Sinclair Kirtley, of Boone, 
and Patrick Ewing, of Callaway. This detachment was marched to Fort Pike by Col. 
Austin A. King, who conducted the two companies under Major Conyers home. 
Major Conyers was left in charge of the fort, where he remained till September 
following, at which time the Indian troubles, so far as Missouri was concerned, 
having all subsided, the frontier forces were mustered out of service. 

Black Hawk continued the war in Iowa and Illinois, and was finally defeated 
and captured in 1833. 


In 1832, Joseph Smith, the leader of the Mormons, and the chosen prophet 
and apostle, as he claimed, of the Most High, came with many followers to Jack- 
son county, Missouri, where they located and entered several thousand acres of 

The object of his coming so far West — upon the very outskirts of civilization 
at that time — was to more securely establish his church, and the more effectively 
to instruct his foUowers in its peculiar tenets and practices. 

Upon the present town site of Independence the Mormons located their 
*'Zion," and gave it the name of "The New Jerusalem." They published here 
The Evening Star, and made themselves generally obnoxious to the Gentiles, who 
were then in a minority, by their denunciatory articles through their paper, their 
clannishness and their polygamous practices. 

Dreading the demoralizing influence of a paper which seemed to be inspired 
only with hatred and malice toward them, the Gentiles threw the press and type 
into the Missouri river, tarred and feathered one of their bishops, and otherwise 
gave the Mormons and their leaders to understand that they must conduct them- 
selves in an entirely different manner if they wished to be let alone. 

After the destruction of their paper and press, they became furiously incensed, 
and sought many opportunities for retaliation. Matters continued in an uncertain 


condition until the 31st of October, 1833, when a deadly conflict occurred near 
Westport, in which two Gentiles and one Mormon were killed. 

On the 2d of November following the Mormons were overpowered, and com- 
pelled to lay down their arms and agree to leave the county with their families by 
January ist on the condition that the owner would be paid for his printing press. 

Leaving Jackson county, they crossed the Missouri and located in Clay, Car- 
roll, Caldwell and other counties, and selected in Caldwell county a town site, 
which they called " Far West," and where they entered more land for their future 

Through the influence of their missionaries, who were exerting themselves in 
the East and in difft rent portions of Europe, conve ts had constantly flocked to 
their standard, and "Far West," and other Mormon settlements, rapidly 

In 1837 they commenced the erection of a magnificent temple but never 
finished it. As their settlements increased .in numbers, they became bolder in 
their practices and deeds of lawlessness. 

During the summer of 1838 two of their leaders settled in the town of De- 
Witt, on the Missouri river, having purchased the land from an Illinois merchant. 
DeWitt was in Carroll county, and a good point from which to forward goods and 
immigrants to their town — Far West. 

Upon its being ascertained that these parties were Mormon leaders, the Gen- 
tiles called a public meeting, which was addressed by some of the prominent 
citizens of the county. Nothing, however, was done at this meeting, but at a 
subsequent meeting, which was held a few days afterward, a committee of citi- 
zens was appointed to notify Col. Hinkle (one of the Mormon leaders at DeWitt), 
what they intended to do. 

Col. Hinkle upon being notified by this committee became indignant, and 
threatened extermination to all who should attempt to molest him or the Saints. 

In anticipation of trouble, and believing that the Gentiles would attempt to 
force them from DeWitt, Mormon recruits flocked to the town from every direc- 
tion, and pitched their tents in and around the town in great numbers. 

The Gentiles, nothing daunted, planned an attack upon this encampment, 
to take place on the 21st day of September, 1838, and, accordingly, one hundred 
and fifty men bivouacked near the town on that day. A conflict ensued, but 
nothing serious occurred. 

The Mormons evacuated their works and fled to some log houses, where they 
could tl e more successfully resist the Gentiles, who had in the mean.iaie returned 
to their camp to await reinforcements. Troops from Howard, Ray and other 
counties came to their assistance, and increased their number to five hundred 

Congreve Jackson was chosen Brigadier-General ; Ebenezer Price, Colonel ; 
Singleton Vaughan, Lieutenant-Colonel, and Sarchel Woods, Major. After some 
days of discipline, this brigade prepared for an assault but before the attack was 
commenced Judge James Earickson and William F. Dunnica, influential citizens 
of Howard county, asked permission of General Jackson to let them try and ad- 
just the difficulties without any bloodshed. ' 

It was finally agreed that Judge Earickson should propose to the Mormons 
that, if they would pay for all the cattle they had killed belonging to the citizens, 
and load their wagons during the night and be ready to move by ten o'clock next 
morning, and make no further at empt to settle in Howard county, the citizens 
would purchase at first cost their lots in DeWitt and one or two adjoining tracts 
of land. 

Col. Hinkle, the leader of the Mormons, at first refused all attempts to settle 
the difficulties in this way, but finally agreed to the proposition. 

In accordance therewith, the Mormons without further delay, loaded up their 


wagons for the town of Far West, in Caldwell county. Whether the terms of the 
agreement were ever carried out, en the part of the citizens, is not known. 

The Mormons had doubtless suffered much and in many ways — the result of 
their own acts — but their trials and sufferings were not at an end. 

In 1838 the discord between the citizens and Mormons became so great that 
Governor Boggs issued a proclamation ordering Mijor-General David R. Atchi- 
son to call the militia of his division to enforce the laws. He called out a part of 
the ist brigade of the Missouri State Militia, under command of General A. W. 
Doniphan, who proceeded to the seat of war. General John B. Clark, of Howard 
county was placed in command of the militia. 

The Mormon forces numbered about i,ooo men, and were led by G. W. 
Hinkle. The first engagement occurred at Crooked river, where one Mormon 
was killed. The principal fight took place at Haughn's Mills, where eighteen 
Mormons were killed and the balance captured, some of them being killed after 
they had surrendered. Only one militiaman was wounded. 

In the month of October, 1838, Joe Smith surrendered the town of Far West 
to General Doniphan, agreeing to his conditions, viz. : That they should deliver 
up their arms, surrender their prominent leaders for trial, and the remainder of the 
Mormons should, with their families, leave the State. Indictments were found 
against a number of these leaders including Joe Smith, who, while being taken to 
Boone county for trial, made his escape, and was afterward, in 1844, killed at 
Carthage, Illinois, with his brother Hyrum. 


In September, 1837, the Secretary of War issued a requisition on Governor 
Boggs, of Missouri, for six hundred volunteers for service in Florida against the 
Seminole Indians, with whom the Creek nation had made common cause under 

The first regiment was chiefly raised in Boone county by Colonel Richard 
Gentry, of which he was elected Colonel; John W. Price, of Howard county, 
Lieutenant-Colonel; Harrison H. Hughes, also of Howard, Major. Four com- 
panies of the second regiment were raised and attached to the first. Two of these 
companies were composed of Delaware and Osage Indians. 

October 6, 1837, Col. Gentry's regiment left Columbia for the seat of war, 
stopping on the way at Jefferson barracks, where they were mustered into service. 

Arriving at Jackson barracks, New Orleans, they were from thence trans- 
ported in brigs across the Gulf to Tampa Bay, Florida. General Zachary Taylor, 
who then commanded in Florida, ordered Col. Gentry to march to Okee-cho-bee 
Lake, one hundred and thirty-five miles inland by the route traveled. Having 
reached the Kissemmee river, seventy miles distant, a bloody battle ensued, in 
which Col. Gentry was killed. The Missourians, though losing their gallant 
leader, continued the fight until the Indians were totally routed, leaving many of 
their dead and wounded on the field. There being no further service required 
of the Missourians, they returned to their homes in 1838. 


Soon after Mexico declared war, against the United States, on the 8th and 
9th of May, 1846, the battles of Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma were fought. 
Great excitement prevailed throughout the country. In none of her sister States 
however, did the fires of patriotism burn more intensely than in Missouri. Not 
waiting for the call for volunteers, the '* St. Louis Legion " hastened to the field 
of conflict. The "Legion" was commanded by Colonel A. R. Easton. During 
the month of May, 1846, Governor Edwards, of Missouri, called for volunteers 
to join the " Army of the West," an expedition to Santa Fe — under command of 
General Stephen W. Kearney. 


Fort Leavenworth was the appointed rendezvous for the volunteers. By 
the i8th of June, the full complement of companies to compose the first regi- 
ment had arrived from Jackson, Lafayette, Clay, Saline, Franklin, Cole, Howard 
and Callaway counties. Of this regiment A. W. Doniphan was made Colonel ; 
C. F. Ruff, Lieutenant-Colonel, and William Gilpin, Major. The battalion of 
light artillery from St. Louis was commanded by Captains R. A. Weightman and 
A. W. Fischer, with Major M. L. Clark as field officer; battalions of infantry 
from Platte and Cole counties commanded by Captains Murphy and W. Z. 
Augney respectively, and the " Laclede Rangers," from St. Louis, by Captain 
Thomas B. Hudson, aggregating all told, from Missouri, 1,658 men. In the 
summer of 1846 Hon. Sterling Price resigned his seat in Congress and raised one 
mounted regiment, one mounted extra battalion, and one extra battalion of Mor- 
mon infantry to'reinforce the " Army of the West." Mr. Price was made colonel, 
and D. D. Mitchell lieutenant-colonel. 

In August, 1847, Governor Edwards made another requisition for one thou- 
sand men, to consist of infantry. The regiment was raised at once. John 
Dougherty, of Clay county, was chosen colonel, but before the regiment marched 
the President countermanded the order. 

A company of mounted volunteers was raised in Ralls county, commanded 
by Captain Wm. T. Lalfland. Conspicuous among the engagements in which 
the Missouri volunteers participated in Mexico were the battles of Brazito, Sacra- 
mento, Canada, El Embudo, Taos and Santa Cruz de Rosales. The forces from 
Mi'^'^onri were mustered out in 1848, and will ever be remembered in the history 
of the Mexican war, for 

*' A thousand glorious actions that might claim 
Triumphant laurels, and immortal fame." 


Missoui-i as an Agricultural Slate — The Different Crops — Live Stock — Horses — Mules — Milch Cows 
— Oxen and other Cattle — Sheep — Hogs — Comparisons — Missouri Adapted to Live l>tock — 
Cotton — Broom- Com and other Products — Fruits — Berries — Grapes — Railroads — First Neigh 
of the ^'^ Iron Horse" in Missouri — Names of Railroads — Manufaciutes — Great Bridge at St. 

Agriculture is the greatest among all the arts of man, as it is the first in supply- 
ing his necessities. It favors and strengthens population ; it creates and maintains 
manufactures ; gives employment to navigation and furnishes materials to com- 
merce. It animates every species of industry, and opens to nations the safest 
channels of wealth. It is the strongest bond of well regulated society, the surest 
basis of internal peace, and the natural associate of correct morals. Among all 
the occupations and professions of life, there is none more honorable, none more 
independent, and none more conducive to health and happiness. 

*' In ancient times the sacred plow employ'd 
The kings, and awful fathers of mankind ; 
And some, with whom compared, your insect tribes 
Are but the beings of a summer's day, 


Have held the scale of empire, ruled the storm 
Of mighty war with unwearied hand, 
Disdaining little delicacies, seized 
The plow and greatly independent lived." 

As an agricultural region, Missouri is not surpassed by any State in the Union. 
It is indeed the farmer's kingdom, where he always reaps an abundant harvest. 
The soil, in many portions of the State, has an open, flexible structure, quickly 
al^orbs the most excessive rains, and retains moisture with great tenacity. This 
being the case, it is not so easily affected by drouth. The prairies are covered 
with sweet, luxuriant grass, equally good for grazing and hay ; grass not surpassed 
by the Kentucky blue grass — the best of clover and timothy in growing and fat- 
tening cattle. This grass is now as full of life-giving nutriment as it was when 
cropped by the buffalo, the elk, the antelope and the deer, and costs the herds- 
man nothing. 

No State or Territory has a more complete and rapid system of natural 
drainage, or a more abundant supply of pure, fresh water than Missouri. Both 
man and beast may slake their thirst from a thousand perennial fountains, which 
gush in limpid streams from the hill-sides, and wend their way through verdant 
valleys and along smiUng prairies, varying m size, as they onward flow, from the 
diminutive brooklet to the giant river. 

Here, nature has generously bestowed her attractions of climate, soil and 
scenery to please and gratify man while earning his bread in the sweat of his brow. 
Being thus munificently endowed, Missouri offers superior inducements to the 
farmer, and bids him enter her broad domain and avail himself of her varied re- 

We present here a table showing the product of each principal crop in 
Missouri for 1878. 

Indian Corn 93,062 000 bushels 

Wheat , 20,196,000 " 

Rye 732,000 " 

Oats 19,584,000 " 

Buckwheat 46,400 " 

Potaoes 5,415,000 " 

Tobacco 23,025,000 pounds 

Hay 1,620,000 tons 

There were 3,552,000 acres in corn; wheat, 1,836,000; rye, 48,800: oats, 
640,000; buckwheat, 2,900; potatoes, 72,200; tobacco, 29,900; hay, 850,000. 
Value of each crop: corn, $24,196,224; wheat, $13,531,320; rye, $300,120; 
oats, $3,325,120; buckwheat, $24, 128; potatoes, $2,057,700; tobacco, $1,151,- 
150; hay, $10,416,600. 

Average cash value of crops per acre, $7.69; average yield of corn per acre, 
26 bushels; wheat, 11 bushels. 

Next in importance to the corn crop in value is live stock. The following 
table shows the number of horses, mules and milch cows in the different States 
for 1879: 


Maine 81,700 169,100 

New Hampshire . . 57,100 98,100 

Vermont 77,400 217,800 

Massachusetts . , , 131,000 160,700 

Rhode Island . . , 16,200 , 22,000 

Connecticut. . • . 53j5oo 116,500 



New York 898,900 11,800 1,446,200 

New Jersey . . . . 114,500 14,400 152,200 

Pennsylvania .... 614,500 24,900 828,400 

Delaware 19,900 4,000 23,200 

Maryland 108,600 11,300 ioo,5'oo 

Virginia 208,700 30,600 , 236,200 

North Carolina . . . 144,200 74,000 232,300 

South Carolina . . . 59, 600 51,500 131,300 

Georgia 119,200 97,200 273,100 

Florida, ..... 22,400 11,900 70,000 

Alabama 112,800 111,700 215,200 

Mississippi .... 97,200 100,000 188,000 

Louisiana 79,300 80,700 110,900 

Texas 618,000 180,200 544,500 

Arkansas . . . . • 180,500 89,300 187,700 

Tennessee .... 323,700 99,700 245,700 

West Virginia . . . 122,200 2,400 130,500 

Kentucky 386,900 117,800 257,200 

Ohio. ...... 772,700 26,700 714,100 

Michigan 333,800 4.300 416,900 

Indiana 688,800 ...... 61,200 439,200 

Illinois 1,100,000 138,000 702,400 

Wisconsin 384,400 8,700 , 477,300 

Minnesota 247,300 7,000 278,900 

Iowa 770,700 43,400 676,200 

Missouri 627,300 191,900 516,200 

Kansas 275,000 50,000 321,900 

Nebraska 157,200 ...... 13,600 127,600 

California 273,000 25,700 459,600 

Oregon 109,700 3>5oo ...... 112,400 

Nev., Col. and Ter's . 250,000 25,700 423,600 

It will be seen from the above table, that Missouri is the fifth State in the 
number of horses ; fifth in number of milch-cows, and the leading State in num- 
ber of mules, having 11,700 more than Texas, which produces the next largest 
number. Of oxen and other cattle, Missouri produced in 1879, 1,632,000, which 
was more than any other State produced excepting Texas, which had 4,800,000. 
In 1879 Missouri raised 2,817,600 hogs, which was more than any other State 
produced, excepting Iowa. The number of sheep, was 1,296,400. The num- 
ber of hogs packed in 1879, by the different States, is as follows : 


Ohio 932,878 Missouri 965,839 

Indiana 622,321 Wisconsin 472,108 

Illinois 3,214,896 Kentucky 212,412 

Iowa 569*763 

Average weight per head for each State : 


Ohio . . . ." 210.47 Missouri . .213.32 

Indiana 193.80 Wisconsin 220.81 

Illinois 225.71 Kentucky 210.11 

Iowa 211.98 


From the above, it will be seen that Missouri annually packs more hogs 
than any other State excepting Illinois, and that she ranks third in the average 

We see no reason why Missouri should not be the foremost stock-raising 
State of the Union. In addition to the enormous yield of corn and oats upon 
which the stock is largely dependent, the climate is well adapted to their growth 
and health. Water is not only inexhaustible, but everywhere convenient. The 
ranges for stock are boundless, affording for nine months of the year, excellent 
])asturage of nutritious wild grasses, which grow in great luxuriance upon the 
thousand prairies. 

Cotton is grown successfully in many counties of the southeastern portions 
of the State, especially in Stoddard, Scott, Pemiscot, Butler, New Madrid, Law- 
rence and Mississippi. 

Sweet potatoes are produced in abundance and are not only sure but profi- 

Broom corn, sorghum, castor beans, white beans, peas, hops, thrive well, and 
all kinds of garden vegetables, are produced in great abundance and are found 
in the markets during all seasons of the year. Fruits of every variety, including 
the apple, pear, peach, cherries, apricots and nectarines, are cultivated with 
great success, as are also,the strawberry, gooseberry, currant, raspberry and black- 

The grape has not been produced, with that success that was at first antici- 
pated, yet the yield of wine for the year 1879, was nearly half a million of gallons. 
Grapes do well in Kansas, and we see no reason why they should not be as sure- 
ly and profitably grown in a similar climate and soil in Missouri, and particularly 
in many of the* counties north and east of the Missouri River. 


Twenty-nine years ago, the neigh of the " iron horse" was heard for the first 
lime, within the broad domain of Missouri. His coming presaged the dawn of a 
brighter and grander era in the history of the State. Her fertile prairies, and more 
prolific valleys would soon be of easy access to the oncoming tide of immigration, 
and the ores and minerals of her hills and mountains would be developed, and 
utilized in her manufacturing and industrials enterprises. 

Additional facilities would be opened to the marts of trade and commerce ; 
transportation from the interior of the State would be secured; a fresh impetus 
would be given to the growth of her towns and cities, and new hopes and inspi- 
rations would be imparted to all her people. 

Since 1852, the initial period of railroad building in Missouri, between four 
and five thousand miles of track have been laid; additional roads are now being 
constructed, and many others in contemplation. The State is already well sup- 
plied with railroads which thread her surface in all directions, bringing her 
remotest districts into close connection with St. Louis, that great center of west- 
ern railroads and inland commerce. These roads have a capital stock, aggregat- 
ing more than one hundred millions of dollars, and a funded debt of about the 
same amount. 

The lines of railroads which are operated in the State are the following: 

Missouri Pacific — chartered May loth, 1850; The St. Louis, Iron Mountain 
& Southern Railroad, which is a consolidation of the Arkansas Branch ; 
The Cairo, Arkansas & Texas Railroad. The Cairo & Fulton Railroad : The 
St. Louis, Kansas City & Northern Railway; St. Louis & San Francisco Railway; 
The Ciiicago, Alton & St. Louis Railroad; The Hannibal & St. Joseph Rail- 
road; The Missouri, Kansas & Texas Railroad; The Illinois, Missouri & Texas 
Railroad; The Kansas City, St. Joseph & Council Bluffs Railroad; The Keokuk 
& Kansas City Railway Company; The St. Louis, Salem & Little Rock Rail- 


road Company; The Missouri & Western; The St. Louis, Keokuk & North- 
western Railroad ; The St. Louis, Hannibal & Keokuk Railroad ; The Missouri, 
Iowa & Nebraska Railway; The Quincy, Missouri & Pacific Railroad; The 
Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific Railway ; The Burlington & Southwestern Rail- 


The natural resources of Missouri especially fit her for a great manufacturing 
State. She is rich in soil ; rich in all the elements which supply the furnace, the 
machine shop and the planing mill; rich in the multitude and variety of her gi- 
gantic forests ; rich in her marble, stone and granite quarries ; rich in her mines 
of iron, coal, lead and zinc; rich in strong arms and willing hands to apply the 
force; rich in water power and river navigation; and rich in her numerous and 
well-built railroads, whose numberless engines thunder along their multiplied track- 

Missouri contains over fourteen thousand manufacturing establishments, 
1,965 of which are using steam and give employment to 80,000 hands. The cap- 
ital employed is about $100,000,000, the material annually used and worked up, 
amounts to over $150 000,000 and the value of the products put upon the markets 
$250,000,000, while the wages paid, are more than $40,000,000. 

The leading manufacturing counties of theStite, are St. Louis, Jackson, Buc- 
hanan, St. Charles, Marion, Franklin, Green, Lafayette, Platte, Cape Giardeau, 
and Boone. Three-fourths, however, of the manufacturing is done in St. Louis, 
which is now about the second manufacturing city of the Union. Flouring mills 
produce annually about $38,194,000; carpentering $18,763,000; meat-packing 
$16,769,000; tobacco $12,496,000; iron and castings $12,000,000; liquors $11,- 
245,000; clothing $10,022,000; lumber $8, 652,000; bagging and bags $6,914, - 
000, and many other smaller industries in proportion. 


Of the many public improvements which do honor to the State and reflect 
great credit upon the genius of their projectors, we have space only, to mention 
tfie great bridge at St. Louis. 

This truly wonderful construction is built of tubular steel, total length of 
which, with its approaches, is 6,277 feet, at a cost of nearly $8,000,000. The 
bridge spans the Mississippi from the Illinois to the Missouri shore, and has sep- 
arate railroad tracts, roadways, and foot paths. In durability, architectural beau- 
ty and practical utility, there is, perhaps, no similar piece of workmanship that 
approximates it. 

The structure of Darius upon the Bosphorus ; of Xerxes upon the Hellespont; 
of Caesar upon the Rhine ; and Trajan upon the Danube, famous in ancient histo- 
ry, were built for military purposes, that over them might pass invading armies 
with their munitions of war, to destroy commerce, to lay in waste the provinces, 
and to slaughter the people. 

But the erection of this was for a higher and nobler purpose. Over it are 
coming the trade and merchandise of the opulent East, and thence are passing 
the untold riches of the West. Over it are crowding legions of men, armed not 
with the weapons of war, but the implements of peace and industry ; men who 
are skilled in all the arts of agriculture, of manufacture and of mining ; men who 
will hasten the day when St. Louis shall rank in population and importance, sec- 
ond to no city on the continent, and when Missouri shall proudly fill the measure 
of greatness, to which she is naturally so justly entitled. 



Puhlic ScJiool System — Public School System of Missouri — Lincoln Institute — Officers of Publit 
School System — Certificates of Teachers — University of Missouri — Schools — Colleges — JnstitU' 
tions of Learning — Location — Libraries — Newspapers and Periodicals — No. of School Chit,' 
dren — Amount Expended — Value of Grounds and Buildings — *^The Press." 

The first constitution of Missouri provided, that "one school or more, shall 
be established in each township, as soon as practicable and necessary, where the 
poor shall be taught gratis." 

It will be seen that even at that early day, {1820), the framers of the con 
stitution made provision for at least a primary education, for the poorest and the 
humblest, taking it for granted that those who were able would avail themselves 
of educational advantages which were not gratuitous. 

The establishment of the public school system in its essential features, was 
not perfected until 1839, during the administration of Governor Boggs, and since 
that period, the system has slowly grown into favor, not only in Missouri, but 
throughout the United States. The idea of a free or public school for all classes 
was not at first a popular one, especially among those who had the means to pat- 
ronize private institutions of learning. In upholding and maintaining public 
schools, the opponents of the system felt that they were not only compromising 
their own standing among their more wealthy neighbors, but that they were to 
some extent, bringing opprobrium upon their children. Entertaining such preju- 
dices they naturally thought that the training received in public schools, could not 
be otherwise than defective, hence many years of probation passed, before the 
popular mind was prepared to appreciate the benefits and blessings which spring 
from these institutions. 

Every year only adds to their popularity, and commends them the more 
earnestly to the fostering care of our State and National Legislatures, and to the 
esteem and favor of all classes of our people 

We can hardly conceive of two grander and .more potent promoters of civili- 
zation, than the free school and the free press. They would indeed seem to con 
stitute all that was necessary to the attainment of the happiness and intellectual 
growth of the Republic and all that was necessary to broaden, to liberalize and 

"Tis education forms the common mind; 

**^ «!<• (Xr iilir aj^ vlf 

#^ ^f^ ^1^ ^f^ ^^ ^T^ 

" For noble youth there is nothing so meet 
As learning is, to know the good from ill; 
To know the tongues, and perfectly indite, 
And of the laws to have a perfect skill, 
Things to reform as right and justice will, 
For honor is ordained for no cause 
But to see right maintained by the laws." 

All the States of the Union, have in practical operation the public school 
system, governed in the main by similar laws, and not differing materially in the 
manner and methods by which they are taught, but none have a wiser, a more 
liberal and comprehensive machinery of instruction than Missouri. Her school 
laws since 1839, have undergone many changes, and always for the better, keep- 


ing pace with the most enlightened and advanced theories of the most experienc- 
ed educators in the land. But not until 1875, when the new constitution was 
adopted, did her present admirable system of public instruction go into effect. 

Provisions were made not only for white, but for children of African descent, 
and are a part of the organic law, not subject to the caprices of unfriendly legisla- 
tures, or the whims of political parties. The Lincoln Institute, located at Jeffer- 
son Ci:y, for the education of colored teachers, receives an annual appropriation 
from the General Assembly. 

For the support of the public schools, in addition to the annual income de- 
rived from the public school fund, which is set apart bylaw, not less than twenty- 
five p^r cent, of the State revenue, exclusive of the interest and sinking fund, is 
annually applied to this purpose. 

The officers having in charge the public school interests, are the State 
"Board of Education;" the State Superintendent; County Superintendent; 
County Clerk and Treasurer; Board of Directors; City and Town School Board; 
and Teacher. The State Board of Education is composed of the State Superin- 
tendent, the Governor, Secretary of State and the Attorney General, the execu- 
tive officer of this Board, being the State Superintendent, who is chosen by the 
people every four years. His duties are numerous. He renders decisions con- 
cerning the local application of school law ; keeps a record of all the school funds 
and annuilly distributes the same to the counties ; supervises the work of county 
school officers ; delivers lectures; visits schools ; distributes educational informa- 
tion ; grants certificates of higher qualifications ; and makes an annual report 
to the General Assembly of the condition of the schools. 

The County Superintendents are also elected by the people for two years. 
Their work is to examine teachers, to distribute blanks and make reports. Coun- 
ty clerks receive estimates from the local directors and extend them upon the 
tax-books. In addition to this, they keep the general records of the county and 
township school funds, and return an annual report of the financial condition of 
the schools of their county to the State Superintendent. School taxes are gather- 
» ed with other taxes by the county collector. The custodian of the school funds 
belonging to the schools of the counties, is the county treasurer, except in coun- 
ties adopting the township organization, in which case, the township trustee 
discharges these duties. 

Districts organized under the special law for cities and towns are governed 
by a board of six directors, two of whom are selected annually, on the second Sat- 
urday in September, and hold their office for three years. 

One director is elected to serve for three years in each school district, at the 
annual meeting. These directors may levy a tax not exceeding forty per cent, on 
the one hundred dollars valuation, provided such annual rates for school purposes 
may be increased in districts formed of cities and towns, to an amount not to ex- 
ceed one dollar on the hundred dollars valuation ; and in other districts to an amount 
not to exceed sixty five cents on the one hundred dollars valuation, on the condi- 
tion that a majority of the voters who are tax-payers, voting at an election held to 
decide the question, vote for said increase. For the purpose of erecting public 
buildings in school districts, the rates of taxation thus limited, may be increased 
when the rate of such increase and the purpose for which it is intended shall have 
been submitted to a vote of the people, and two-thirds of the qualified voters of 
such school district voting at such election shall vote therefor. 

Local directors may direct the management of the school in respect to the 
choice of teachers and other details, but in the discharge of all important business, 
such as the erection of a school house or the extension of a term of school beyond 
the constitutional period, they simply execute the will of the people. The clerk 
of this board may be a director. He keeps a record of the names of all the chil- 
dren and youth in the district between the ages of five and twenty-one; records 



all business proceedings of tie district, and reports to the annual meeting, to the 
County Clerk and County Superinteudents. 

Teachers must hold a certificate from the State Superintendent or County 
Commissioner of the county where they teach. State certificates are granted upon 
personal written examinations in the common branches, together with the natural 
sciences and higher mathematics. The holder of such certificate may teach in any 
public school of the State without further examination. Certificates granted by 
County Commissioners are of two classes, with two grades in each class. Those 
issued for a longer term than one year, belong to the first class and are suscepti- 
ble of two grades, differing both as to length of time and attainments. Those 
issued for one year may represent two grades, marked by qualification alone. 
The township school fund arises from a grant oflandby the General Government, 
consisting of section sixteen in each congressional township. The annual income 
of the township fund is appropriated to the various townships, according to their 
respective proprietary claims. The support from the permanent funds is supple- 
mented by direct taxation laid upon the taxable property of each district. The 
greatest limit of taxation for the current expenses is one per cent. ; the tax per- 
mitted for school-house building cannot exceed the same amount. 

Among the institutions of learning and ranking, perhaps, the first in impor- 
tance, is the State University located at Columbia, Boone county. When the 
State was admitted into the Union, Congress granted to it one entire township of 
land (46,080 acres) for the support of " A Seminary of Learning." The lands 
secured for this purpose are among the best and most valuable in the State. 
These lands were put upon the market in 1832 and brought $75,000, which 
amount was invested in the stock of the old bank of the State of Missouri, where 
it remained and increased by accumulation to the sum of $100,000. In 1839 by 
an act of the General Assembly, five commissioners were appointed to select a site 
for the State University, the site to contain at least fifty acres of land in a com- 
pact form, within two miles of the county seat of Cole, Cooper, Howard, Boone, 
Callaway or Saline. Bids were let among the counties named and the county ol 
Boone having subscribed the sum of$i 17,921, some $18,000 more than any other 
county, the State University was located in that county, and on the 4th of July, 
1840, the corner-stone was laid with imposing ceremonies. 

The present annual income of the University is nearly $65,000. There are 
still unsold about 200,000 acres of land from the grant of 1862. The donations 
to the institutions connected therewith amount to nearly $400,000. This Uni- 
versity with its different departments, is opened to both male and female and 
both sexes enjoy alike its rights and privileges. Among the professional schools, 
which form a part of the University, are the Normal, or College of Instruction in 
Teaching ; the Agricultural and Mechanical College ; the School of Mines and 
Metallurgy; the College of Law ; the Medical College; and the Department ol 
Analytical and Applied Chemistry, Other departments are contemplated and 
will be added as necessity requires. 

The following will show the names and locations of the schools and institu- 
tion of the State as reported by the Commissioner of Education in 1875 • 


Christian University Canton. 

St. Vincent's College Cape Girardeau, 

University of Missouri Columbia. 

Central College Fayette. ' 

Westminster College Fulton. 

Lewis College Glasgow. 

Pritchett School Institute Glasgow, 

Lincoln College Greenwood. 


Hannibal College Hannibal. 

Woodland College Independence. 

Tliayer College Kidder. 

La Grange College • • . . La Grange. 

William Jewell College Liberty. 

Biptist College Louisiana. 

St. Joseph College St. Joseph. 

College of Christian Brothers St. Louis. 

St. Louis University St. Louis. 

Washington University • • St. Louis. 

Drury College . • Springfield. 

Central Wesleyan College Warrenton. 


St. Joseph Female Seminary St. Joseph. 

Christian College Columbia. 

Stephens' College Columbia. 

Howard College Fayette. 

Independence Female College Independence. 

Central Female College Lexington. 

Clay Seminary Liberty. 

Ingleside Female College • Palmyra. 

Linden Wood College for Young Ladies St Charles. 

Mary Institute (Washington University) St. Louis. 

St. Louis Seminary St. Louis. 

Ursuline Academy St. Louis. 


Arcadia College Arcadia. 

St. Vincent's Academy Cape Girardeau. 

Chillicothe Academy Chillicothe. 

Grand River College Edinburgh. 

Marionville Collegiate Institute Marionville. 

Palmyra Seminary Palmyra. 

St. Paul's College Palmyra. 

Van Rensselaer Academy Rensselaer. 

Shelby High School Shelbyville. 

Stewartville Male and Female Seminary Stewartsville. 


Missouri Agricultural and Mechanical College (University of Missouri) . Columbia. 

Schools of Mines and Metallurgy (University of Missouri) Columbia. 

Polytechnic Institute (Washington University) St. Louis. 


St. Vincent's College (Theological Department) Cape Girardeau. 

Westminster College (Theological School) Fulton 

Vardeman School of Theology (William Jewell College) Liberty. 

Concordia College St. Louis. 


Law School of the University of Missouri Columbia. 

Law School of the Washington University • * . . . St. Louis. 



Medical College, University of Missouri Columbia. 

College of Physicians and Surgeons St. Joseph. 

Kansas City College of Physicians and Surgeons Kansas City. 

Hospital Medical College St. Joseph. 

Missouri Medical College St. Louis. 

Northwestern Medical College St. Joseph. 

St. Louis Medical College St. Louis. 

Homeopathic Medical College of Missouri St. Louis. 

Missouri School of Midwifery and Diseases of Women and Children . St. Louis. 

Missouri Central College St. Louis. 

St. Louis College of Pharmacy St. Louis. 


St. Vincent's College Cape Girardeau 5,5°° 

Southeast Missouri State Normal School . . . Cape Girardeau i 

University of Missouri Columbia lo 

Athenian Society Columbia i 

Union Literary Society . . , , • Columbia i 

Law College Columbia 

Westminster College Fulton 5 

Lewis College Glasgow 3 

Mercantile Library Hannibal 2 

Library Association Independence i 

Fruitland Normal Institute Jackson i 

State Library Jefferson City 13 

Fetterman's Circulating Library Kansas City i 

Law Library Kansas City 3 

Whittemore's Circulating Library Kansas City i 

North Missouri State Normal School .... Kirksville i 

William Jewell College Liberty 4 

St. Paul's College Palmyra 2 

Missouri School of Mines and Metallurgy . . Rolla i 

St. Charles Catholic Library St. Charles i 

Carl Frielling's Library St. Joseph 6 

Law Library St. Joseph 2 

Public School Library St. Joseph 2 

Walworth & Colt's Circulating Library . . .St. Joseph i 

Academy of Science St Louis 2 

Academy of Visitation St. Louis 4 

College of the Christian Brothers St. Louis 22 

Deutsche Institute St. Louis i 

German Evang. Lutheran, Concordia Col lege. St. LOuis 4 

I.,aw Library Association St. Louis 8 

Missouri Medical College St. Louis i 

Mrs. Cuthberts Seminary (Young Ladies) . . St. Louis i 

Odd Fellows Library St. Louis 4 

Public School Library St. Louis 40 

St. Louis Medical College St. Louis i 

St. Louis Mercantile Library St. Louis 45 

St. Louis Seminary St. Louis 2 

St. Louis Turn Verein St. Louis 2 

St. Louis University St. Louis 17 
















St. Louis University Society Libraries . . , .St Louis 8,000 

Ursuline Academy St. Louis 2,000 

Washington University St. Louis 4,500 

St. Louis Law School St. Louis 3,000 

Young Men's Sodality . St, Louis i 327 

Library Association Sedalia 1,500 

Public School Library Sedalia 1,015 

Drury College Springfield 2,000 

IN 1880. 
Newspapers and Periodicals 481 


State Asylum for Deaf and Dumb Fulton. 

St. Bridget's Institution for Deaf and Dumb St. Louis. 

Institution for the Education of the Blind St. Louis. 

State Asylum for Insane Fulton. 

State Asylum for the Insane St. Louis. 


Normal Institute Bolivar. 

Southeast Missouri State Normal School Cape Girardeau. 

Normal School (University of Missouri) Columbia. 

Fruidand Normal Institute Jackson. 

Lincoln Institute (for colored) Jefferson City. 

City Normal School St. Louis. 

Missouri State Normal School Warrensburg. 

IN 1880. 
Number of School Children 

IN 1878. 

Estimated value of School Property $8,321,399 

Total Receipts for Public Schools 4,207,617 

Total Expenditures 2,406,139 


Male Teachers 6,239; average monthly pay $36.86. 

Female Teachers 5, 060; average monthly pay 28.09. 

The fact that Missouri supports and maintains four hundred and seventy-one 
newspapers and periodicals, shows that her inhabitants are not only a reading and 
reflecting people, but that they appreciate "The Press," and its wonderful influ- 
ence as an educator. The poet has well said : 

But mightiest of the mighty means, 
On which the arm of progress leans, 
Man's noblest mission to advance. 
His woes assuage, his weal enhance, 
His rights enforce, his wrongs redress- 
Mightiest of mighty is the Press. 




Baptist Church — Its History — Congre!;ational — When Founded — lis History — Christian Church 
— Its History — Cumberland Presbyterian Church — lis History — Methodist Ep;scopal Chwcn 
^—Its History — Presbyterian Chicrch — Its History — Protestant Episcopal Church — Its History 
— United Presbyterian Ciiurck — Its History — Unitarian Cliurcli — Its History — Roman Cath 
olic CliurcJi — Its History, 

The first representatives of religious thought and training, who penetrated 
the Missouri and Mississippi Valleys, were Pere Marquette, La Salle and others 
of Catholic persuasion, who performed missionary labor among the Indians. A 
century afterward came the Protestants. At that early period 

**A church in every grove that spread 
Its living roof above their heads." 

constituted for a time, their only house of worship, and yet to them 

"No Temple built with hands could vie 
In glory with its majesty." 

In the course of time, the seeds of Protestantism were scattered along the 
shores of the two great rivers which form the eastern and western boundaries of 
the State, and still a little later they were sown upon her hill-sides and broad 
prairies, where they have since bloomed and blossomed as the rose. 


The earliest Anti- Catholic religious denomination, of which there is any 
record, was organized in Cape Girardeau county in 1806, through the efforts of 
Rev. David Green, a Baptist, and a native of Virginia. In 181 6, the first associa- 
tion of Missouri Baptists was formed, which was composed of seven churches, all 
of which were located in the southeastern part of the State. In 1817 a second 
association of churches was formed, called the Missouri Association, the name 
being afterwards changed to St. Louis Association. In 1834, a general conven- 
tion of all the churches of this denomination, was held in Howard County, lor 
the purpose of effecting a central organization, at which time., was commenced 
what is now known, as the "General Association of Missouri Baptists." 

To this body, is committed the State mission work, denominational educa 
tion, foreign missions and the circulation of religious literature. The Baptist 
Church has under its control, a number of schools and colleges, the most import 
ant of which is William Jewell College, located at Liberty, Clay County. As 
shown by the annual report for 1875, there were in Missiouri, at that date, sixty- 
one associations, one thousand four hundred churches, eight hundred and twenty- 
four ministers and eighty-nine thousand six hundred and fifty church members. 


The Congregationalists inaugurated their missionary labors in the State in 
1814. Rev. Samuel J. Mills, of Torringford, Connecticut, and Rev. Daniel 
Smith, of Bennington, Vermont, were sent west by the Massachusetts Congrega- 
tion Home Missionary Society during that year, and in November, 1814, they 
preached the first regular Protestant sermons in St. Louis. Rev. Salmon Gid- 
dings, sent out under the auspices of the Connecticut Congregational Missionary 


Society, organized the first Protestant church in the city, consisting often members, 
constituted Presbyterian. The churches organized by Mr. Giddings were all 
Presbyterian in their order. 

No exclusively Congregational Church was founded until 1852, when the 
**First Trinitarian Congregational Church of St. Louis" was organized. The 
next church of this denomination was organized at Hannibal in 1859. Then 
followed a Welsh church in New Cambria in 1864, and after the close of the war, 
fifteen churches of the same order were formed in different parts of the State. 
In 1866, Pilgrim Church, St. Louis, was organized. The General Conference of 
Churches of Missouri was formed in 1865, which was changed in 1868, to Gener- 
al Association. In 1866, Hannibal, Kidder, and St. Louis District Associations 
were formed, and following these, were the Kansas City and Springfield District 
Associations. This denomination in 1875, had 70 churches, 41 ministers, 3,363 
church members, and had also several schools and colleges and one monthly 


The earliest churches of this denomination were organized in Callaway, 
Boone and Howard Counties, some time previously to 1829. The first church 
was formed in St. Louis in 1836 by Elder R. B. Fife. The first State Sunday 
School Convention of the Christian Church, was held in Mexico in 1876. Be- 
sides a number of private institutions, this denomination has three State Institu- 
tions, all of which have an able corps of professors and have a good attendance 
of pupils. It has one religious paper published in St. Louis, '■'■The Christian,''^ 
which is a weekly publication and well patronized. The membership of this 
church now numbers nearly one hundred thousand in the State and is increasing 
rapidly. It has more than five hundred organized churches, the greater portion 
of which are north of the Missouri River. 


In the spring of 1820, the first Presbytery of this denomination west of the Mis- 
sissippi, was organized in Pike County, This Presbytery included all the territory 
of Missouri, western Illinois and Arkansas and numbered only four ministers, two 
of whom resided at the time in Missouri. There are now in the State, twelve 
Presbyteries, three Synods, nearly three hundred ministers and over twenty thou- 
sand members. The Board of Missions is located at St. Louis, They have a 
number of High Schools and two monthly papers published at St. Louis. 


In 1806, Rev. John Travis, a young Methodist minister, was sent out to the 
''Western Conference" which then embraced the Mississippi .Valley, from Green 
County, Tennessee. During that year Mr. Travis organized a number of small 
churches. At the close of his conference year, he reported the result of his 
labors to the Western Conference, which was held at Chillicothe, Ohio, in 1870, and 
showed an aggregate of one hundred and six members and two circuits, one 
called Missouri and the other Meramec, In 1808, two circuits had been formed, 
and at each succeeding year the number of circuits and members constantly in- 
creased, until 181 2, when what was called the Western Conference was divided 
into the Ohio and Tennessee Conferences, Missouri falling into the Tennessee 
Conference. In 18 16, there was another division when the Missouri Annual Con- 
ference was formed. In 1810, there were four traveling preachers and in 1820, 
fifteen traveling preachers, with over 2,000 members. In 1836, the territory of 
the Missouri Conference was again divided when the Missouri Conference includ- 
ed only the State, In 1840 there were 72 traveling preachers, 177 local ministers 
and 13,992 church members. Between 1840 and 1850, the church was divided 


by the organization of the Methodist Episcopal Church South. In 1850, the mem- 
bership of the M. E. Church was over 25,000, and during the succeeding ten 
years the church prospered rapidly. In 1875, the M. E. Church reported 274 
church edifices and 34,156 members; the M. E. Church, South, reported 443 
church edifices and 49,588 members. This denomination has under its control 
several schools and colleges and two weekly newspapers. 


The Presbyterian Church dates the beginning of their missionary efforts in 
the State as far back as 18 14 but the first Presbyterian Church was not organized 
until 1816 at Bellevue settlement eight miles from St. Louis. The next churches 
were formed in 1816 and in 1817 at Bonhomme, Pike County. The First Pres- 
byterian Church was organized in St. Louis in 18 17, by Rev. Salmon Giddng. 
The first Presbytery was organized in 181 7 by the Synod of Tennessee with four 
ministers and four churches. The first Presbyterian house of worship (which 
was the first Protestant) was commenced in 17 19 and completed in 1826. In 
1820 a mission was formed among the Osage Indians. In 1831, the Presbytery 
was divided into three : Missouri, St. Louis and St. Charles. I'hese were erected 
with a Synod comprising eighteen ministers and twenty-three churches. 

The church was divided in 1838, throughout the United States. In i860 the 
rolls of the Old and New School Synods together showed 109 ministers and 146 
churches. In 1866 the Old School Synod was divided on political questions 
springing out of the war — a part forming the Old School, or Independent Synod 
of Missouri, who are connected with the General Assembly South. In 1870, the 
Old and New School Presbyterians united, since which time this Synod has stead- 
ily increased until it now numbers more than 12,000 members with more than 220 
churches and 150 ministers. 

This Synod is composed of six Presbyteries and has under its control one or 
two institutions of learning and one or two newspapers. That part of the origi- 
nal Synod which withdrew from the General Assembly remained an independent 
body until 1874 when it united with the Southern Presb\terian Church. The 
Synod in 1875 numbered 80 ministers, 140 churches and 9,000 members. It has 
under its control several male and female institutions of a high order. The 6"/. 
Louis Presbyteriatiy a weekly paper, is the recognized organ of the Synod. 


The missionary enterprises of this church began in the State in 1819, when 
a parish was organized in the City of St. Louis. In 1828, an agent of the Do- 
mestic and Foreign Missionary Society, visited the city, who reported the condi- 
tion of things so favorably that Rev. Thomas Horrell was sent out as a missionary 
and in 1825, he began his labors in St. Louis. A church edifice was completed 
in 1830. In 1836, there were five clergyman of this denomination in Missouri, 
who had organized congregations in Boouville, Fayette, St. Charles, Hannibal 
and other places. In 1840, the clergy and laity met in convention, a diocese 
was formed, a constitution and canons adopted, and in 1844 a Bishop was chosen, 
he beinp, the Rev. Cicero S. Hawks. 

Through the efforts of Bishop Kemper, Kemper College was founded near 
St. Louis, but was afterward given up on account of pecuniary troubles. In 
1847, the Clark Mission began and in 1849 the Orphans Home, a charitable in- 
stitution was founded. In 1865, St. Luke's Hospital was established. In 1875, 
there were in the city of St. Louis, twelve parishes and missions and twelve cler- 
gymen. This denomination has several schools and colleges, and one newspaper. 


This denomination is made up of the member of the Associate and Associate 
Reformed churches of the Northern States, which two bodies united in 1858, taking 


the name of United Presbyterian Church of North America. Its members were 
generally bitterly opposed to the institution of slavery. The first congregation 
was organized at Warrensburg, Johnson county in 1867. It rapidly increased in 
numbers, and had, in 1875, ten ministers and five hundred members. 


This church was formed in 1834, by Rev. W. G. Eliot, in St. Louis. The 
churches are few in number throughout the State, the membership being probably 
less than 300, all told. It has a mission house and free school, for poor children, 
supported by donations. 


The earliest written record of the Catholic Church in Missouri shows that 
Father Watrin performed ministerial services in Ste. Genevieve, in 1760, and in 
St. Louis in 1766. In 1770, Father Meurin erected a small log church in St. 
Louis. In 1818, there were in the State, four chapels, and for Upper Louisiana, 
seven priests. A college and seminary were opened in Perry county about this 
period, for the education of the young, being the first college west of the Missis- 
sippi River. In 1824, a college was opened in St. Louis, which is now known as 
the St. Louis University. In 1826, Father Rosatti was appointed Bishop of St. 
Louis, and, through his instrumentality, the Sisters of Charity, Sisters of St. 
Joseph and of the Visitation were founded, besides other benevolent and charita- 
ble institutions. In 1834 he completed the present Cathedral Church. Churches 
were built in different portions of the State. In 1847 St. Louis was created an 
arch diocese, with Bishop Kenrick, Arch-Bishop. 

In Kansas City there are five parish churces, a hospital, a convent and sev- 
eral parish schools. In 1868 the northwestern portion of the State was erecte • 
into a separate diocese, with its seat at St. Joseph, and Right-Reverend John J. 
Hogan appointed Bishop. There were, in 1875, ^^ ^^^ ^^^Y of St, Louis, 34 
churches, 27 schools, 5 hospitals, 3 colleges, 7 orphan asylums and 3 female pro- 
tectorates. There were also 105 priests, 7 male, and 13 female orders, and 20 
conferences of St. Vincent de Pau^ numbering 1,100 members. In the diocese, 
outside of St. Louis, there is a college, a male protectorate, 9 convents, about 120 
priests, 150 churches and 30 stations. In the diocese of St. Joseph there wer^, 
in 1875, 21 priests, 29 churches, 24 stations, i college, i monastery, 5 convents 
and 14 parish schools. 

Number of Sunday Schools in 1878 2,067 

Number of Teachers in 1878 18,010 

Number of Pupils in 1878 ^39>51^ 


Instruction preparatory to ministerial work is given in connection with col- 
legiate study, or in special theological courses, at : 

Central College, (M. E. South) Fayette. 

Central Wesleyan College (M. E. Church) Warrenton. 

Christian Univesity (Christian) Canton. 

Concordia College Seminary (Envangelical Lutheran) St. Louis. 

Lewis College (M. E. Church) Glasgow. 

St. Vincent's College (Roman Cathobc) Cape Girardeau. 

Vardeman School of Theology (Baptist) Liberty. 

The last is connected with William Jewell College. 

History of St. Louis. 


Her First Settlement — Arrival of the First Steamboat — Removal of the Capital to Jefferson 
City — When Incorporated — Population btj Decades — First Lighted bt/ Gas — Death of one 
of her Founders, Pierre Chouteau — Cemeteries — Financial Crash — Bondholders and 
Coupon-clippers — Value of Real and Personal Propertij — Manufacturers— Criticism. 

It was nearly a century and a quarter ago that St. Louis's first arrival 
proclaimed the site of the future metropolis of the Mississippi Yalley, In 
1762 M. Pierre Laclede Liqueste and his two companions, Auguste and 
Pierre Chouteau, landed upon the site which was destined to become a 
great city. They were the avant-couriers and principal members of a coni- 
pany which had certain privileges secured to them by the governor of the 
Territory of Louisiana, which then included the whole of Missouri, that of 
trading with the Indians, and which was known as the Louisiana Fur Com- 
pany, with the privilege further granted of establishing such posts as their 
business might demand west of the Mississij^pi and on the Missouri rivers. 
They had been on a prospecting tour and knew something of the country, 
and on February 15, 1774, Laclede, with the above named companions, took 
possession of the ground which is now the city of St. Louis. They estab- 
lished a trading-post, took formal possession of the country and called their 
post St. Louis. In 1768 Captain Rios took possession of the post as a part of 
Spanish territory, ceded to it by France b}^ the treaty of Paris, and it re- 
mained under the control of successive Spanish governors until March 10, 
1804. The Spanish government, by the treaty of San Ildefonso in 1800, 
retroceded the territory to France, and, b}^ purchase, France ceded the whole 
country to the United States, April 30, 1803. In October of the same year 
Congress passed an act approving the purchase, and authorizing the presi- 
dent to take possession of the country or Territory of Louisiana. This was 
done February 15, 1804, when Captain Amos Stoddard, of tlie United States 
army, and the agent of the United States, received from Don Carlos De- 
hault Delapus, a surrender of the post of St. Louis and the Territory of 
Upper Louisiana. On the 10th of March the keys to the government house 
and the archives and public property were turned over or delivered to the 
representative of the United States, the Spanish flag was lowered, the stars 


and stripes thrown to the breeze, accompanied with the roar of artillery and 
music, and tlie transfer was complete. In 1805 St. Louis had its first post- 
office established, and the place was incorporated as a town in 1809. It did not 
grow very fast, but was the recoajnized headquarters for the territory of the 
west and northwest. The French from Indiana and other points had settled 
there, and the town was decidedly French in its character and population. 
The Missouri Fur Company which had its headquarters there was organized 
in 1808, of which Pierre Chouteau was the head. His associates were 
Manuel Lisa, Wm. Clark, Sylvester Labadie, and others, and such lamiliar 
names as the Astors, Bent, Sublette, Cabanne, General Ashly and Robert 
Campbell were prominently identified with the town and its progress. The 
first paper was issued July 2, 1808. 

In 1812 the Ten-itory of Louisiana, or that part north, was changed and 
named the Territory of Missouri, and was given Territorial rights, with a 
representation on the floor of Congress. St. Louis was the seat of the Ter- 
ritorial government until 1820, and the first legislature met in that town, 
and part of its proceedings was the removal of the seat of the government 
to St: Charles, where it remained until located at Jefferson City in 1826. 
In 1822 St. Louis began to take on more style, and was incorporated as a 
city December 9th of that year. There had been a bank established in 

1817, and quite a large number of business houses were built and occupied, 
and a number of loan offices chartered. When St. Louis became an Ameri- 
can city her population was 925; this was in ISOi. When the Territory 
was named Missouri, and she was the seat of government in 1812, her pop- 
ulation had reached 2,000. AVilliam Deckers laid the first pavement in 

1818. A ferry had been started in 1804. The first steamboat arrived in 
1817. It was a low-pressure steamboat, built at Pittsburgh, and named the 
General Pike. It arrived August 2d, and was greeted by the entire popula- 
tion, who gazed upon her with wonder and astonishment. The Indians 
were a badly scared crowd, and could not be induced to come near it. The 
first steamboat stemmed the tide of the Missouri in 1819, and the same 
3'ear the first steamboat from New Orleans put in its appearance at St. 
Louis. It was twenty-seven days en route. 


In 1820 the population had reached 4,928, and when incorporated in 
1822 was believed to number about 5,000, not much immigration having 
come in. The boundary lines of the citv when she received her charter 
were defined as follows: The line commencing at the middle of Mill Creek, 
just below the gas works, thence west to Seventh Street and up Seventh 
Street to a point due west of " Roy's- Tower," thence to the river. The city 
plat embraced 385 acres of ground. 

The first church was built in 1824, and was of the Presbyterian denomi- 
nation. The second was an Episcopal Church, erected in 1825. A new 


court-house was built in 1827, and also a market-house. These old-time 
landmarks have lon<^ since disappeared, and no mark is left to tell the tale 
of their being. Tlie spot or location is recorded, but what that availeth is 
not of comprehension to the generation of to-day. 


The first brick house was said to have been erected in 1814. Tlie first 
mayor of the cit}^ was Wm. C. Lane. The St. Louis University was founded 
in 1829; the Catholic Cathedral was completed in 1832 and consecrated by 
Bishop Rosetti. 

In 1833 the population of St. Louis was about six thousand, and the tax- 
able property, real and personal, aggregated $2,745,000. St. Louis, like 
all other cities, felt the blio-htino; effects of the financial crash of 1837. 
still her progress was not wholly checked. Her vitality was great and her 
resources spread over the territory, in many cases, out of the reach of the 
troubles of the times. Pier fur trade was immense and the crash had little 
to do with that, so that while slie felt the depression in her financial circles, 
her commercial prosperity was in no wise checked. There is very little more 
in the history of St. Louis to record than the noting of her general prosper- 
ity and steady onward progress for the next decade. 

Pier population in 1840 had risen to 16,469, and in 1844, 34,140. The 
population had more than doubled in four years. Fine buildings had arisen 
in place of the old fur warehouses of the early French settlers. Stately res- 
idences appeared in the suburbs; and in all that gave promise of a great and 
influential city, she had advanced and was advancing rapidly. The Mercantile 
Library was founded in 1848, and gas had been introduced the year pre- 
vious, the city being first lighted on the night of November 4, 1847. In the 
great cholera year, 1849, the disease assumed an epidemic form, and of that 
dread scourge the }:)eople had a fearful experience. Tlie progress of St. Louis 
had been handsomely commemorated on the eighty-third anniversary of its 
founding, the date being February 15, 1847. Among the living, and the 
only survivor of the memorable trio who first landed and located the city, 
was the venerable Pierre Chouteau, who, with his brother, had accompanied 
Laclede Liqueste, to locate a trading-post for the fur company of which they 
were members. He was a prominent figure in the celebration, and' though 
at an advanced age, he was in the enjoyment of his full faculties, and M'as 
keenly alive to the wonderful progress of the citj^ in the eighty-three years 
of its life. In 1849, the epidemic year, all that was mortal of Pierre Chou- 
teau was consigned to its last resting-place, and with him all living memory 
ceased of the first settlement and of the rise and progress of the citj^ From 
that date history could record but written facts, the oral record had ceased 
to exist. His elder brother, Auguste Chouteau, had preceded him to the 
mystic beyond, hawking departed this life in February, 1829. 



The city limits had been greatly extended in 1841, embracing an area of 
two thousand six hundred and thirty acres, instead of the three hundred 
and eighty-five acres in December, 1822. This showed the wonderful growth 
of the city, which, even then, was contracted, and its suburbs were fast fill- 
ing up. 

The Institution for the Blind was incorporated in 1851, and the popula- 
tion had increased to 94,000 in 1852. 


St. Louis took pride in her " cities of the dead," for she has several ceme- 
teries, with wooded dales and sylvan retreats, well suited as the last resting- 
place of those whose remains are deposited in the " Silent City." We will 
speak here of only two, because of the care taken of them, their size, and 
their rich and diversified surroundings, which give them a lonely, yet pleas- 
ant look, to all who visit them. The Bellefontaine was purchased by an as- 
sociation of gentlemen who secured an act of incorporation in 1849, and at 
once commenced the improvement of the ground. In 1850 the first sale of 
lots took place. The cemetery comprises two hundred and twenty acres of 
land. The Calvary Cemetery has 320 acres, of which 100 are laid out and 
improved. This resting-place of the dead was purchased in 1852, by the 
Archbishop of the Diocese of St. Louis, and like the first above mentioned, 
is a lovely and secluded spot, well suited for the purpose intended. 


In 1854 the terrible accident, known as the Gasconade Bridge disaster, 
occurred, when many prominent citizens of St. Louis lost their lives. 


In 1857 the financial crash had a greater effect upon St. Louis than the 
one of 183T. Her merchants had been prosperous and extended their line 
of credits and the rapidly growing city had brought many new and venture- 
some people, who, believing in its future, had embarked in business enter- 
prises which required a few more years of steady rise and progress to place 
them on a stable foundation. These, of course, went down in the general 
crash, but the stream was only temporally dammed, and the debris was soon 
cleared away. The flood-tide had set toward the west, and the greater the 
crash the greater swelled the tide of immigration toward the setting sun. 

The era of a healthy, and it would seem, permanent prosperity, again 
dawned upon the metropolis of the Mississippi Valley in 1861, and this time 
not even the civil war, which then began to cast its baleful shadow over the 
Union, checked its onward career, and at the opening of this terrible drania 
St. Louis claimed a population of 187,000 souls. The war added to its 


financial and commercial prosperity, for it became the entrepot of supplies 
for the army of the southwest, and the headquarters of army operations. 
The valuation of real estate and j)ersonal property which had only been a 
little risinoj two and a half millions of dollars in 1833, was now, in 1860, 

What the war added was more in the line of its financial and commercial 
development than in the spreading of its area or the building up of its waste 
places, but when war's fierce alarm had ceased the tide began to flow west- 
ward, and with it came the building mania, for homes and houses had to be 
provided for tlie rush of new-comers. 

Chicago, which had nearly monopolized the railroads as an objective point, 
seemed now to have secured all that would pay, and St. Louis became the 
focus of all eyes. Kansas, Colorado and the Southwest began to loom up in 
its agricultural and mineral resources; the vast quantities of land which had 
been voted by venal congressmen to great railroad corporations were now 
thrown iipon the market, and Kansas became a leading State for the attrac- 
tion of the emigrant. In this more railroads were necessary, and the great 
crossing of the Mississippi was at St. Louis. Then the bridging of that great 
river commenced, Capt. Eads having made known his plans for this important 
work soon after the close of the war. The jubilee was not enjoyed, however, un- 
til 1874, when, on July 4th, the bridge was completed and opened to the rail- 
way companies. This was another era which marked a rapid progress in 
the future city of the valley. Sixteen separate and distinct lines of railway 
centered at St. Louis with completion of the bridge, and from those lines 
and the river traffic, St. Louis was evidently sure of her future. 


It was only when a concentration of wealth took a new departure that the 
glorious future which appeared so near became so far. The energy and en- 
terprise of the people had, in a large measure, previous to the war, been used 
toward building up the city, and embarking in manufactures, etc., but soon 
after the war that wealth was turned into government bonds and the energy 
and enterprise were concentrated by these rich holders in cutting coupons 
off of these same bonds every three months, and with few exceptions they 
are still at the exhaustive work. Whatever of advanced progress has been 
given to St. Louis the past ten years, outside of her Aliens, Stannards, and 
perhaps a score of otliers, has been by the new arrivals. It was, in '69 or 
'70, that her local papers were prospecting on the enervating influence that 
a hundred first-class funerals would have on the material prosperity of the 
" Future Great." The light and airy business of coupon-clipping had be- 
come ej)idemic, and millions of dollars which ought to have been invested in 
manufacturing and other enterprises, were sunk in the maelstrom of govern- 
ment bonds, and, so far as the material advancement of the city was con- 
cerned, might as well have been buried in the ocean. Still St. Louis im- 


proved, for new arrivals of the progressive order seeing an opening would 
drop in, and those who could not clip coupons for a business worked on as 
their limited capital would permit. And so it was found that in 1870 real 
estate had reached $lli),080,800, while personal property was $147,969,660. 
In 1875 the value of real estate had advanced $12,000,000, reaching the 
gross sum of $131,141,000, and personal property $166,999,660, a gaiu of 
nearly $20,000,000 in live years. The valuation January 1, 1879, was, of real 
estate, $140,976,540, and personal property, $172,829,980, or a total valua- 
tion of real and personal property of $313,806,520, with a population of 
about 340,000. Great advancement had taken place in blocks of magnifi- 
cent buildings, in the increase of her wholesale trade, in the area of her cit}^ 
limits, in the enhirgement of lier working population, so that the coupon- 
clippers who had stood at the front in 1S70 now held a rear position, and 
were rather looked down upon as drones of society, wrapped in self and the 
vanity of self importance, and of little use to the progress or to the det- 
riment of the great city. Railroads run to every point of the compass. Pier 
tunnel and the union depot had become a fixed fact, macadamized roads led 
to all parts of the country, miles upon miles of streets were paved and side- 
walks laid with substantial brick or stone, street cars to every part of the 
city, and the river-front Hashing with traffic, wliich, in point of develop- 
ment, has exceeded the most sanguine exj)ectation of those who had believed 
in its future, while the expressions of those who had built their faith on the 
railroads depriving a free water-course of the wealth of her offering has 
been simply one of astonishment. 


In one respect St. Louis has exhibited commendable sense in having se- 
cured a number of parks, breathing places for her industrial population and 
pleasant drives for her wealthy citizens. There are no less than seventeen 
of these beautiful places, many of them small, but so scattered about the 
city as to be convenient to all her citizens. Her great park, which is called 
"Forest Park," has 1,372 acres, and the city has expended in purchases, 
laying out and beautifying the grounds^ nearly one million of dollars. Cor- 
ondelet Park has an area of 183.17 acres, O'Fallan Park has an area of 158.32 
acres, and Tower Grove Park 270 acres. These are the largest, tlie oth- 
ers represent but a small number of acres each. Of the smaller ones, Lafayette 
Park leads with twenty-six acres, while the smallest, Jackson Place, has less 
than two acres. 


There were 1,318 brick and 369 frame buildings put up in 1878, at a cost 
of $3,000,000. A very fine custom-house is approaching completion. They 
had, January 1, 1879, twenty-nine banks in St. Louis, five of which were 
national banks. The combined capital of all was $12,406,019. This shows 


a healthy progress, but one of not more than ordinary in the line of build- 
ing improvements. It should have reached ten millions to show that ad- 
vanced progress becoming a city which claims it is destined to become the 
central sun of the great Mississippi Yalley. 

In 1878 there was 2,291 arrivals of steamboats, and 2,348 departures. The 
conunerce of the river was some half a million of dollars. The new barire 
lines and the wheat movement down the Mississippi for the year 1881, in- 
cluding her other river traffic, will undoubtedly double the business of 18T8. 
The figures are not in, but the first half year has made a wonderful increase. 
Her commerce is steadily improving. There is not an article of domestic 
produce but has rapidly advanced in the amount received the past few years. 
The cereals and stock, cattle, sheep and hogs, also the roots and vegetables, 
have rapidly grown in quantity. St. Louis is the greatest mule market in 
the world. 

In its public buildings the United States custom-house stands first. A 
massive building of white granite occupying a whole square, and when fin- 
ished will have cost $6,000,000. The business in the custom department 
will exceed two millions dollars the first year of its opening. The Cham- 
ber of Commerce is another magnificent structure just completed at a cost 
of $1,800,000. The county court-house, which also takes a square of ground, 
and is built in the shape of a Greek cross, with a fine dome, cost $2,000,000. 
The county building, known as the "Four Courts," and the city prison is a 
beautiful three story, and half basement structure, which cost $1,250,000. 
The Polytechnic Institute costing $800,000, and the magnificent Southern 
Hotel finished, and occuiDied May, 1881, at a cost of $] ,250,000 for building 
and furniture. 

There are public buildings of lesser note, many private structures of 
magnificent proportions, with a wealth of beautiful surroundings, theaters, 
hotels, etc., all tliat go to make up a great city, school-houses of ample pro- 
portions, churches l)eautiful in architectural design of Grecian, Doric and 
Gothic, many of them being very costly in their build. One hundred and 
seventy-one churches are foimd within her limits, and the denominations 
cover all that claim the Protestant or Catholic faith. The Cathedral on 
Walnut Street is the oldest church edifice, but not the most costly in the 

The public school library was founded in 1872, and numbers 36,000 vol- 
umes. The Mercantile Library has 42,000 volumes, and contains not only 
many valuable literarj' works, but many choice works of art. 


In this line St. Louis is fast reaching a commanding situation. So long 
as railroads commanded the freighting facilities of the city and the great 
highway to the sea which Providence had placed at her door was ignored 
for man's more expensive route by rail, St. Louis remained but an infant 


in maiiuiacturing enteri^rises — and these had succumbed in many in- 
stances to the power of monopolies, or to the tariff of freii^ht which took 
off all the prolits, and her more eastern competitors were the gainers. 
But in the last two years Nature's great highway to the sea has begun to be 
utilized and St. Louis has all at once opened her eyes to th6 fact that she 
has a free railway of water to the sea, the equal of twenty railroads by land, 
atid it only needs the cars (the barges) to revolutionize the carrying trade 
of the Mississippi and Missouri valleys. The track is free to all. He 
who can build the cars can have the track ready at all times for use. The 
Father of Waters lies at her door; a mountain of iron is but a few miles 
away; coal, also, lies nearly at her gates, and while she has slept the sleep 
of years, these vast opportunities might have made her, ere this, the equal 
of any manufacturing city on the globe. She will become such, for no 
other city can show such vast resources or such rapid and cheap facilities 
for distribution. Even the coupon-clippers are waking up and believe 
there are higher and nobler aims for man than the lavish expenditure of 
wealth in indolence and selfish pleasure. The surplus wealth of St. Louis, 
if invested in manufacturing enterprises, would make her the wonder of the 
continent. She may realize this some day — when she does, will wonder at 
the stupidity and folly that has controlled her for so many years. Foun- 
dries. macliine-shoj)s, rolling-mills, cotton and woolen factories, car-shops, 
these and a thousand other industries are but waiting for the magic touch 
of an enterprising people to give them life. 

The year 1881 opens auspiciously for a new life. St. Louis now begins 
to consider the question of progress from a more enlightened standpoint, 
and with a look of intelligent action. It may take a little time yet to drive 
sleep from her eyelids and sloth from her limbs, but it looks now more than 
ever as though she would accomplish this and wake up to the full fruition 
of her great opportunities — in fact, to her manifest destiny. Missouri ought 
to be proud of St. Louis, but- that cannot be while sloth lies at tlic portals 
of her gates and the dry-rot of old fogyism guides her present course. 

The brewery business of St. Louis is one of her leading departments of 
trade. She has the largest establishment in the world for bottling beer, 
a building two hundred feet long and thirty feet broad. The manufacture 
of wine is another important business which has assumed immense pro- 
portions. Distilling, rectifying and wholesale dealing in liquors is another 
branch that adds a large revenue to the taxable wealth of the city. There 
is nothing in the manufacturers' line but what could sustain a healthy 
growth in St. Louis, if even plain business sense is at command. Her 
future may be said to be all before her, for her manufacturing interests 
are yet in their infancy. She can become the manufacturing center of the 
continent. The center or receiving point for the greatest amount of cereals 
any city can handle, and the stock center also of the country, St. Louis may, 
with the opportunities within her grasp, well be called the "Future Great.' 



But the name " Future Greaf^ is used at this time hv her rivals in tones 
of derision. That she should have ignored so many years the great and 
bountiful resources nature has so lavishly bestowed upon her, aye! it would 
seem, even spurned them through an ignorance as dense as it is won- 
derful, is very strange, and has brought a stigma of disgrace upon the 
character of her people. This action on her part lias not escaped tlie 
notice of men of wealth, of towering ambition, of nerve force and of un- 
limited energy, and to-day one of the railway kings of the country, Jay 
Gould, of New York, has grasped the scepter of her commercial life and 
rules with a grasj) of steel, and through his iron roadways run the com- 
mercial life-blood which flows through the arteries of her business life. 
That this neglect of her great opportunities should have placed it in the 
power of one man to become the arbiter of her fate is as humiliating as it 
has proved costly. Millions have poured into the coffers of Jay Gould, who, 
seeing this vast wealth of resources lying idle or uncared for, had the nerve 
to seize and the far-seeing judgment and enterprise to add them to his own 
personal gains The world can admire the bold energy of the man, and 
the genius that can grasp and guide the commercial destinies of an 
Empire, but it is none the less a blot upon the fair name, caj)ital and enter- 
prise of a great city, and should mantle the cheek of every St, Louisian 
with shame. The writer feels all that he has here written, but his pride as 
a Missourian cannot blind him to the faults of her people. 

St. Louis is an old city and there has been much written of her extraor- 
dinary progress, and yet whatever that progress is, has been caused far 
far more by her people being compelled to take advantage of the opportu- 
nities within their reach than making such by tiieir own energy and enter- 
prise. If she has grown in population and in wealth, it is because she 
could not help herself. After forty years of life, as late as 1812, the cur- 
rency of St. Louis was still confined to peltries, trinkets, maple sugar, 
honey, bees-wax, venison, hams, etc., in fact, all barter and trade, and yet 
those who have compiled her local history talk wildly of her destiny and 
prophesy wonders for her in the near future. It is best to look at St. Louis 
as she is to-day. It is to be hoped that her future growth may not take 
pattern after her past, and that the new men who have taken her com- 
mercial future into their keeping will still exhibit that towering genius for 
the development of St. Louis that has characterized them in their eastern 

The future of St. Louis would seem to be one of a rapidly growing city, 
not only in population, but in commercial and financial strength as though 
founded upon a rock. This is the present outlook. While the genius of 
Gould and his associates has secured millions of dollars by their business 


ventures, there are other millions still left to build up and add to her pros, 
perity and greatness if rightly managed. 

The tremendous energy of Gould has astonished the sleepy St. Louisians 
as much as if they had been treading upon live coals, and in waking uj) 
they have discovered that their sleep and indolence have cost them several 
millions. Gould, Keene, Dillon, Sage and their associates do not work for 
nothing, and the people who claim the "Future Great" as their abiding 
place should lose no time in taking a firm hold of the present and guiding 
her toward the great destiny which awaits her, with the winning cards in 
their own hands. The New Yorkers have shown them a will and a way, 
and now let them practice the lesson it has cost them so much to learn. 

It has been over a century since St. Louis took a start into life, and it is 
quite that since the ring of the pioneer's ax and the sharp crack of his rifle 
reverberated through her streets. The slow progress of pioneer life has 
departed and modern civilization, with the light of genius for its guide, is 
rapidly progressing and recording history for future generations. When in 
1817 the first steamboat landed at St. Louis, the possibilities of what the 
future might be began to dawn upon the minds of her people, and that 
year may be well proclaimed as the dividing line betw^eeu the old and the 
new era of St. Louis's destiny. From that day she looked forward, not 
backward, and while up to that time she seemed to have lived in the past, 
it was the future before her that then riveted her attention. She kept up a 
lively step to the music of progress for several years, and the Father of 
Waters and the mighty Missouri with their fleets of water-craft attested 
her enterprise, and she grew apace. But in a few years she again fell 
asleep, and slept until the snort of the iron house awoke her rudely 
from slumber. She had grown even while she slept, because the great 
water-way which passed her door had become the pathway of a mighty 
business. But this grand highway to the sea which had nourished her 
while she slept was at once forgotten or relegated to the rear, and her 
awakened energies were given to the prancing steed whose breath was fire, 
that made the earth tremble at his strength, and whose speed was like the 
wings of the wind. The railroad fever had taken possession of the Queen 
City of the Valley. She grew apace and for years she has reveled in the 
new love, and the grand old Father of Waters which had nurtured her into 
life was forgotten. But she has again awakened from her quiet dreams, 
and the iron horse which had lulled her to repose was found while bringing 
millions to her door to have taken millions more away. And in this year 
of 1881 she opens her eyes to her true destiny, and the grand Old Father 
of Waters, which she had striven to drive from her, was once more recog- 
nized as the very foundation or bed-rock of her commercial life, the power 
that w^as to keep in check the absorption of her wealth, from the monopo- 
lizing influence and insatiable maw of the railway kings. She now proudly 
points to the grand old river, and the fleets of barges borne upon its bosom 


tilled with the wealth of an empire, and calls on lier sister, Chicaojo, to 
look at this glorious sight. The " Garden City " has already snuiFed the 
battle from afar, and is ready to struggle for a commercial supremacy 
in which there are literally millions, for nature has done the work, and 
St. Louis will win. The " City by the Lake " is deserving, and had she the 
opportunities which have lain so long dormant in possession of her rival, 
would have been to-day the wonder of the world. But it is the rugged 
path that brings out man's energy and endurance, not the smooth road. So 
it is with cities. And so the majestic Mississippi flows on, bearing upon 
its waters the riches of the valley, and pouring into the lap of the Queen 
City upon its banks millions upon millions of wealth. If the spirit of 
1881 shall continue, then St. Louis will soon become the pride of the State. 
In reality she will be the "Future Great" of the American Continent. 
She that stands on the bank of this great inland sea, the commerce of an 
empire flowing at her feet, her sails in every clime and countr}^, she is 
indeed to become a great city, the arbiter of the commercial w^orld and the 
Queen City whose wealth, commanding influence, culture and refinement 
will attest the greatness of her people and command the homage of the 
world. Such is to be the " Future Great " city, St. Louis. 


Debt of St. Louis, January 1, ]881, $22,507,000; rate of taxation on the 
$100, $1.75. 

The receipts of all kinds of grain, 51,958,177 bushels. 

Twenty-four flouring-mills manufactured 2,077,025 barrels of flour in 

The receipts of cotton for 1880 were 496,570 bales. 

There were 12,846,169 pounds of tobacco manufactured into plug, fine-cut 
and smoking tobacco. 

There were 330,935,973 feet of lumber received in 1880. 

St. Louis received for the year 1880, 41,892,350 bushels of coal. 

Seven elevators have a total capacity of 5,650,000 bushels, and three more 
are beinw erected and one other enlarged. 

The aggregate of bank clearing for 1S80 amounted to $1,422,918,978. 

The post-office distributed in 1880,43,731,844 pieces, weighing 4,250,000 

Post-office orders issued numbered 53,337, and represented $879,943.90. 

The value of school property is $2,851,133. 

The steel bridge cost $13,000,000 and tunnel $1,500,000. 


History of Kansas City. 


A Sketch — The New Life — Its First Settlement — Steamboat Events from 1840 to 1846 — MeX' 
ican War — Santa Fe Trade — Railroads — Commercial Advancement — Stocl^r Market — 
Fork-packing — Elevators and Grain Receipts — Coal Receipts — Buildings — Railroad 
Changes — Banks — Newspapers — Churches — Secret Societies — Public Schools — Manufac- 
turing Coder — Her Position and Trade — Assessed Valuation — Close. 

A short description of the rise and progress of Kansas Cit}^, the great 
metropolis of the Missouri Valley, may be of interest to the people of 
this section. It is the wonder of the people of the East, as of the West, 
that in the last lifteen years 75,000 people should have made it their 
home, and that upon the rugged hills and deep ravines which are found 
upon the banks of the Missouri Kiver at the mouth of the Kaw, should 
become the site of a mighty commercial emporium, and that the second city 
of the State should be found rising in stately magnificence where, but a few 
years since, fur-traders and trappers made their home. Within the cor- 
porate limits of Kansas City, in the year 1881, fully 70,000 people are 
found, while in the suburbs fully 5,000 more are located. When the city of 
Wyandotte is added, and that of Independence and Westport, and other 
small towns, we have, within a very short distance, 100,000 people to advance 
the glory, the growing power and the material prosperity of one of the most 
thriving cities on this Western Continent — a city that every Missourian can 
be proud of, and can point to with honest exultation at her rapidly growing 
power, and the expansion of her environs. It is that city, within one hun- 
dred miles, which Western Missouri can look to as a market, and where she 
will in the near future look for her commercial emporium. Already the 
wholesale trnde rivals in many branches that of St. Louis, and five years 
hence she will be the second cattle and hog market of the country. With a 
barge line in o]3eration to St. Louis, it will be found the best market for 
cereals, and already cattle and hogs can be sold there at St, Louis prices, 
with less than half the freii^ht charges. While St. Louis will ever be the 
metrojDolis of the State and the Mississippi Yalley, Kansas City equally as- 
sumes the proud position of the metropolis of the Missouri Valley, and the 
largest cit}^ that will ever be found this side of the mountains, west of the 
Father of Waters. 



It was not until after the late war that a new life opened upon Kansas 
City, but from the day that peace spread her wings over this favored land 
Kansas City's future has been assured. For years she was simply known as 
a river landing, and thg name Westport, but when the tide of immigration 
struck Kansas those settlers of a new State became tributary' to the com- 
mercial prosperity of the city. There was another point in her progress 
which marked the sagacity of her people, and that was their determination 
to secure railroads. Not only has she given hundreds of thousands of dol- 
lars to her bridge and the railwavs centerine; there from within the State, 
but she has contributed other hundreds of thousands to the strufjffliniy rail- 
roads of Kansas, and has her reward, for she is the metropolis. of Kansas 
as well as a city of Missouri. And, while the population of Kansas City 
increased 25,000 the last decade, Leavenworth actually lost population 
during the same time. One was peoj)led by an energetic, open-hearted, pro- 
gressive people, ready to push forward the wheels of enterprise, build 
up and help neighbors and friends; the other was known as a " Smart 
Aleck," who took care of number one. One has the trade and the love of a 
State, although outside of its border; the other is groping in the pathway 
of a spirit so selfish, that it was bliijded to every spirit of progress, and 
a monument has been raised so high within its limits that it is seen by the 
people of two States, and on its top is carved in massive letters, one word, 
" decay." Such is Leavenworth, and such is the proud city of a hundred 
hills, Kansas City. 


In the spring of 1821 M. Chouteau was sent to this country to establish 
a general agency for a fur company, from which supplies could be sent to 
the trading-posts, and at which the proceeds of the trade could be collected. 
The knowledge of the country he had already acquired enabled him to judge 
of the merits of difl'erent points for such agency, having in view always the 
advantages ofiered by each for extended operations by the methods of trans- 
portation then employed. At the Kaw's mouth he had access by water to the 
entire valleys of the Kaw, Missouri, Platte and smaller tributaries, while it 
afforded the shortest land transit to the Indians of the plains and to the val- 
leys of the Osage, Neosho and Arkansas. Hence, with that unerring judg- 
ment for which his class M'ere peculiar, he selected this point and established 
himself in the bottom opposite Handolph Bluffs, about three miles below 
what is now Kansas City. This was the first recognition of the natural ad- 
vantages of this anorle of the river for a large distributive trade, and the 

OCT <^ 

actual founding of the interest which has since expanded into the varied and 
wide extended activities of this city. He brought with him at this time 


about tliirtj men, all of whom were employed in the service of the com- 
pany as couriers des hois or voyageurs^ and throuf^h them he concentrated 
at his general agency here the trade of the trans-Missouri country. His 
post at this point was in a sense a trading-post for tlie Indians near by, but 
its distinctive feature was a depot of sup])ly and as a ])oint of concentration 
for traders, trappers, hunters, and the interior posts. In the fall of the 
same year he brought his family to this post in a keel-boat, which was 
towed all the way from St. Louis. Tlie men who came with M. Chouteau, 
in 1821, were, with few exceptions, dispatched into the interior, where they 
established trading-posts or traveled and traded among the Indians. 

In 1826 there was a flood in the rivers which washed away M. Chouteau's 
houses opposite Randolph Bluffs and caused great loss. A part of the stock 
was taken to Randolph Bluffs; he sent his family to the Four Houses, and 
soon afterward" rebuilt his house, but this time higher up and on higher 
ground, which is now embraced in what is known as Guinott's Addition to 
Kansas City. This place became well known as "Chouteau's Warehouse," 
and was tlie landing-place for large amounts of freight for Indian trade, and 
for the trade with northern Mexico, which subsequently sprung up here. 


The first white man other than these and the French traders to locate on 
ground now embraced within the corporate limits of Kansas City was James 
H. McGee, who settled here in 1828 and whose family was so prominently 
identified with the early development of Kansas City. Several of his sons 
still reside in this city and vicinity. But there was not enough infusion of 
Americans into this French settlement to materially affect its character for 
a number of years afterward, but it continued as it had begun, the center 
of an extensive far and Indian trade. The first ferry across the Missouri 
River in the vicinity of Kansas City was established at Randolph Bluffs by 
a Mr. Younger, grandfather of the "Younger boys " who in connection with 
the "James bovs" have been so notorious in the West. At what time this 
ferry was established is not known, but it was in operation in 1828. The 
only means of crossing the river at Kansas City at that time consisted of 
canoes. Two of these lashed together were used from the time of the first 
settlement of Americans in this vicinity, to cross over with their grists to a 
horse mill on the other side of the river, and it continued of about this 
character until 1836. 

The advantages of this point of departure for the west, southwest and 
northwest, w^ere afterward recognized by Captain Bonneville, who took his 
departure from Fort Osage in 1832, and of whose expeditions such an ex- 
cellent account has been given by Washington Irving. Lieutenant Lupton 
and Fremont and Beale subsequently t(>ok their departure for their cele- 
brated expeditions from the French settlement where Kansas City now is. 
In 1832 Colonel Ellsworth, commissioner of Indian affairs, visited the 


Indians west of Missouri and Arkansas, and likewise took their departure 
from this point. Colonel Ellsworth's party consisted of a number of per- 
sons of great distinction, among whom were J. II. B. Latrobe, architect of 
the capitol at Washington, Count Pourtales, of Switzerland, Paul Liqueste 
Chouteau, of St. Louis, and Washington Irving. It was this expedition 
that furnished Irving the material for his "Tour on the Prairies," in which 
he irives an excellent account of it. However, there was one incident of 
this tour which he does not mention, and whieli occurred in this county, so 
strongly illustrative of the disregard the hardy frontiersman of that time 
had for rank and position in society, that it is given here. The party had 
engaged as a camp assistant Mr. Harry Younger, of this county, the father 
of the "Younger boys." The first morning after leaving Chouteau's house, 
Mr. Irving requested him, at the breaking of camp, to bring up the horses, 
so that they might start on the journey. The horses were grazing at a little 
distance. "All right," rej^lied Mr. Younger, "let's go after them." "But," 
said Mr. Irving, "we expect you to do that." "Well," said Mr. Younger, 
" why can't some of you help me. There's that d — d count, why can't he 
go? He does nothing but shoot snow-birds." Mr. Younger, with the social 
equality ideas peculiar to the hardy frontiersman, could not readily appreciate 
the dignity of a commissioner of Indian affairs, a Swiss count or a cele- 
brated author, nor see why they should not help bring in the horses. 


The first boat on the Missouri River was the Independence which 
ascended the streani in 1810, probably as far as Council Bhiffs. She passed 
Franklin May 28, where a dinner was given to the officers, but we have no 
record of her dates at poiuis higher up. In August and Septcml^er of 
the same year the steamers Westei^n Engineer^ Exjycdit'um and It. M. 
Johnson, ascended the stream with Major Long's scientific party, bound 
for the Yellowstone. 


A clearing, or old field, of a few acres, lying on the high ridge between 
Main and Wyandotte and Second and Fifth streets, made and abandoned by 
a mountain trapper, a few old girdled dead trees standing in the field, sur- 
rounded by a dilapidated rail fence; all around on all sides a dense forest, 
the ground covered with impenetrable underbrush and fallen timber, and 
deep, impassable gorges; a narrow, crooked roadway winding from Twelfth 
and Walnut streets along down on the west side of the deep ravine toward 
the river, across the public square, to the river at the foot of Grand Avenue; 
a narrow, difficult path, barely wide enough for a single horseman, running 
up and down the river under the blufis, winding its crooked way around 
fallen timber and deep ravines; an old log house on the river bank, oc- 
cupied by a lank, cadaverous specimen of humanity named Ellis, with one 


blind eye and the other on a sharp lookout for stray horses, stragprling 
Indians and squatters with whom to swap a tin cup of whisky for a coon 
skin ; another old dilapidated log cabin on the point below the Pacific depot; 
two or three small dwellings and cabins in the Kaw bottom, now called West 
Kansas, which were houses of French mountain trappers, engaged principally 
in raising young half-breeds. The rest of the surroundings were the still sol- 
itude of the native forest, broken only by the snort of the startled deer, 
the bark of the squirrel, the howl of the wolf, the settler's cow-bell, and may- 
hap the distant baying of the hunter's dog or the sharp report of his rifle. 
The Indian trade continued to flourish at both "Westport and Kansas 
City, and the Santa Fe trade at Independence until 1843, when it was tem- 
porarily suppressed by order of General Santa Anna. 

EVENTS OF 1843 TO 1846. 

In 1844 II, M. J^orthrup, now a banker at Wyandotte, Kansas, came to 
Kansas City with the largest stock of merchandise that had yet been offered 
here, if not, iu fact, the largest stock that had yet been offered at any 
place near this angle. 

In 1845 James H. McGee made some brick on his farm south of the 
town, and built the first brick house ever built in Kansas City. From 
this lot of brick J. C. McCoy, who then conducted the ferry at this place, 
built the L part of a brick house, which still stands on the blufl', between 
Grand Avenue and Walnut Street. These were the first brick made in 
Kansas City, and the first laid here. 

The effect of the Mexican War gave a great impulse to the trade and pros- 
perity of the border towns; for now, more than ever, were the advantages of 
this angle of the river as a point of departure for the southwest appreciated. 
Kansas City felt the impulse of the preparations that were being made 
during the winter, and from the anticipation of the large amount of ware- 
housing, and receiving and forwarding of military and sutler's goods, out 
tits and supplies, soon to occur, it acquired new and improved prospects. 
These facts, united with the tendency the Mexican trade had shown the 
previous year to come to this place, led the town company to lay anew the 
foundation of the future city. 

At the time of the first sale of town lots, April 30, 1846, it was estimated 
that there were about three hundred people in the new town, nearly all 
settled along the river front. However, under the impulse of the Mexican 
War and Sante Fe trade, added to the Indian trade already existing, the 
place grew rapidly, and before the close of that year the population was 
estimated at seven hundred. 



There was no municipal government in Kansas City prior to 1853, but 
a circumstance occurred in December, 1852, which led to its establishment. 
Tliis circumstance was the arrest of a man for some light offense by the 
constable, upon whose trial it was discovered that the commission issued 
'to the authorities was for the next congressional township east, which located 
tiieir jurisdiction at least six miles from where they had been exercising 
their authority. This led to a movement looking to municipal organiza- 
tion. That winter, February 22, 1853, a charter was obtained from the 
State, and in the spring of 1853 a local government was organized. The 
land embraced in Kansas City, according to this charter, was bounded by 
the river on the north, by Summit Street on the west, by Ninth Street on 
the south, and on the east by the alley between Holmes and Charlotte 
streets, and therefore embraced much that was not yet, nor for two years 
to come, laid off" into town lots. All that was platted was the old Prud- 
homme estate. At the election, W. S. Gregory was elected mayor, but 
served only a short time when Dr. Johnson Lykins was elected to suc- 
ceed him. Dr. Lykins was re-elected next spring, and in the spring of 
1855 Jolm Johnson was elected, but resigned a month afterward. M. J. 
Payne succeeded him, and held the office till 1860. 


The Journal of Commerce at a later period estimated that the trade of 
Kansas City during these two years did not exceed two millions of dollars, 
but with the close of the struggle, in 1857, the country filled up speedilj'^, 
the trade was enlarged and the city gi'ew rapidly. The Santa Fe trade 
prospered, and the plains' trade resumed more than its former proportions, 
while the trade developed by the settlement of southern Kansas all came to 
Kansas City, and with that and the outfitting of immigrants, her business 
became very great, so much so that a correspondent of the St. Louis Intel- 
ligencer noticed that she had the largest trade of any city of her size in the 
world, and was the point at which all freight and immigrants for Kansas 
disembarked. The Journal of Commerce^ at one time during these years, 
described the appearance of the levee as that of a great fair, it was so piled 
up with all kinds of merchandise. 

This was the great steamboat era on the Missouri River, and everything 
that entered the upper country then came by boat. In the year 1857 there 
were one hundred and twentj'-five boats at the Kansas City levee, and they 
discharged over 75,00(*,000 pounds of merchandise. There were then a 
fleet of sixty through boats from St. Louis, and a daily railroad packet 
leaving the terminus of the Missouri Pacific at Jefferson City. Kansas 
City was then said by boatmen to be receiving more freight than any other 
five points on the river. 


The first paper (weekly) in Kansas City was the Public Ledger in 1852. 

The first daily, the Journal, June 15, 1858. 

The trade of Kansas City for ISGO was $10,705,947. 

Tlie first banking house, Coates & Hood, 1856. 

The first jobbing dry goods house, J. Wise & Co., 1857. 

Tlie first telegraph line, December 20, 1858. . 

The first German paper, January, 1859, the Post. 

The trade across the plains in 1860 from Kansas City, as a starting point, 
exceeded all other cities on the Missouri Eiver combined, by nearly fifty 
per cent. 

The number of men who left Kansas City for the plains and beyond was 
7,084. They took of oxen, 27,920; of mules, 6,149; of horses, 464, and 
the amount of freight, in pounds, 16,439,134. 


The railroad fever struck Kansas City as early as 1855, that is it began to 
take shape that year. The leading spirits of Kansas City were for years 
energetic railroad men ready to put both time and money into the work of 
making Kansas City a railroad center, the seat of a growing and pros- 
perous city, and they succeeded. Still, previous to 1860, the Missouri 
Pacific was the only railroad which had reached Kansas City, and that had 
no sooner reached there than it became its enemy and boldly avowed its 
determination to make Kansas City a way station. The fever took a fiercer 
hold after the war and from 1865 to 1872 Kansas City voted hundreds of 
thousands of dollars for the securing of important railway lines. The press 
was a powerful lever in those days. The Journal, under Col. R. T. Van 
Horn, the Times under the editorship of John C. Moore, and the Bulletin 
under Col. J. D. Williams made their columns bristle with strong points 
and still stronger statistics of the value of railroads and what tliey would 
bring of wealth and prosperity to the city. In this work the press, the en- 
terprise and the capital of the city were mutual. Reid, Coates, Kearney, 
McGee, Harris, Fosters, Abeel, Dively, Bullene, and a score or more of 
others, all put forth every exertion to make Kansas City a central point for 
the great iron horse, whose mouth was tire, its breath steam and its strength 
that of many giants. It was a success, and to-day she is the proud metrop- 
olis of the Missouri Yalley. But with such difiiculties as she had to over- 
come she never would have been if brains, energy and invincible nerve and 
determination had not characterized her people. Tlien this railroad fever 
started other enterprises. It was soon understood that the roads would 
come and tlien the city took a start even before they reached her. In 1865 
and 1866, between six and seven hundred buildings were put up. The eyes 
of a continent began to look with wonder upon the little giant of the 
West. A mighty city will arise from these bluff's said Benton, and as the 


work of progress went on that which had been termed tlie wild vagaries of 
an old man was seen through other glasses; the vagaries assumed titles of 
prophesies, and thej were, for from the rugged hills upon which Kansas 
City now stands none but a prophet could have seen a giant and a mag- 
nificent city arise and none but a j)rophet's ken foretold it. 


In 1860 the trade of the city was $10,705,947; in 1867 the trade of the 
city was $33,006,827. Over two millions of dollars were invested in build- 
ing in the latter year, and a population of 4,000 had increased to 15,000 
within four years. This is what you might call progress. But the grand 
year of prosperity which will clearly mark an era in her wonderful devel- 
opment was that of 1869. Houses went up as if by magic. Great enter- 
prises were started and the wonder came when the little town of 4,000 and 
a few over in 1865 had swelled to 32,269 when the census was taken only 
five years later. Forty-two additions had been added, nineteen of them in 
1868-'69. A board of trade was organized with T. K. Hanna, wholesale 
merchant, as president, and sixty-seven members. And from that day 
until the great crash of 1873 Kansas City moved onward and upward with 
accelerated speed. Street improvements had taken a firm hold of the 
people, while other enterprises to make the city a home for all were put 
forth. School property had been purchased and the advance in real estate 
began to be so rapid that grounds had been secured up to 1870 for five fine 
school-buildings, and the advantages of Kansas City in her schools has 
been one of enlightened progress and great liberality. To-day she has no 
superior in this line. Churclies kept pace with the schools, and the once 
border town and outpost has become the seat of refinement and culture. 
Street railroads began to appear, and other evidences of a metropolitan city 
were to be found on every hand. Water-works were broached and manu- 
factories of all kinds began to spring up. The water-works started in 1873 
and were completed in 1875. The Great Exposition started in 1871 and a 
law library w^as purchased the same year. In the great fire of 1871, at 
Chicago, Kansas City promptly subscribed $10,000 for the benefit of the 
sutferers. Elevators and the largest pork-packing house in the country 
are located here. Of the latter, two, the Armours' and the Fowler Bros', 
are immense establishments, and besides these there are se\'eral s?naller 
ones. The crash of 1873 caused matters to move slowly and with caution. 
The years 1875 and 1876 w^ere not noted for any great forward movement 
but a steady onward march was kept up. The rolling-mill, a much needed 
enterprise, was started, and other manufacturing interests. People began to 
arrive; vacant houses, which the panic had made empty, were scarce; matters 
began to assume a more healthy appearance — one of them was the filling 
up of the vacant places — and a new era of building was started. Some ten 
new additions had been added and a few platted. Her railroad facilities 


and lier immense packing-liouses began to tell. The Texas cattle business 
had assumed large proportions and it was clear enough that Kansas City 
could command a large part of that trade. Western towns, like Abilene, 
had put up yards and were handling a large number of cattle, but it was 
evident that if Kansas City would put forth exertion it would come. Stock- 
yards were built, offices arranged and a systematic course taken to secure 
this heavy addition to the business of the city. To show how successful 
the move became the following statistics will tell: 


In 1870 Kansas City received, cattle 21,000 

" " " " " hogs 36,000 

"1875 " " " cattle 181,114 

" " " " " hogs 59,413 

" " " " " sheep 24,987 

" " the hog crop was a failure. 

" 1880, cattle 244,709 

" " hogs 676,477 

" " sheep 50,611 


This city became a packing point by 1870, before it was yet a stock market. 

The next year, 1871, the creation here of a cattle and hog market greatly 
facilitated packing, and by 1872 Kansas City had attained great importance 
as a packing point. In 1874 she was the principal source of supply for 
packed beef, and since that time has attained nearly a monopoly of the 

Hog packing did not prosper equally for the sole reason that hogs could 
not be had, the packing capacity of the city being in excess of the supply. 

The following table shows the packing done here since 1874-5: 


1874-5 70,300 

1875-6 72,500 

1876-7 114,869 

1877 180,357 

1878 349,097 

1879 366,830 

1880 539,097 


1874 42,226 

1875 25,774 

1876 26,765 

1877 27,863 

1878 18,756 

1879 29.141 

1880 30,922 




From the earliest dates to 1870 Kansas City imported flour from eastern 
Missouri and Illinois. This country liad become self-sustaining, so far as 
this part of Missouri was concerned, before the war, but the great demand 
by immigrants to Kansas, and tlie trade with New Mexico and Colorado, 
made a demand that local production could not supply. By the time Kan- 
sas became a State she was producing large amounts of grain, but the immi- 
gration took all Surplusage. Between the close of the war and 1870 the same 
conditions existed, though the production of the country had immensely in- 
creased. By 1870, however, production began to exceed the local demand, 
and that year the railroads took small amounts of grain to the eastern mar- 
kets. Perceiving this fact the people, in the latter part of 1870 and the 
early part of 1871, began to agitate the establishment of a grain market. 
The spi'ing of the year 1871 gave promises of a good yield of all kinds of 
grain, and the press opened upon the subject again. Its agitation caused 
the Board of Trade to take it up and discuss it. 


The result was, that in July, 1871, Messrs. Latshaw & Quade began tlie 
erection of an elevator of about one hundred thousand bushels storage ca- 
pacity. This was situated on nearly the same ground as is now the Union 
Elevator. It was finished and open for business in December. But there 
were no grain-dealers to use it, and Messrs. Latshaw & Quade went into the 
business themselves, and were the first men to conduct a grain business in 
the city as a strictly commercial pursuit, Messrs. Branliam & Sons owned 
and operated a corn-mill on Fourth Street, near Broadway, and Messrs. De- 
war & Smith owned and operated the Diamond Mills. In 1871 Messrs. 
Price & Doane took a large house on Santa Fe Street and Union Avenue, 
and opened a grain business, but for a long time their business was largely 
of a retail character. 

The following statistics of the grain trade will be found interesting: 






Bushels. Bushels. 


Arkansas Valley 




State Line 








In 1880 Kansas Citj received the following number of bushels of grain: 

Wheat 4,093,528 

Oats 366,486 

Barley 82,894 

Corn! 4,421,760 

Rye 55,267 

In the years 1876, 1877, 1878 and 1879 the receipts in the above grain 
had been much larger in corn. In wheat 1878 was double, and 1879 about 
50 per cent larger than in 1880. 


This is another very important trade and is assuming immense j^ropor- 
tions, while it is, also, growing rapidly. In 1870 very little coal was used, 
and but 18,000 bushels were reported to have been consumed. Undoubt- 
edl}' this is a mistake, and it probably exceeded 200,000 bushels. The rest 
of the table given may be considered approximately correct. It is as fol- 

1871 1,408,760 

1872 2,722,750 

1873 2,755,500 

1874 2,799,000 

1875 3,226,500 

1876 3,388,000 

1877 3,107,050 

1878 4,621,725 

1879 5,307,000 

1880 5,772,405 


On the 19tli of January a number of leading citizens organized a mining 
stock board for the purpose of locating here a market for mining stock. 
Col. C. E. Kearney was president, T. F. Oakes and II. M. Holden, vice- 
presidents, Col. John C, Moore, secretary, and Mead Woodson, treasurer. 
It tried to arrange for the opening of the board May 10th, but did not suc- 
ceed, and before the close of the j^ear passed into entire quiescence. 


On the 15th of May there was opened here the first great sale of blooded 
cattle, the stock coming mainly from the blue-grass regions of Kentucky. 
It was tried as a venture by parties owning the stock, and was so successful 
that it has been since maintained as a semi-annual sale. At this first sale 
two hundred animals were sold at an aggregate price of twenty-four thou- 
sand dollars. This and subsequent sales have brought into the country ad- 
jacent to Kansas City large numbers of blooded animals, the efiect of which 
in the improvement of cattle is already perceived. 



On the 8th of Mnrch a bill authorizing the construction of a public build- 
ing in Kansas City, for post-oliice and custom-house purposes, passed Con- 
gress. It wjis intruduced bv lion. I>. J. Franklin, of this city, who at that 
time represented this district in Congress, and provided for a building to 
cost two hundred thousand dollars, one hundred of which were appropriated 
at that session. Besides the bill for the benefit of Kansas City, Mr. Frank- 
lin secured the passage of a bill authorizing the holding of United States 
courts in this city, and introduced a bill providing for the organization 
of the Indian Territory and its opening to settlement, for the passage of 
which lie made great, but, unfortunately, unsuccessful eftort. In this latter 
he received the support of the people in unanimous resolutions adopted at 
public meetings and forwarded to him. 


The building for 1878 had proved greater than was expected reaching to 
seven hundred and six buildings erected during the year, at a cost of 
$1,04:0,000, many of them elegant business houses and residences. 


Early in the year 1870 a proposition Avas made by some of the mem- 
bers of the old Chamber of Commerce to revive that organization, but 
after several meetings and a conference with the Board of Trade the 
scheme was abandoned and the Committee of Commerce of the Board of 
Trade was appointed in its stead. This committee has never been an 
active one, yet several important enterprises have been inaugurated and 
secured by it, among which were the smelting-works and barge line of 1880. 

One of its first acts was to memorialize Congress on the improvement of 
the Missouri Biver. On the 7th of January Messrs. Camp, McDowell and 
Poe, government commissioners to locate the court-hout^e and post-office, 
arrived in Kansas City, and after acquainting themselves with the views of 
the people and examining the different sites offered, accepted the corner of 
^inth and "Walnut streets, January 25th, and it was purchased for $8,500 
and the work of constructinir the buildin*:: soon afterward begun. 

In May a party of United States engineers, under J. W. Nier, Esq., ar- 
rived in Kansas City and commenced work on the improvement of tlie 
river a few miles north of the city, an appropriation of $30,000 for that pur- 
l>ose having been secured by Mr. Franklin. About the same time the hrst 
term of the United States District Court was begun in Kansas Cit}-, Judge 
Krekel presiding. 

In the latter part of the month, Bobert Gillham, a young engineer who 
had recently located in the city, proposed to improve the means of transit 
between the western and eastern parts of the city by building a tramway 


down the bluff on Ninth Street. He secured the interest of many of the 
best men in tlie city, but tlie project met with such unfavorable treat- 
ment at the hands of the city council that it is still one of Kansas City's 
uncomj>leted enterprises. 

In August the first effort was made to organize a provident association 
in Kansas City. Mr. J. T. llovvensteln was the projector of this movement 
and about forty prominent business men joined it; but for lack of attention 
it was allowed to expire. 

In September much interest was taken in a proposition to convert the 
roads of Rosedale and Independence into boulevards, but after a number of 
public meetings the interest was allowed to die out; yet it will doubtless be 
done at some future time. 

This year was one of great activity in business and individual enterprises 
of all kinds. Trade was rapidly extended in all directions; the population 
increased. Real estate became very active, and transfers increased §1,943,- 
350; besides which there were thirteen additions platted and largely sold, 
some of which were outside the city limits. And there were about thirteen 
hundred new houses built, at an estimated cost of about 81,500,000. 


" Great changes have taken place during the year in the ownership of the 
railroads at Kansas City. Mr. Jay Gould and associates, who previously 
held control of the Union & Kansas Pacific and St. Joe & Denver Rail- 
roads west of the Missouri River and the Wabash Road east of the Missis- 
sippi, early in the year bought a controlling interest in the St. Louis, 
Kansas City & Northern and consolidated it with the Wabash under the 
name of Wabash, St. Lou in &; Pacific. This connected the roads except 
the Union Pacific, and to make connections with it the Pattonsburgh 
Branch of the St. Louis, Kansas City & Northern was extended through 
to Omaha. Soon afterward the same parties bought the Missouri Pacific 
and the Central Branch Union Pacific and have since consolidated them, 
making two divisions, connecting with each other at Kansas City. The 
same parties also bought an interest in the Hannibal & St. Joseph Railroad 
during the year, and latterly have bought the Missouri, Kansas & Texas." 

In addition to the sales of roads here mentioned, the Fort Scott Company 
bought the Springfield & Western Missouri Road in June, and has since 
completed it to a connection with the main line at Fort Scott; and Mr, 
Gould bought the Kansas City & Eastern Narrow-gauge in November, and 
in December it was leased to the Missouri Pacific, which he had previously 
bought, and became a division of that road. Another important addition 
to Kansas City's railway facilities was the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific, 
which in December made a contract with the Hannibal & St. Joseph Rail- 
road for trackage riijhts over that road from Cameron, Missouri, and it 
began to run its trains to Kansas City on the first of January, 1880. 


The year 1879 was characterized by another great raih-oad war, which 
seemed to be the result of the completion of the Chicago & Alton Railroad 
to Kansas City. In view of its early completion the pool was dissolved 
again on the 12th of April, and a promiscuous cutting of rates opened on 
the 14th. The Alton, however, was not opened for business until the 18th, 
and did not begin running passenger trains until May 13. The war arose 
over the allotment of its share of business to St. Louis, and was inaugu- 
rated by the St. Louis roads. On the 7th of J une the war was extended to 
passenger business also, and for the remainder of the summer passenger 
rates between Kansas City and St. Louis, and Kansas City and Chicago 
were but fifty cents; and freight rates went so low that for a considerable 
time grain was carried from Kansas City to St. Louis for five cents, and to 
Chicago for seven cents per bushel, and at one time reached the almost in- 
credible limit of three cents to St. Louis and five to Chicago. The trouble, 
however, came to a close in September, and on the 12th of that month a new 
pool was formed which took in the Alton. 


First National Bank failed January 29, 1877. Mastin's Bank failed 
August 3, 1877. Watkin's Bank was consolidated with the Bank of Kansas 
City December 8, 1877. 


The Journal was established by a stock company composed of William 
Gillis, W. S. Gregory, H. M. Northrup, J. S. Chick, M. J. Payne, Dr. B. 
Troost, E. M. McGee, Thompson McDaniels and Robert Campbell, and 
made its first appearance in October, 1854, under the name of The Kan- 
sas City Enterprise.^ with D. K. Abeel, Esq., as printer and business man- 
ager, and William A. Strong, Esq., as editor. One previous attemj^t had 
been made by a Mr. Kennedy to establish a paper called the Public Ledger 
but it failed, and its failure led to the organization above. On the 15th of 
February, 1872, the Journal Company was organized and incorporated 
under the State laws — Col. Robt. T. Van Horn, editor, Mr. Abeel con- 
tinuing as business manager until August 9th, 1872, wdien he disposed of 
his stock in the company and was succeeded by Isaac P. Moore, Esq. Mr. 
Abeel, Chas. N^. Brooks, M. II. Stevens and W. A. Bunker purchased a 
controlling interest in the paper and took charge of it August 8th, 1877, 
Col. Van Horn retaining his interest and continuing as editor-in-chief. 
On the 10th of January, 1881, Messrs. Abeel, Brooks and Bunker retired, 
and A. J. Blethen became business manager. 

Its stock is now $40,000, and during the past year has sold at a high 
premium. It owns its own building, an elegant structure on the corner 


of Sixth and Delaware streets, worth ])robably $50,000. It is issued daily, 
tri-weekly, and weekly, and has a very lar<^e circulation. 


On Tuesday morning, September 8, 1868, the Urst number of the Kansas 
City Times was issued. In starting the Times there was experienced that 
risk which every journalist who attempts to establish a new ])aper en- 
counters. The first paper was an eight-column folio, the size of the sheet 
being 26^x44 inches. At its head it bore the national Democratic? ticket 
for president and vice-president, and also for State officers. B. R. Drury 
& Co. were proprietors. On December 22, 1868, the paper changed hands, 
and a company was organized under the name of the Kansas City Times 
Publishing Company. Messrs. Wm. E. Dunscombe, Chas. Durfee, J. D. 
Williams and R. B. Drury were elected directors. Mr. Williams served 
as business manager, and Messrs. John C. Moore and John N. Edwards, 

The present company was formed in 1878 part of the old company selling 
their interests. The directors of the company after this were James E. 
Munford, Morrison Munford and Chas. E. Hasbrook; and the officers 
were James E. Munford, president; M. Munford, secretary and general 
manager; and Chas. E. Hasbrook, vice-president and business manager. 

It occupies its own building on Fifth Street between Main and Delaware, 
where it has one of the finest counting-rooms in the city — and a thoroughly 
equipped outfit of machinerj^ presses, etc., required to publish its immense 
circulation. It is a newspaper establishment that any city of 100,000 in- 
habitants might well feel proud of. 


The Evening Mail Publishing Company was incorporated as a stock 
company May 4th, 1875, by a few prominent business men of Kansas City, 
with E. L. Martin as president and John C. Gage as treasurer, having for 
its object the publication of a journal opposed to the movements of the 
water-works clique as it then existed. Col. John C. Moore was acting ed- 

The growth of the 3fail has been remarkable. In the winter of 1878-9 
the Mail suffered severely from the effects of fire. The present manage- 
ment found the material of the paper in ashes and cinders. The expense of 
fitting up a respectable place of business on Missouri Avenue was considera- 
ble, but the increase of business in the spring and summer of 1879 cleared ' 
the office of indebtedness and left a margin for future operations. So flatter- 
ing was the outlook in the beginning of the present year that a new three- 
revolution Hoe press was ordered and a removal to a more commodious 
building determined upon. 

The Mail is now issued from its new office in the 31ail building, 115 
West Sixth Street. 



Messrs. M. K. Nelson and S. E. Morss, formerly of Fort "Wayne, Indiana, 
came to this city in the fall of 1880 and established The Evening Star, a 
low priced afternoon journal, similar in size and style to those in all the 
other large cities of the country. The first number of The Evening Star 
appeared on the 18th of September. It is still published. 


Price Current, Commercial Indicator, Kansas City Review of Science 
and Industry, Mirror of Progress, ^Mid Continent. There are, also, 
published two German papers, and a society paper, The Herald. There 
are two auxiliary publishing companies, one by the Times company, and the 
other bv Bunker & Brother. 


All the denominations are represented, and they number thirty-six 
churches in all. The Baptists, Presbyterians and Methodists, the latter 
North and South, are the largest in number. The Catholics have a fine 
cathedral and other edifices and are a large and influential body in the city. 

There are ten Masonic lodges; eight, of Odd Fellows; five, Knights of 
Pythias; Grand Army of the Republic, one; two lodges of the order of 
Mutual Protection; The Ancient Order of David, one; The Ancient Order 
of Foresters, one ; and Good Templars, one; The order of Chosen Friends, 
has three lodges, and there is the Irish Benevolent Society, and the Ancient 
Order of Hibernians. 

The Academy of Science was organized December 2, 1875. It is repre- 
sented by some of the ablest minds in the city, and has resulted in much 

At the annual meeting. May 31, 1881, the following ofiicers were elected 
for the current year: 

E. T. Yan Horn, president; W. H. Miller, vice-president; T. J. Eaton, 
treasurer; Theo. S. Case, corresponding secretary; J. D. Parker, recording 
secretary; Harry Child, curator; Sidney Hare and Dr. R. Wood Brown, 
assistant-curators; Robert Gillham, librarian. Dr. T. J. Eaton, Dr. George 
Halley, Maj. B. L. Woodson and John D. Parker are members of the exec- 
utive committee. 

The Academy has two functions (1) to increase a knowledge of science 
by original observation and investigation, and (2) to difi'use a knowledge of 
science. The Academy has made some valuable collections and has a 
growing library. The influence of the Academy in difi"using a scientific 
spirit is beginning to be felt throughout the city and its immediate vicinity. 

There are quite a number of miscellaneous societies. The Woman's 
Christian Association, which was organized in 1876, is worthy of special 
mention for its great charities and earnest and faithful work. The present 


oflScers of the society are: Mrs. F. M. Black, president; Mrs. J. K. 
Cravens and Mrs. F. J. Baird, vice-presidents; Mrs. H. M. Holden, treas- 
urer; Mrs. Wni. Williamson, secretary. 

The Craig Eifles were organized in the year 1877. 


The public schools of Kansas City are its glory, and there is no city in 
the Union of its size whose educational advantages are superior, while it is 
not too much to say that it has few equals. A condensed report of last 
year will give the reader of this book some idea of its great work. 


The schools closed June 9, 1881, after having completed the most pros- 
perous year's work since their organization. For seven years the utmost 
harmony has prevailed in every department — the board of education, the 
superintendent, and teachers — all having worked unceasingly to bring the 
schools to the highest degree of perfection. From sixteen teachers in 1867, 
the corps has increased till at present it numbers one hundred and three 
earnest and faithful workers. Complete prejiarations have been made to 
furnish and equip sixteen additional rooms during the present summer so 
that they will be ready for occupancy when the schools open in September. 
Under the skillful financial management of the board, all claims of what- 
ever character have been promptly paid on demand, and the entire busi- 
ness for the last six years has been conducted on a cash basis. 

In 1873 the first class, consisting of four members, graduated from the 
Central school, and a class has graduated every year since. The total num- 
ber of graduates is one hundred and thirty-six, of whom forty-three are 

Since the foundation of the library in 1876, it has continued to increase 
in usefulness and importance, and to attend to it properly required so much 
of the superintendent's time from his other duties, that the board last 
March employed Mrs. Carrie W. Judson as librarian and to perform such 
clerical duties at the office of the board of education as the superintendent 
might direct. The library is now kept open every day and its duties 
promptly attended to. 

Already there are 3,000 volumes in the lil^rary, and large additions will 
be made during the year. 

There are 16,981 children between six and twenty years of age in this 
scliool-district, and 8,026 enrolled in the schools. 

The board remains unchanged in its organization and membership. 
The public schools of this city have achieved a reputation for substantial 
work which places them among the foremost in the country. 



As a mannfaeturing center Kansas City lias unequaled advantages in lier 
cheap and abundant coal, and in the cheapness and abundance of materials 
afforded by the contiguous country, a brief, summary of which will be 
found further on in this chapter. 


True, this city does not yet supply all the merchandise, nor market all 
the products of the vast region tributary to her. The country and the city, 
commercially speaking, are but a quarter of a century old. The people com- 
ing in from all quarters, as emigrants always do, at first look back to the 
point from whence they came for supplies and for markets. It takes time 
to establish new associations. Tliis city, as a depot of supply, is not over 
fifteen years old, and as a market only about ten, but her development 
in these respects is, for rapidity, without a parallel, in the history of 
cities. She has trade relations established throughout the domain, and now 
reaches a point where all competitors must give way forever. She sends 
merchandise to Kansas, Colorado, Nebraska, Missouri, Iowa, New Mexico 
and Texas, and though this trade has not been in existence to exceed ten 
years, she has now nearly excluded all competitors from the markets for the 
cattle of Texas, Colorado, Nebraska, Kansas, the Indian Territory, New 
Mexico, and western Missouri; the hogs of western Missouri, Kansas, south- 
western Iowa, southern Nebraska and Northern Texas; the sheep and wool 
of Kansas, Colorado and New Mexico, and the wheat of western Missouri, 
Kansas, and southern Nebraska, and partly of southwestern Iowa. 

That she will in a few years market all the products of this vast area and 
supply it with all its merchandise, is certain. Her railway lines penetrate 
it, radiating in all directions. The railway system of this entire area 
centers at Kansas City, the roads tliat do not terminate here making 
their connection with those that do. The non-use of navigable waters makes 
the railways the sole arteries of commerce, and that they will bear the pro- 
ducts of the country to Kansas City, and bear the merchandise from Kansas 
City, is as certain as that they radiate from Kansas City to all parts of the 

It is a remarkable fact that the markets of Kansas City came into exist- 
ence and grew to nearly equal importance with those of St. Louis and Chi- 
cago — in some respects to a controlling position — within five years, while 
there was little visible growth in the city and little immigration into the 
country. It is a remarkable fact also that during the same period, and un- 
der the same conditions, the mercantile business of the city was quadrupled, 
and has continued to grow with unprecedented rapidity since. The signifi- 
cance of these facts is unmistakable. It simply means the rapid, ijitense 
concentration of the trade of the country at Kansas City. 


As a inaniifacturing center Kansas City lias unequalled advantages in her 
cheap and abundant coal, and the cheapness and vastness of her material 
supplies aflbrded by the contiguous country. She has become a vast depot 
of supplies for the entire western and southern domain, an area covered by 
no other city on the continent. 


The assessed valuation of property, real and personal, in Kansas City, 
shows the following rapid increase. The valuation is given by decades up 
to 1870, and then by years, to show the fluctuation of values and the effect 
of the great financial crash of 1874, which culminated in 1876, and its rapid 
recovery since that date. 

The following is the valuation of all property for the years given. 

1846 ' $ 500,000 

1861 1,814,320 

1870 9,629,4.55 

1875 11,728,750 

1876 . 8,923,190 

1877 9,370,287 

1878 9,092,320 

1879 10,706,660 

1880 13,378,950 

The clearing-house report from 1876 to 1880, inclusive, gives the follow- 
ing handsome showing: 

1876 .- I 62,840,608.76 

1877 69,213,01151 

1878 41,000,317.56 

1879 68,280,251.55 

1880 101,330,000.00 


The area in which Kansas City trades may be defined as between the 17th 
and 29th meridian west from Washington, and the 23d and 41st parallels 
of latitude, embracing a greater variety of climate and mineral and soil pro- 
ducts than can be found in any similar area in the world. The great agri- 
cultural belt of the United States crosses it. It contains the greatest pasto- 
ral region in the world, and embraces the famous lead, zinc and coal mines 
of Missouri and Kansas, and the lead, coal, iron, silver and gold mines of 
Colorado and New Mexico. There are no adequate statistics of its popula- 
tion or productions. It is so new and has been settling and developing so 
rapidly since the general census, in 1870, that the facts of the census would 
grossly misrepresent its present condition, and the census of 1880 is not yet 

The general conditions of a country have much to do in determining its 


fitness for the habitation of man. These may be said to consist of climate, 
rain-fall and soil, and we propose to take a brief view of these. 


As above stated, this country embraces a wide range of climate, due 
partly to the number of latitudes it embraces, and partly to the difference 
in altitude, the country rising from about seven hundred feet at the Mis- 
souri River, to about five tliousand at the base of the mountains. However, 
the most desirable latitudes cross it, the country between the 38th and 42d 
parallels, both in this country and Europe, having been found to be the best 
adapted to vigorous manhood, longevity and physical and mental effort. 
These parallels embrace, on both hemispheres, the largest per cent of 
the population north of the equator, and the seat of man's liighest achieve- 


The soil of Kansas, Nebraska, Missouri and Iowa are composed of what 
geologists call the drift, loess and alluvial deposits. The first is of compar- 
atively limited extent, and. is mostly found combined with the loess in what 
is known as modified drift. In this form it is very fertile, and yields sixty 
bushels of corn to the acre. The second embraces all the upland soil, and 
the third the bottom-lands. 


Thus has been sketched Kansas City and her surroundings. No city in 
the Union has exceeded her wonderful growth, or developed greater com- 
mercial resources, and that growth and strength will continue with increas- 
ing years. She is the marvel of the nineteenth century, and as such every 
Missourian should know her and feel a pride in her extraordinary success. 

History of St. Joseph. 


The First Settlement at Blackstone Hills — Robidoux — Biographical Sketch — At the Bluffs — 
Then at Roy's Branch and Blacksnake Hills — 1834-1836 — Robidoux' s Home — Employes — 
Servant— Ferry— From 1837 to 1840— Rival Towns— Wolves. 

The French element of the class of pioneers settled Canada and the north- 
western part of the United States, as well as the country about the mouth 
of the Mississippi River. They came into the upper Mississippi and Mis- 
souri Yalleys in 1764, under the lead of Pierre Laclede Liqueste (always 
called Laclede), who had a charter from the French government giving him 
the exclusive right to trade with the Indians in all the country as far north 
as St. Peter's River. Laclede brought part of his colony from France, and 
received large accessions to it in New Orleans, mainly of liunters and trap- 
pers, who had had experience with the Indians. In the year 176i this col- 
ony founded the present city of St. Lonis. From this point they immedi- 
ately began their trading and trapping incursions into the then unbroken 
wilderness in their front. Their method of proceeding seems to have been 
to penetrate into the interior and establish small local posts for trading 
with the Indians, whence tlie trappers and hunters were outfitted and sent 
out into the adjacent woods. 

In this way the country west and northwest of St. Louis was traversed 
and explored by these people, at a very early day, as far west as the Rocky 
Mountains. But of the extent of their operations but little has been re- 
corded; hence but little is known of the posts established by them. It is 
known, liowever, that such posts were established at a very early day on the 
Chariton and Grand Rivers, in Missouri, and at Cote Sans Dessein, in Cal- 
loway county. 


Joseph Robidoux, the son of Joseph and Catharine Robidoux, was oorn 
in St. Louis, August 10, 1783. He was the eldest of a family consisting of 
six sons and one daughter; to-wit., Joseph, Antoine, Isadore, Francis, Mi- 
chael and Palagie. Louis, the second son, lived and died in California, sifter 



his removal from St. Louis. Joseph, Antoinc, Isadore and Francis were 
all buried in St. Joseph. Joseph, the father of this family, was a Canadian 
Frenchman, and came from Montreal, Canada, to St. Louis, where he lo- 
cated shortly after the settlement of the city bj^ the French. 

Being a shrewd business man and possessing great energy lie accumu- 
lated a fortune. His wealth, his business qualifications, and his 
genial disposition, made him many friends among the leading mer- 
chants and influential men of that city. He occupied a large mansion, lo- 
cated between Walnut and Elm streets, surrounded with every comfort and 
convenience. Here he entertained his friends in a royal style, and so noted 
was his hospitality that the first general assembly of Missouri did him 
the honor of holding its first session at his house, on the 7tli of December, 

Four years after his marriage his wife died. After her death young llob- 
idoux, then in the twenty-third year of his age, became an extensive trav- 
eler. He made a voyage up the Missouri Hiver in company with one of felie 
partners of the American Fur Company. • 

Blacksnake Hills had been seen by some of the men connected with the 
fur companies while enroute on one of the expeditions, their attention being 
attracted thither, not only by the topography of the country, but by the 
presence of the congregated tribes of the Sac, Fox and Iowa Indians, who 
assembled here en masse at stated seasons of the year, preparatory to cross- 
ing the river, either on a visit to other tribes farther west, or for the pur- 
pose of hunting. 

Seeing the Indians here in large numbers while on their journey at this 
time, the partners debarked, and after looking at its points and its advant- 
ages as a probable future trading-post, they proceeded on their way to 
Council Bluffs, Iowa, the original place of their destination. 

Being favorably impressed with the " Bluffs " as a trading-post, Mr. 
Robidoux returned to St. Louis and purchased a stock of goods, which he 
transported up the Missouri by a keel-boat, arriving at the " Bluffs " in the 
fall of 1809. 

Here he remained for thirteen years, and while residing at the " Bluffs," 
in 1813, he married Angelique Yandory, another lady of St. Louis, who 
died in the city of St. Joseph on the 17th of January, 1857. By this union 
they had six sons and one daughter. 

Readily adapting himself to the habits, manners and customs of the 
Indians, and speaking with considerable fluency the dialects of the tribes 
by whom he was surrounded, Mr. Robidoux became an expert Indian 

The American Fur Company were also in business at the " Bluffs," and 
had a monopoly of the entire Indian trade for some time previous to the 
locating there of Mr. Robidoux. But a short time, however, passed after his 


arrival before he began to divide the trade, and finally became so popular 
with the Indians that he controlled a large portion of this trade, to the great 
detriment of the fur company. 

The company, wishing no further opposition from Mr. Kobidoux, finally 
purchased his stock of goods, giving him fifty per cent on the origi- 
nal cost, and in addition thereto the sum of one thousand dollars annually 
for a period of three years, conditioned that he would leave the " Bluffs." 

He then returned to St. Louis, where he remained with his family, car- 
rying on the business of a baker and confectioner, until the expiration of 
the three years, the time agreed upon between himself and the fur com- 
pany. Having spent already many years of his life among the Indians as a 
fur trader, a business which, if not entirely congenial to his taste, had at least 
been a profitable one, he concluded to embark once more in the same pur- 
suit. Not that he really wished — 

— " for a lodge in some vast wilderness — 
Some boundless contiguity of space," 

but that he might reap therefrom a golden harvest. Making known his in- 
tention to the fur company, it at once offered him the post at the mouth 
of " Koy's Branch," just above the " Blacksnake Hills," at a salary of 
eighteen hundred dollars per year, provided he would in nowise interfere 
with the business at the " Bluffs." 

This proposition he accepted, and having been furnished with a stock of 
goods he landed at the mouth of '* Roy's Branch," in the fall of 1826. 
Shortly afterward he removed to the mouth of " Blacksnake Creek," wdiere 
he continued to work for the fur company until 1830, at which time he 
purchased their entire interest in the goods then in his possession, and be- 
came the sole proprietor of the post at " Blacksnake Hills." 

For many years the solitary log cabin of Joseph Eobidoux was the only 
evidence of the presence of civilized man within a radius of fifty miles. 
With every pufiing steamer which ascended the turbid waters of the Mis- 
souri came the emigrant and the adventurer, seeking homes in the western 
wilds. A few embryo settlements had been made along the banks of the 
great river in Jackson, Clay and other counties. The famous "Platte 
Purchase " became the new Eldorado, and the beauty of its rich, fertile 
valleys and prairies, fine timber, perennial springs and its numerous water 
courses, had been spread far and wide. 

A few families from Franklin county, Missouri, consisting of Thomas 
and Henry Sollers, Elisha Gladden, Jane Purget, and a few others, settled 
near the spot in 1834, '35 and '36. 


The only building that stood upon the town site of St. Joseph at that 
time was the log house of Joseph Robidoux. It occupied the spot where 



the Occidental Hotel now stands — on the northwest corner of Jule and 
Second streets — and was a building of considerable magnitude. It stood 
east and west, was a story and a half and contained nine rooms — three 
above and six below. On the north side was a shed divided into three 
rooms. A covered porch was bnilt on the south side extending the entire 
length of the building. The west room of the north shed was used by Mr. 
■ Robidoux as his sleeping-room. His store was the middle apartment of 
the main building, the entrance to which was through a door at the east 
end, first passing through an outer room to reach it. 

So confident were some of the business men living in Clay and Clinton 
counties that some one of the last mentioned towns would be the future 
emporium of the " Platte Purchase," that they not only purchased land, 
but in one or two instances laid off towns and opened business houses. 
John W. Samuels and Robert Elliott began business at "White Cloud, or 
what was known as "Hackberry Ridge." G. W. Samuels, now of St. 
Joseph, built a warehouse at Elizabethtown, where he bought and sold 
hemp. Amazonia was expected to be the county-seat of Andrew county, 
Charles Caples, concluding that the quarter section east and adjoining 
Amazonia, would be a more eligible spot for the building of a great city, 
laid it off into lots and gave it the name of Boston. These places, ex- 
cepting Savannah, are numbered with the things of the past, and live only 
in the memories of the men whose pluck and energy gave them a name 
and brief existence. 


In 1839, shortly after the arrival of Judge Toole in the county, he came 
to the " Blacksnake Hills " one afternoon, horseback, and while passing 
along, near the present site of the Pacific Plouse, he saw a large gray wolf, 
which he chased into the bottom, about where the first round-house now 
stands. In fact, the wolves were so numerous at that time in and about 
the " Blacksnake Hills " and their howls were so loud and incessant that to 
sleep at times was utterly impossible. 


The first white male child born at "Blacksnake Hill" was Thomas B. 
Sollers, born in 1837. The first white female child was the daughter of 
Polly and Henry Sollers, born in 1838, in a small hut east of the present 
site of the Occidental Hotel. The first physician who came was Dr. Daniel 
G. Keedy, in 1838. Dr. Silas McDonald ariived about the same time in 
the county. 

He owned an old colored servant, who not only possessed a French name 
(Poulite), but who could speak the French tongue, having been raised 
among that nationality in St. Louis. This old man attended to the culinary 
affairs at the post. 


Mr. Tlobidoiix operated a private ferry just below Francis street for 
crossing the Indians and those wlio were in his employ. The crossing gen- 
erally was done in canoes, and occasionally in Mackinaw boats. The road 
leading from the ferry on the other side of the river led to Highland, Kan- 
sas, or to the Indian Mission, which was established after the renioval of 
the Indians. The road from the ferry on this side passed below the Patee 
House, and crossed at Agency Ford, where it divided, one branch of which 
led to Liberty, Clay county, and the other in the direction of Grand 

The next house (log) erected at Blacksnake Hills was built in March, 
1836, and occupied by Thomas Sollers, east of Finger's packing-house, for 
Mr. Robidoux, who Avished to take up another additional quarter section of 
land, and about this period began to think that Blacksnake Ilills would 
develop into something greater than a mere trading-point for the conven- 
ience of the non-progressive and half-civilized Indian. No other improve- 
ments of a special character were made until the following year. 

FROM 1837 TO 1840. 

The treaty for the " Platte Purchase " had been negotiated, the Indians 
removed, the country opened to settlement, and hundreds of emigrants were 
flocking hither, locating in the interior and at different points along the 

The small colony at Blacksnake Hills was increased in number by the 
arrival of F. W. Smith, Joseph Gladden, Polly Dehard, Samuel Hull, John 
Freeman, Charles Zangenett, Father John Patchen, Captain James B. 
O'Toole, Judge Wm. C. Toole, William Fowler, Edwin Toole, and others. 


Between the years above named the country settled rapidly, and one of 
several localities in or near the Missouri River, it was thought, would take 
precedence of all the other settlements, and become the chief town in this 
portion of the State. The respective aspirants for future greatness were 
Blacksnake Hills, White Cloud, Savannah, Amazonia, Boston and Eliza- 
bethtown, all north of St. Joseph, some eight or ten miles, and within a ra- 
dius of five miles. 


In 1841 Dr. Daniel G. Keedy erected a saw-mill in the bottom, north of 
the present fair grounds. 

At the same time Joseph Robidoux built a fiouring-mill on the west side 
of Blacksnake Creek. 

A little later another fiouring-mill was built by Creal & Wildbahn. John 
Girard was the miller. 

Still, a little later, the first tavern in the place was erected by Josiah 


Beattie, located between Main and Second streets. In this tavern the Rev. 
T. S. Reeve preached the first sermon that was delivered at Blacksnake 

In 1842 came Louis Picard, the first regular carpenter, and Wm. Lang- 
ston, the first plasterer. 

About the same time came the Belcher brothers, who were the first brick- 

During this year Jonathan (^opeland built a warehouse near the corner of 
Jule and Water streets. 

Then came Jacob Mitchell, a worthy son of Vulcan, the ringing of whose 
anvil was heard by the villagers from " early morn until dewy eve." 



Having regard to facts and dates as they occur chronologically, we have 
now reached a period (1842) in this history when there happened an inci- 
dent which not only attracted the attention of the settlers at Blacksnake 
Hills and surrounding country, but furnished a theme for conversation 
around their firesides for months afterward, and as the circumstances con- 
nected therewith are of an interesting character, we shall narrate them: In 
the summer of 1842 Mr. Robidoux received from the Sac and Fox Indians 
the sum of four thousand dollars in silver, in four difierent boxes, each box 
containing one thousand dollars. Mr. Robidoux had sold goods to these 
tribes to this amount, and when they were paid their annuity by the gov- 
ernment its agent turned over to him the sum above mentioned. 

Having no safe, Mr. Robidoux placed the boxes containing the money on 
one of the lowest shelves of his store, behind the counter, near a window. 
This window was secured at night by wooden shutters and fastened on the 
inside by a bolt. 

On the east side of One Hundred and Two River lived at that time three 
families, bearing respectively the names of Spence, Scott and Davis. They 
were supposed to be counterfeiters, yet no one knew positively that they 
had ever passed any spurious money. The Spence boys, whose given names 
were John, George Monroe, Andy and James, were in the habit, in com- 
pany with Scott and Davis, of visiting Blacksnake Hills almost daily, 
and while there would sjDend their time lounging about the solitary saloon, 
which stood upon the bottom, west of Blacksnake Creek, and at Mr. 
Robidoux's store. 

For some days previous to the occurrence which followed, it was noticed 
that one of the Spence boys would often place himself in a recumbent po- 
sition on the counter, with his face turned toward the shelf containing the 
boxes of money. 

Two or three nights afterward an entrance was efiected through the 
window above spoken of, and the boxes with their contents were re- 


moved. As soon as it was ascertained by Mr. Kobidoux that his store had 
been burghirized and his money taken, immediate search was instituted by 
his clerk, Mr. Poulin, and others who vohmteered their assistance. Suspect- 
ing that the Spence boys knew all about the burglary, as well as the where- 
abouts of the missing treasure, they went in the direction of their house. 

While en route, and on crossing Blacksnake Creek, the party discovered 
a man's shoe which had evidently been worn but once, as it was entirely 
new. The day before three of the Spence boj^s had purchased shoes of Mr. 
Poulin at Kobidonx's store. He remembered that the shoes were of different 
numbers, the smallest pair being sixes, and of cutting an unusual long buck- 
skin shoe-string. The shoe found was a number six, and the buckskin 
string was " conlirmation strong as holy writ" that the Spence boys were 
of the party of thieves, or were in some manner connected with the bur- 
ghiry. That they had worn the new shoes on the previous night, and that 
in their flight through the soft clay had lost one, was clear enough. 

Being thus encouraged, the party pursued tlieir way to the cabin where 
the Spences lived, surrounded it, and captured the Spence boys as well as 
Davis and Scott. Davis and Scott, however, were released. The others 
were brought belbre Justice Mills, and upon a preliminary examination 
were discharged, there not being sufficient proof to hold them for trial. 

Sixteen or eighteen citizens, some of whom are still living, confident that 
the Spence boys and Davis and Scott had committed the crime, met the 
next day and proceeded in a body on horseback to Davis's and Scott's resi- 
dence, determined, if they could, to bring the offenders to justice and restore 
the stolen money. In the meantime, Mr. Robidoux had offered a reward 
of five hundred dollars for the capture and conviction of the thief or thieves 
and the recovery of the funds. Scott and Davis were taken prisoners and 
compelled to accompany the party of citizens, who, when about half way 
back to tow^n, separated, the lai-ger portion taking Davis on a hill and leav- 
ing Scott in the valley of the One Hundred and Two in charge of Elislia 
Gladden. Tiiey took Davis out of sight of Scott and just far enough away 
that Scott could liear the firing of a pistol. They then halted and told Davis 
that he must tell them where Robidoux's money was, or, if he refused, they 
would hang him. He strenuously denied all knowledge of the affair and 
told them to '' hang and be d— d." They put a rope around his neck and 
swung him up, only intending to frighten and make him confess to the 
whereabouts of the money. After he had remained suspended for some 
minutes they let him down, and asked him to confess the crime. Davis 
being as bold and defiant as ever, they hung him again, this time almost 
taking his life. They again asked him to tell where the money was, when 
he again refused in a fiendish, insolent manner, branding them with a pro- 
fusion of the lowest epithets. Seeing that Davis would tell nothing, some 
one of the party shot off a pistol (as previously arranged, if Davis did not 


confess), so that Scott could hear it, and at the same time two or three of 
them rushed down the liill where Scott was guarded, shouting that they 
had " killed Davis " and were now " going to kill Scott." 

One of these men held up his hand which he had accidently bruised 
coming down the hill, and which had some spots of blood on it, telling 
Scott, when Davis was shot, some of his blood had spurted on his hand. 
Gladden, who was guarding Scott, said, when the concussion of the pistol 
was heard, " that Scott's face became as pallid as death," he supposing that 
his accomplice had been killed. 

They gave him to understand that they had disposed of Davis, and that 
if he did not tell them all about the money and the parties implicated in 
taking it, they would also dispose of him in a very summary manner, but 
promised that if he would give them this information, they would not only 
spare his life, but would supply him with money enough to take him out of 
the country. 

Believing what he had heard and seen to be true, and that the condition 
of things was such as had been represented, Scott asked some one present 
to give him a pencil and piece of paper. This being done, he wrote the 
names of all the parties concerned in the burglary (the Spence brothers, 
Davis and himself), and led the way to where one of the boxes had been 
buried, near the banks of the One Hundred and Two. So ingenious had 
been their plan, and so careful had they been to conceal all the traces of 
their villainy, that while digging a hole, in which to deposit the money, 
they placed every particle of dirt in a box and emptied it into the stream, 
excepting enough to refill the hole after the money was put in. Having 
four thousand dollars, they dug four holes. They then divided a blanket 
into four pieces, took the money out of the boxes, wrapped each thousand 
dollars separately, buried it by itself, and then refilled the hole, covering 
it over with the same sod that they had taken up, and then burned the 

Scott could only show them where the first thousand dollars was. He 
did not see them when they buried the other three thousand. They, how- 
ever, found the first thousand. How or where to obtain the balance of the 
money they did not know. Scott could not telj, and Davis, they supposed, 
would not. They had tried threats and hanging with him, but without 

In the meantime Davis was still, in custody. They went to him, told him 
that Scott had confessed, and it would be better for him to confess, also. That 
Scott had not only given them the names of the persons who stole the 
money, but had shown them where the first thousand dollars was buried. 
Pie still refused to believe or say anything. To convince him of the truth 
of what they said, they took him to the spot from which they had taken the 
money, and showed him the piece of blanket in which it was wrapped. No 


longer doubting what he liad seen and heard, he called for a drink of 
whisky, which was given him, and after drinking it told them he would 
show them where the balance of the money was buried. 

To further show that Davis and his pals were accomplished villains, and 
possessed a cunning ingenuity which would have been creditable to tlie pi- 
rates and freebooters of a past century, and which in some respects is not 
unlike the narrative of "Arthur Gordon Pym," by the gifted Voe, it is only 
necessary to mention how he proceeded to show when and hove to find the 
balance of the money stolen. 

He stood at the edore of the hole from which the first thousand dollars 
had been taken, and stepj)ing fifteen paces to the south, pointed to his feet 
and said: " Here you will find a thousand dollars." He then led the way 
to a small log, with a single knot on it, and said, " Under that knot, in the 
ground, you will find another thousand dollars." Going to the bank of the 
One Hundred and Two, in the sand, 'neath a willow tree, under a broken 
branch that bent downward, said, " You will find the last thousand dollars 

It was as he said, and the money was all recovered, excepting twenty- 
seven dollars, and returned to Mr. Robidoux. 

Scott and Davis were held in custody, but during the night Davis es- 
caped, and Scott was finally discharged on the ground of his having made 
confession, and giving the names of the persons who had committed the 
burglary. The Spence boys left the country. 


In June, 1843, Mr. Hobidoux laid out the original town, the site of which 
was covered with a luxuriant growth of hemp. Simeon Kemper acted 
as surveyor in this important undertaking, and Elisha Gladden as chain- 
bearer. Two maps of the town were made — one by F. "W. Smith, and the 
otiier by Simeon Kemper, bearing respectively the names of " Eobidoux " 
and " St. Joseph," in honor of its founder. The map drawn by Mr. Smith 
was selected by Mr. Robidoux, and the more civilized and felicitious appel- 
lative of St. Joseph was substituted for that of Blacksnake Hills. 

This map was taken to St. Louis, where Mr. Robidoux acknowledged it 
in the ofiice of the clerk of the Court of Common Pleas (N"athaniel Paschall, 
who has since been one of the editors of the St. Louis Republican^ being 
the clerk at the time), and after having it lithographed, returned to St. Jo- 

Eis declaration and acknowledgment are as follows: 


" I, Joseph Robidoux, of the county of Buchanan, and the. State of Mis- 
souri, do hereby declare that I am the proprietor and owner of a certain 


town named St. Josepli, located upon the southwest fractional quarter of sec- 
tion eight, township fifty-seven north, range thirty-five west of the fifth 
principal meridian, and that I have laid oft' the same into lots and blocks, 
bounded by streets and alleys, and a levee, or landing on the front, which 
streets and alleys are of the width set forth upon this plat, and the lots and 
blocks are of the dimensions and numbers as are indicated upon said plat; 
and the course of said streets and the extent of said lots, blocks and town are 
correctly set forth upon this plat of the same, which was made by my au- 
thority and under my direction. And 1 do hereby give, grant, allot and con- 
vey, for public uses, all the streets and alleys, by the names and of the ex- 
tent that are set forth upon said plat. And I do hereby declare this 
dedication to be made by me, this, the 26th day of July, eighteen hundred 
and forty-three, to be binding upon me, my heirs and assigns forever. 

" Jh. Eobidoux [seal]. " 

"certificate of proprietor's acknowledgment. 
" State of Missouri, 

" County of St. Louis. 

" Be it remembered, that on this 26th da}^ of July, eighteen hundred and 
forty-three, before me, the undersigned, clerk of the St. Louis Court of Com- 
mon Pleas, within and for said county, came Joseph Robidoux, who is per- 
sonally known to me to be the same person whose name is subscribed to the 
above plat, as having executed the said plat, and who acknowledged to me 
that he executed said plat for the purposes therein named. 

" In testimony whereof, I have set my hand and afiixed the seal of said 

court at office in the city of St. Louis, and State aforesaid, 26th day of July, 

eighteen hundred and forty-three. 

" Kathaniel Paschall, 

" Cleric. 

" By Stephen D. Barlow, 

" Dejputy." 

blocks and lots donated. 

The west half of block thirty-one was reserved on the map as a market 
square ; the west half of block fifty was donated for a public church ; the 
northwest quarter of block thirty-eight for a public school, and the south 
quarter of the same block for a Catholic church. 

These lots were immediatel}^ put upon the market, even before the title to 
them was complete. This was perfected in 1844, at which time a United 
Stateriand-ofiice was located at Plattsburg, Missouri. 

The uniform price of corner lots was one hundred and fifty dollars, and 
inside lots one hundred dollars. As rapidly as sale could be made the money 
was applied in payment of a mortgage, held by Pierre Chouteau, Jr., of St. 


Louis, upon the land embracing the town site, amounting to six thousand 
three hundred and seventy-two dollars and fifty-seven cents. 

The town, as then laid off, included all the territory lying between Eobi- 
doux Street on the north and Messanie Street on the south, and between 
Sixth Street on the east and the Missouri River on the west, arid contained 
sixty-four blocks, twelve of which are fractional. Each whole block is 240 
by 300 feet, bisected by an alley and containing twelve lots. 

The streets are governed by the cardinal points of the comj^ass; those 
running back from the river in the " Original Town," extending north and 
south, are Water, Levee, Main (or First), Second, Third, Fourth, Fifth and 
Sixth; and those running at right angles, commencing on the parallel of 
the north line, are Isadore, Robidoux, Faraon, Jules, Francis, Felix, Ed- 
mond, Charles, Sylvanie, Angelique, Messanie. These names are derived 
from members of Mr. Robidoux's family. 

Since the laying out of the original town, covering a period of thirty- 
eight years, there have b^en added about seventy-two additions. 


In 184:4-5 the first church edifice in the town, a log building, 20x30 feet, 
was erected, under the direction of Rev. T. S. Reeve, a Presbyterian clergy- 
man. It was located on the lot where the business house of John S. Brit- 
tain & Co. now stands. 

Soon after this church building was completed and occupied an incident 
occurred in it which is worth relating: 

In the fall of 1845, on a sabbath-day evening, while religious services 
were being held, a loud, rough knock was heard upon the door. AVithout 
waiting for a response, the door was thrust wide open, when in stalked a 
large, burly-looking individual from Grand River. 

With hat on and hand raised, he advanced toward the pulpit and mo- 
tioned to the minister to stop. The man of God (Rev. T. S. Reeve) being 
thus rudely and inopportunely accosted, left off preaching, when the stranger 
said : 

" Is Bob Donnell in this house? I've got a bar'l of honey for him." 

Mr. Donnell being present, and taking in the situation at a glance, im- 
mediately left his seat and went out of the house with the enterprising and 
redoubtable hone}'' vender. Whether he purchased the " bar'l " we cannot 
sa3\ The man, however, who, nothing daunted, had so persistently hunted 
him up, braving the parson and the astonished gaze of the congregation, 
certainly deserved some consideration at the hands of Mr. Donnell. We 
hope, therefore, a bargain was made, and that his Grand River friend re- 
turned home a hapj)ier, if not a wiser man. 

The log church was first permanently occupied in the winter of 1844-5. 
In the fall of the year 1844 the first Union sabbath- school was organized, 


and a committee of ladies sent out for tlie purpose of making collections for 
the sclicol. Joseph Robidoux, the founder of the city, made the first doua- 
tion of ten dollars in money for the school. This was the first time a sub- 
scription paper had evei'*been carried around, and it elicited some practical 
jokes from its novelty among those who subscribed, and who are now among 
the oldest citizens. 

The log church was also occupied once a month by the Methodist denom- 
ination for some time, and twice a month, until their own church was built, 
in 1846, In August, of that year, trustees were appointed by the First 
Presbyterian Church, under the care of the Lexington Presbytery, in con- 
nection with the " Constitutional General Assembly of the Presbyterian 
Church." During the same year a building committee was appointed to 
make the necessary arrangements for the erection of a new house of wor- 
ship. Money was raised by subscription, and in 1847 was erected the brick 
building on the northeast corner of Fourth and Francis streets, in dimen- 
sions fifty feet front by sixty feet. The first services were held in the church 
in the winter of 1849-50. 

This building was used without interruption till the closing of the church 
and dispersion of the congregation in 1861, at the breaking out of the civil 
war. It then passed through various hands, till it finally became, by pur- 
chase, the property of the German congregation now occupying it. 


The citizens of St. Joseph are justly proud of their excellent system of 
public schools, which not only afford a practical and liberal education for 
their children at home, but have given the city character and reputation 
abroad. They have been one of the most important factors in attracting 
immigration, and have done more than any other institution to add to the 
population, wealth and general prosperity of the city. They are the schools 
in which the great masses of the children are educated — the children of the 
wealthy, of the men of moderate means and of the poor alike — all classes, 
and frequently many nationalities, being represented in the same school. 

Until the year 1860, no attempt at any system of public schools had been 
made in St. Joseph. Occasionally a free school would be taught for a 
month or two, or for a suflEicient length of time to absorb what was not 
wasted or lost of the city's share of the public school-fund. But there was 
no public school-system, and St. Joseph had merely the organization of a 
country school-district. In that year a few of the most enterprising of her 
citizens determined to make an efibrt to establish a system of public schools. 
They sought and obtained from the legislature of the State a good and lib- 
eral charter. 

This charter has been twice amended by the legislature, at the request of 
the board of public schools; once in 1866 and once in 1872. Edward 


Everett said: "To read the Eiii^lish language %vell, to write a neat, legible 
hand, and to be master of the four rules of arithmetic, I call this a good 
education," Any pupil completing a course in the St. Joseph schools 
should have an education far above that standard, and be well prepared 
to enter upon any of the ordinary business avocations of life. But that 
the system of public instruction may be as complete and thorough in 
St. Joseph as in any Eastern city, a high school, with a liberal course of 
study, was organized in 18(56, which lias graduated 208 young ladies and 
gentlemen who are filling useful and honorable positions in society. Of the 
above number, forty-four are either teaching now or have been teachers in 
the public schools of St. Joseph. 


The first newspaper, the Gazette^ a weekly, was established in St. Joseph 
in 181:5, its first issue appearing on Friday, the 25th day of April, of that 
year. The proprietor was William Ridenbaugh. When commencing the 
publication of his paper he had extensively circulated throughout Buchanan 
and the adjoining counties, the following: 

"Again, the spirit of internal improvement is abroad, our people are 
determined not onh' to improve the transporting facilities now had, but to 
add others, which will ]ilace us on terms more nearly equal with other parts 
of the world. Then all the advantages we have in soil and climate will 
become available; then a new impetus will have been given to the indus- 
trious farmer; then the call upon the merchant for the necessaries and com- 
forts of life will have been vastly increased; then health and prosperity will 
everywhere greet the eye of the beholder; then ours shall be a town and 
county in which the wealthy, industrious and educated of the other and 
older States will love to settle, and the situation of our town and sur- 
rounding scenery, which are now surpassingly lovely, will be enhanced by 
the touch of art, and the citizen or visitor of cultivated or refined taste will 
love to contemplate their beauty." 

The above article was written in the spring of 1847, and is doubtless a 
faithful and correct representation of St. Joseph and her business prospects 
at that time. Four years had elapsed from the laying out of the town, and 
the inferences drawn from the editorial are that notwithstandinfi: manv 
difficulties had heretofore intervened, such as the jealousies of rival towns, 
imperfect navigation facilities, and other hindrances, the town had continued 
to prosper. 


The people of St. Joseph early awoke to a sense of the importance and 
necessity of railroad communication with the East. About the first refer- 
ence to this matter we find in the Gazette^ of Friday, November 6, 1846: 

" Our country is destined to suffer much and. is now suffering from the 


difficulty of navigation and the extremely liigli rates the boats now charge. 
Our farmers may calculate that they will get much less for produce and will 
be compelled to pay much more for their goods than heretofore, and this will 
certainly always be the case when the Missouri River shall be as low as it now 
is. Tlie chances are fearfully against having any considerable work be- 
stowed in improving the river, and until it is improved by artificial means the 
navigation of it to this point must always be dangerous and very uncertain. 

" The prospects for this fall and winter are well calculated to make the 
people look about to see if there is no way to remedy this inconvenience, if 
there can be any plan suggested whereby our people can be placed more 
nearly upon terms of equality with the good citizens of other parts of our 

" We suggest the propriety of a railroad from St. Joseph to some point 
on the Mississippi, either St. Louis, Hannibal or Quincy. For ourselves we 
like the idea of a railroad to one of the latter places suggested, for this 
course would place us nearer the Eastern cities, and make our road thither 
a direct one; we like this road, too, because it would so much relieve the 
intermediate country which is now suffering and must always suffer so much 
for transporting facilities in the absence of such an enterprise. 

" If this be the favorite route we must expect opposition from the southern 
portion of the State, as well as all the river counties below this. For the 
present we mean merely to throw out the suggestion, with the view of 
av/akening public opinion, and eliciting a discussion of the subject. In some 
future number we propose presenting more advantages of such a road, and 
will likewise propose and enforce by argument the ways and means of ac- 
complishing the object." 

The charter for tlie Hannibal and St. Joseph Railroad was secured mainly 
by the exertions of Robert M. Stewart, afterward governor of the State, and, 
at the time of its issuance, a member of the State senate, and of General 
James Craig, and Judge J. 13. Gardenhire. 

About the spring of 1857 work was begun on the west end, and by March 
of that year the track extended out from St. Joseph a distance of seven 
miles. The first fire under the first engine that started out of St. Joseph on 
the Hannibal and St. Joseph Railroad was kindled by M. Jeff. Thompson, 
This was several years before the arrival of the first through train in Febru- 
ary, 1859. (Sometime in the early part of 1857.) 

The Hannibal and St. Joseph Railroad was completed February 13, 1859. 
On Monday, February 14, 1859, the first through passenger train ran out 
of St. Joseph. Of this train E. Sleppy, now (1881) master mechanic of the 
St. Joseph and Western Machine Shops, in Elwood, was engineer, and Ben- 
jamin H. Colt, conductor. 

The first to rnn a train into St. Joseph was George Thompson, who ran 
first a construction train and then a freiojht train. 


The first master raeclianic of the Hannibal and St. Josepli Railroad 
shops in St. Joseph was C. F. Sliiveh These sliops were established in 
1857. In the following year Mr. Sliivel put up the first car ever built in 
the city. 

On the 22d of February, 1859, occurred in St. Joseph the celebration of 
the completion of the Hannibal and St. Joseph road. This was, beyond 
doubt, the grandest display ever witnessed in the city, up to that period. 

Mr. Jeff. Thompson, at that time mayor of the city, presided over 
the ceremonies and festivities of this brilliant occasion. The city was 
wild with enthusiasm, arid the most profuse and unbounded hospitality 

A grand banquet was held in the spacious apartments of the Odd Fel- 
lows' Hall, which then stood on the corner of Fifth and Felix streets. Not 
less than six hundred invited guests were feasted here; and it was estimated 
that several thousand ate during the day at this liospitable board. 

Broaddns Thompson, Esq., a brother of General M. Jeff. Thompson, 
made the grand speech of the occasion, and performed the ceremony of 
mingling the waters of the two mighty streams thus linked by a double 
band of iron. 

The completion of the road constitutes an era in the history of St. Joseph, 
and from that period dawned the light of a new prosperity. In the five suc- 
ceeding years the population of the city was quadrupled, and her name her- 
alded to the remotest East as the rising emporium of the West. 

In the summer of 1872 this road commenced the building of a branch 
southward from St. Joseph, twenty-one miles, to the city of Atchison. This 
was completed in October of the same year. 

The St. Joseph and Western is one of the most valuable roads that leads 
into St. Joseph, and has been the source of a large trade from the neighbor- 
ino; State of Kansas. 

The Kansas City, St. Joseph and Council Bluffs road is not so important, 
having parallel roads in opposition, and until it came under the control of 
the C, B. & Q. it lacked comprehensive business views and enlightened 
management. It is, however, a good, local road, all the way from Sioux 
City to Kansas City, but as a northern and southern road, with competing 
lines, will not be of very great value as an investment. 

The ]\[issouri Pacific is another road that has run to the city, but found 
it far from profitable, and are now building from Atchison north, into Ne- 
braska. This road, like the K. C. & C. B , is of great local convenience to 
the people and St. Joseph. 

The Wabash, St. Louis and Pacific, as its southeastern route to St. Louis, 
the St. Joseph and Western, and the Hannibal and St. Joseph, will always 
be the leading roads. The first mentioned running a branch to St. Joseph, 
giving them a route to St. Louis over what was called the Kansas City, St. 
Louis and Northern, now all known as the Wabash system. 


The St. Joseph and Des Moines is another new road of local importance, 
although giving another Chicago route to the city of "pools and corners." 
There are now (1881) three lines of street railway in St. Joseph. 
The Board of Trade was organized October 19, 1878. 


The rapid increase of the wholesale trade of St. Joseph is simply re- 
markable. The merchants, in January, looked forward to a greatly increased 
trade, but they did not think for a moment that it would go so far beyond 
the expectations of the most sanguine. Such, however, has been the case, 
and there is no telling what proportions the trade will assume in 1881. To 
accommodate this in'crease of business, many of our merchants are com- 
pelled to erect more commodious buildings. The many magnificent whole- 
sale structures that have gone up in the past few months bear ample 
evidence to the truth of this assertion. 

Total sales in 1880 of merchandise. 8^:9,385,000 

Add sales of manufactures 12,902,115 

Grand total of the trade of St. Joseph, 1880 862,287,115 


In the year 1856 J. B. Banney and associates proposed to the city authori- 
ties that privileges should be granted to a company to be organized of which 
the city should take one-half the capital stock and himself and associates 
the remaining half. The proposal was agreed to and the city became a 
stockholder. The works were erected and met with a steady loss even at 
the rate of five and six dollars charged per ^thousand feet of gas to con- 
sumers. The city sold out for twenty cents on the dollar. They continued 
changing hands and losing money until the purchase of the works in 1871, 
by James Clemens and his associates, of Detroit, Michigan, under the name 
of the Citizens' Gas Light Company, for the sum of 850,000. This 
company greatly enlarged and otherwise improved tlie works, and secured 
a contract for lighting the street lamps, which had remained unlighted 
several years. The trouble was that the people had not progressed far 
enough to fully appreciate gas in their business houses or private residences, 
and the cost of introducing was an item of serious contemplation while 
their residences to a large extent were not built with gas ai-rangements. 
The company, however, began to prosper for the first time in the history of 
gas in St. Joseph when a new company was granted equal facilities with 
them and proposed to cut down the price of gas and teach the citizens of 
St. Joseph the beauties of its use. 

In 1878 this new company came to the front under the name of the Mu- 
tual Gas Light Company, the present owners of the works, and made pro- 
posals to the authorities, through their president, C. H. Nash, to supply 


present consumers with gas at $2.50 per tlionsand feet, and the street Limps 
at $25 per annum. The old company had charged $4 per thousand feet and 
$30 for lighting the street lamps per year. They were granted the franchise 
and awarded the city contract, and this resulted in the sale of the entire 
works and franchise of the old company to the Mutual (xas Light Association. 

The latter company has erected elegant new works on the corner of 
Latayette and Sixth streets, capable of supplying a city of 75,000 inhab- 

The compan}' have now placed in position over twenty miles of main 
pipe, supplying over eight hundred consumers and nearly five hundred 
street lamps. 


One of the chief needs of St. Joseph for more than ten years past has been 
a complete and perfect system of water- works, to be employed both as a 
safeguard against fire and as a means of averting the possibilities of a de- 
ficient supply in seasons of drought. 

But it was not until the 10th day of December, 1879, that anything was 
actually accomplished in that direction, at which date the mayor approved 
an ordinance passed by the city council authorizing the construction of 
water- works upon the " gravity system," the supply to be obtained from the 
Missouri Eiver above the city limits. 

On December 23, 1879, the contract was let to the St. Joseph Water 
Company, under bond to complete the works and furnish a full supply of 
pure, wholesome water within twelve months from that date. This com- 
pany commenced work on the 4th day of January, 1880, and upon the 12th 
da}' of January, 1881, the works were accepted by the city authorities as per- 
fectly satisfactorj'. 

The great basins are supplied with water by the engines below, the water first 
being forced into a well west of the elevation, and after that it runs through 
pipes into the reservoirs, of which there are three. The settling basin is 
380 feet long by 85 feet wide, and its capacity is three million gallons. Its 
depth is twenty feet, and its water lev6l is two feet higher than the reser- 
voir on the south. 

The north basin, which is intended for the filtered water, is 150 feet wide 
and 300 feet long, and has a capacity of six million of gallons. 

If at any time it should be required to empty these basins there is cer- 
tain machinery on hand that can be placed at work immediately and the old 
water can be replaced by that which is fresh and pure. 

Reservoir Hill is 330 feet above high water mark, and it is 122 feet 
higher than any point in St. Joseph. In the business portion of the city the 
pressure has been, since the works were in operation, 120 pounds to tlie 
square inch. 

In testing the capacity of the street hydrants it has been demonstrated 


that in the business portion of the city a stream can be thrown throu<^h hose, 
with a proper nozzle attached, to the height of about 110 feet, wliile at tlie 
corner of Nineteenth and Francis streets, one of the highest points within 
the eastern corporate limits, a distance of sixtj-five feet has been shown to 
be the extreme limit of the elevation. 

At the present writing something over twenty miles of main pipe have 
been laid in place and one hundred and eighty-two hydrants placed at proper 
locations and in working order. 

The works were to cost at first $300,000, but the company kept adding to 
the original estimate until the works complete have cost $700,000 instead 
of the amount first estimated. 


To John B. Carson, general manager of the Hannibal and St. Joseph 
Railroad, belongs the credit of originating a plan for the construction of a 
union depot at St. Joseph. 

After various conferences of the union depot projectors, the erection of the 
building was finally determined upon in April, ISSO, when the St. Joseph 
Union Depot Company was organized, with the following companies as in- 
corporators and stockholders: Hannibal and St. Joseph Railroad Company^ 
Missouri Pacific Railway Company, St. Joseph and Western Railroad Com- 
pany, which is a part of the Union Pacific; Kansas City, St. Joseph and 
Council Bluflfs Railroad Company, which is a part of the Chicago, Burling- 
ton and Quincy Railroad; Wabash, St. Louis and Pacific Railroad Corn- 
pan}'; St. Joseph and Des Moines Raih'oad Company. 

The ground which was selected and legally condemned for this enterprise 
is situated on the east side of Sixth Street, near the corner of Mitchell Ave- 
nue, that having been found to be the most suitable location for a common 
point of meeting for the different railroads operating their lines through this 
city. It embraces a tract of six acres, all of which will be required for its 
buildings, sheds, platforms, tracks, etc. 

The style of the building is Eastlake domestic gothic, and contemplates 
a building 400 feet in length and fifty feet in width, set back from Sixth 
Street thirty-six feet, so as to give room for carriage-way between present 
street line and front of building. 


The transactions of the stock-yards for the past three years are as follows: 





Head of hogs 169,710 

Head of cattle 5,992 

Head of horses and mules i 1,842 




Head of sheep | 3,564 2,293 






The capacity of the yards is limited at present to fifty pens, which will 
accommodate 2,500 head of cattle and 3,000 head of hogs. 


During tlie year 18S0 nearly 10,000 head of cattle were marketed in St. 
Joseph, which amounted to the aggregate value of about $300,000. 

There were about 4,000 horses and mules sold in this market in 1880, of 
a total value of $350,000. A great portion of this number were shipped out 
to Minnesota, Iowa, Nebraska, Kansas, Dakota, Wyoming, Colorado, New 
Mexico, Louisiana and South Carolina. 

There were 140,000 head of hogs sold in this city in 1880, of a value of 
$2,000,000, making the total sales of live stock $2,650,000. 


There are at present (1881) three packing-houses in the city. The oldest 
of these was established by the present proprietor, David Pinger, in 1853. 
It is near the Francis Street depot. About five hands are generally em- 
ployed. Slaughtering here is principally done for the butchers. 

Hax & Brother were established in 1868. Their packing-house and office 
are on the corner of Fourth and Mary streets. They employ in the winter 
season between sixty and eighty hands, and also pack to a limited extent in 

The packing-house of H. Krug &> Co. was established in the winter of 
1877-8, H. Krug, president; James McCord, vice-president and treas- 
urer; George C. Hax, secretary. The capital stock of the company is 
$72,000. In the winter of 1879-80 this house packed between 60,000 
and 65,000 hogs. In the summer about 24,000 head were packed. In 
August, 1881, they slaughtered 1,800 hogs per week. 

Connett Brothers, who packed in 1880 about 6,000 hogs, on their farm 
in the county, are now (1881) erecting a spacious brick structure south 
of the city limits, which will cost, when completed, about $25,000 or 
$30,000. Its packing capacity will be from 1,000 to 1,500 per day. 


The past winter has affbrded the best ice harvest ever before known in 
this city. The following statement shows the number of tons taken from 
the Missouri River and Lake Contrary and stored for use: 

Breweries 40,000 tons. 

Packing companies 25,000 tons. 

Ice detilers 25,000 tons. 

Private use 10,000 tons. 

Total 100,000 tons. 

The average cost of storing ice last season was less than $1.00 per ton, 
while the average cost of imported ice the year previous was $4.50 per ton. 



No other city in the entire West can boast of so fine a temple devoted 
to the dramatic art, nor comparing in size and elegance of appointment, 
with the Opera House in this city. 

The building was erected by Mr. Milton Tootle, in 1873, at a cost of 
$150,000. It is regarded by all as the finest theater west of Chicago. 

The City Hall cost $50,000, an imposing building. 


In accordance with a resolution of the Board of Trade recently adopted, a 
committee appointed for that purpose has prepared articles of association 
for the incorporation of a stock company, to be called the Chamber of Com- 
merce, the object of which is to perfect a plan for the erection of a Board of 
Trade or Chamber of Commerce building in this city. The organization has 
been completed, and it is thought that the necessary stock can be placed 
at once. The location has not yet been determined upon, but it is de- 
signed to secure a corner lot, if possible, near to the business center of 
the city. 

The St. Joseph glucose company was formed in June, 1880. The name 
of the company is The St. Joseph Refining Company. It has all of the latest 
improved machinery, and a capacity for making up 3,000 bushels of corn 
daily. The building is situated in South St. Joseph, and covers over an 
acre of ground. 

Situated on South Fourth Street, in the premises formerly occupied by the 
Evans, Day & Co. Canning Factory, are the Star Preserving Works, owned 
and operated by Albert Fischer & Co. They have recently enlarged 
the premises with additional buildings until they cover nearly an entire 

The capacity of the works are 40,000 cans, or 1,800 bushels of tomatoes 
per day, or from 1,000 to 1,2.00 bushels of peas. During the preserving sea- 
son these works have about 250 emploj^es upon their pay-roll. 


The packing of butter, eggs, apples, potatoes, and other produce is as- 
suming immense proportions, and as St. Joseph is situated in the heart of 
the finest agricultural district in the world, this industry must increase with 
each succeeding year. 

The following statistics of this branch of trade were supplied by the prin- 
cipal commission houses here for the year 1880. 

No. of bushels potatoes shipped from the city 100,000 

No. of bushels apples packed and shipped from the city. . 21t),250 

No. dozen eggs packed and shipped from the city 400,000 

No. pounds butter packed and shipped from the city. . . . 880,030 
Total value of the sliipments above noted $450,000 


The military force of the city consists of two battalions, composed of five 
companies of infantry, all superbly equipped "and exceedingly well drilled. 


built to St. Joseph was completed to that point on the day of the inaugura- 
tion of President Franklin Pierce. The first dispatch to come over the line 
to St. Joseph was his inaugural address. The name of the telegraph oper- 
ator who received the message was Peter Lovell. His oftice was on the 
southwest corner of Second and Jule streets. 


Letters received by mail 1,043,209 

Local letters received and delivered 95,061 

Postal cards by mail 294,448 

" " local 72,988 

Newpaper delivery ... 802,190 

Total number of pieces sent, 1880 4,024,170 . 

Increase over 1879, 12|^ per cent. 

Total business money order department, 1880 S 1,596,237.26 

Sales of stamps, envelopes and postal cards 54,395.36 

Internal revenue for 1880 66,161.43 

Total debt of the city 1,750,000.00 

" assessed valuation, 1880 10,000,000.00 

Interest on city indebtedness, 4 per cent. 

Yalue of property owned by the city 250.000.00 

St. Joseph is the third city in size in the State, and its population, by the 
census of 1880, is 32,484. It is gaining moderately, but the spirit of en- 
terprise has never been very highly developed by her people. Her whole- 
sale merchants are opposed to further opposition in their line, and, as a rule, 
they do little to advertise their business; some of the heaviest never put- 
ting a line of advertisements in the papers year in and year out, while 
many do it grudgingly, as a sort of tax which they are compelled to pay. 
It is like St. Louis, slow to move, and like the latter city, it has some live, 
energetic men, but not enough to leaven the mass. 

In scope of country tributary to her growth and prosperity St. Joseph 
has little to complain of, and if an energetic spirit possessed her people she 
would have a surprising growth the next ten years. As it is, she is likely 
to retain her present position as the third city in the State. She has a re- 
lined and cultivated people, hospitable and generous, but her business inter- 
ests are carried on to the extreme upon the basis of self. With an increase of 
population and more extended and broader views St. Joseph's future is one of 

Laws of Missouri. 


The homestead exemption law of the State of Missouri has been one of 
the most enliglitened laws passed for the benefit of the people. In the 
last session of the general assembly of the State, the spring of 1880-81, 
there was a material change in the law, and it is given here in full. Thus 
every head of a family can be secure in a home of moderate value, if he 
will not waive his right to it. There are printed notes now drawn up in 
which there is a clause printed waiving the right of holding such property 
under that law. When a man siorns such a note, his home stands in the 
same light as his other property. These notes should never be signed un- 
less by or with the consent of the wife as well as the husband. The law 
reads, as amended, as follows and is in full force at this time: 

Section 1. Section twenty-six hundred and eighty-nine (2689) of the Re- 
vised Statutes of Missouri, is hereby amended by striking out, " or incor- 
porated towns and villages having a less population," and inserting in lieu 
thereof, "having a population of ten thousand or less," in twelfth line, and 
by inserting immediately after " dollars," fifteenth line, the words " and 
in cities and incorporated towns and villages having a population less than 
ten thousand, such homesteads shall not include more than five acres of 
ground or exceed the total value of $1,500," so that said section as amended 
shall read as follows: 

Sec. 2689. The homestead of every housekeeper or head of a family, con- 
sisting of a dwelling-house and apiDurtenances, and the land in connection 
therewith, not exceeding the amount and value herein limited, which is or shall 
be used by such housekeeper, or head of a family as such homestead, shall, to- 
gether with the rents, issues and products thereof, be exempt from attach- 
ment and execution, except as herein provided; such homestead in the 
country shall not inchide more than one hundred and sixty acres of land, or 
exceed the total value of fifteen hundred dollars; and in cities having a pop- 
ulation of forty thousand or more, such homestead shall not include more 
than eighteen square rods of ground, or exceed the total value of three 
thousand dollars; and in cities having a population of ten thousand and less 
than forty thousand, such liomestead shall not include more than thirty 
square rods of ground, or exceed the total value of fifteen hundred dollars; 


and in cities and incorporated towns and villages having a population less 
than ten thousand, such homestead shall not include more than five acres of 
ground, or exceed the total value of fifteen hundred dollars; and any mar- 
ried woman may file her claim to the tract or lot of land occupied by her 
and her husband, or by her, if abandoned by her husband, as a homestead; 
said claim shall set forth the tract or lot claimed, that she is the wife of the 
person in whose name the said tract or lot a])pears of record, and said claim 
shall be acknowledged by her before some officer authorized to take proof or 
acknowledgments of instruments of writing, alfecting real estate, and be 
filed in the recorder's office, and it shall be the duty of the recorder to re- 
ceive and record the same. After the filing of such claims, duly acknowl- 
edged, the husband shall be debarred from, and incapable of selling, mort- 
gaging or alienating the homestead in any manner whatever, and every 
such sale, mortgage or alienation is hereby declared null and void; and the 
filing of any such claims, as aforesaid, with the recorder, shall impart notice 
to all persons of the contents thereof, and all subsequent purchasers and 
mortgagers shall be deemed, in law and equity, to purchase with notice: 
Promded^ however, that nothing herein contained shall be so construed as 
to prevent the husband and wife from jointly conveying, mortgaging, alien- 
ating or in any other manner disposing of such homestead or any part 

Approved, March 26, 1881. 


An Act to exempt the husband from the payment of the debts of the wife contracted before 

Section 1. The property owned by a man before his marriage, and that 
which he ma^^ acquire after his marriage by purchase, descent, gift, grant, 
devise, or in any other manner whatsoev^er, and the profits thereof, except 
such as may be acquired from the wife, shall be exempt from all debts and 
liabilities contracted or incurred by his wife before their marriage. 

Sec. 2. All acts and parts of acts inconsistent with this act are hereby 

Approved, March 25, 1881. 


The law passed by the general assembly on the rights and privileges of 
married women is full and complete, is composed of fourteen sections and 
too long to be embodied in this work. The law can be found in the " Re- 
vised Statutes of Missouri, volume 1, 1879." It is chapter 51. and found 
on pages 557 to 561. 

hedges TRIMMED. 

It may not be known to all that a law was passed by the last general 
assembly (1880-1881), that " every person owning a hedge fence, over five 


years old, upon the line of any public road or highway in this State, is 
hereby required to cut down the same, to the height of not more than five 
feet nor less than four feet, every two years : Provided^ that hedge fences 
inclosing orchards, house-yards and stock-yards, shall be exempt from the 
provisions of this act." 

The overseer of roads is to serve the notice and the owner has thirty days 
to commence, and if he fail to do it the overseer shall have it done and the 
owner must pay all expenses of the same. It can be collected of him by 
law, same as revenue for road purposes. 

The law passed and took effect March 16, 1881. 


Section 1. The voters of any school-district in this State may change 
the location of a school -house site when the same, for any cause, may be 
deemed necessary and notice of such comtemplated change shall have been 
given by the directors at least twenty days prior thereto by posting at least 
three written notices in three of the most public places in the district where 
such school-house site shall be located: Provided^ that in every case a 
majority of the voters of said district shall only be necessary to remove a 
site nearer the center of a school district, but in all cases to remove a site 
further from the center of a school-district it shall require two-thirds of the 
legal voters of such school-district. 

Sec. 2. All acts and parts of acts in conflict with this act are hereby 

Approved, March 24, 1881. 


The legislature of 1880-81, passed a marriage license act Avhich makes 
it necessary for persons before marriage to secure a license. !No person au- 
thorized to perform the marriage ceremony, can legally do so without first 
seeing the license, and a marriage performed without a license is not legal 
and a penalty is attached. The intent of the law is to have an official rec- 
ord which will stand in the courts and settle any dispute either of mar- 
riage or property which may hereafter arise. The law reads: 

Section 1. Previous to any marriage in this State a license for that pur- 
pose shall be obtained. 

Section 2. The recorder of the county issues the license and the parties 
must be, the male 21 years and the female 18 years of age. If younger the 
parents or guardian must give consent. 


The business of imhlisliing hooks hy subscription, having so often been 
brought into disrepute by agents making representations and declarations 


not authorized hy the 2niUisher, in order to provent that as mncli as possi- 
ble, and tliat tliere may be more general knowledge of the relation such 
agents bear to their principal, and the law governing such cases, the follow- 
ing statement is made: 

A snlscription is in the nature of a contract of mutual promises, by 
which the subscriber agrees to pcy a certain sum for the work described; 
the consideration is that the publisher shall puhlish the hook named, 
and deliver the same, for which the subscriber is to pay the price named. 
The nature and character of the work are described hy the j^rospectus 
and sample shown. These should be carefully examined before sub- 
scribing, as they are the basis and consideration of the promise to pay, 
and not the too often exaggerated statements of the agent, who is merely 
employed to solicit subscriptions, for which he is usually paid a commis- 
sion for each subscriber, and has no authority to change or alter the con- 
ditions upon which the subscriptions are authorized to be made by the 
publisher. Should the agent assume to agree to make the subscription 
conditional, or modify or change the agreement of the publisher, as set out 
by the prospectus and sample, in order to bind the principal, the sub- 
scriber should see that such condition or changes are stated over or in con- 
nection with his signature, so that the publisher may have notice of the same. 
All persons making contracts in reference to matters of this kind, or any 
other business, should remember that the law as written is, that they can 
not be altered, varied, or rescinded verbally, but if done at all, must be 
done in writing. It is therefore important that all persons contemplating 
subscribing should distinctly understand that all talk before or after the 
subscription is made is not admissible as evidence, and. is no part of the 

Persons employed to. solicit subscriptions are known to the trade as 
canvassers. They are agents appointed to do a particular business in a 
prescribed mode and have no authority to do it any other way to the prej- 
udice of their principal, nor can they bind their principal in any other 
manner. They can not collect money, or agree that payment may be made 
in anything else but money. They can not extend the time of payment 
beyond the time of delivery nor bind their principal for the payment of 
expenses incurred in their business. 

It would, save a great deal of trouble, and often serious loss, if persons, 
before signing their names to any subscription book, or any written instru- 
ment, would examine carefully what it is; and if they cannot read them- 
selves call on some one disinterested who can. 




I, James Johnson, of the town of Mnncie, county of Delaware, and State 
of Indiana, being aware of the uncertaint}' of life, and in failing health, but 
of sound mind and memory, do make and declare this to be my last will 
and testament, in manner as follows; to- wit.. 

First — I give, devise and bequeath to my son James Horace Johnson, 
$1,000 in bank stock, of the First National Bank of Boston, and the farm 
owned by myself, in the township of Washington, Shelby county, Mis- 
souri, and consisting of eighty acres of land with all the houses, tene- 
ments and improvements thereunto belonging, to have and to hold unto my 
said son, his heirs and assigns forever. 

Second — I give, devise and bequeath to each of my two daughters, Ida 
Louisa Johnson and Annie May Johnson, each $1,000 in cash, and each 
one a quarter section of land owned .by myself in the township of Jasper, 
Henry county, Illinois, and recorded in my name in the record of said 
county, where said land is located; the north 160 acres to go to Ida Louisa, 
my eldest daughter. 

Third — I give, devise and bequeath to my son Thomas Alfred Johnson, 
ten shares of railroad stock in the Mississippi & Ohio Railroad, and my lot, 
with the residence thereon, in Dayton, Ohio, with all the improvements 
and appurtenances thereunto belonging, which said real estate is recorded 
in my name in the county where situated. 

Fourth— 1 give to my wife Samuella Richardson Johnson, all my house- 
hold furniture, goods, chattels and personal property about my home not 
hitherto disposed of, including $5,000 of bank stock, in the Merchants' 
National Bank of Toledo, Ohio, fifteen shares in the Mississippi & Ohio 
Railroad, and the free and unrestricted use, possession and benefit of the 
home farm so long as she may live, in lieu of dower to which she is en- 
titled by law, said farm being my present place of residence. 

Fifth — It is also my will and desire that at the death of my wife, Sam- 
uella Richardson Johnson, or at any time when she may arrange to relin- 
quish her life interest in the above mentioned homestead, the same may 
revert to my above named children, or to the lawful heirs of each. 

And lastly — I nominate and appoint as executors of this, my last will 
and testament, my wife, Samuella Richardson Johnson, and my eldest son, 
James Horace Johnson, 

I further direct that my debts and necessary funeral expenses shall be 
paid from moneys now on deposit in the Savings Bank of Dayton, Ohio, 
the residue of such money to revert to my wife, Samuella Richardson 
Johnson, for her use forever. 


In witness whereof, I, James Jolmson, to this, my last will and testament, 
liave hereunto set my hand and seal, this fourth day of December, 1876. 

James Johnson. 

Signed and declared by James Johnson as and for his last will and testa- 
ment, in the presence of us, who, at his request and in his presence and in 
the presence of each other, have subscribed our names hereunto as witnesses 


Thomas Dugan, Dayton, Oliio. 

KocHESTER McQuade, Cincinnati, Ohio. 


Whereas, I, James Johnson, did, on the fourth day of December, 1876, 
make my last will and testament, I do now, by this writing, add this codicil 
to my said will, to be taken as a part thereof. 

Whereas, By the dispensation of Providence, my daughter Ida Louisa 
has deceased, October 10th, 1877; and 

Whereas, A son has been born to me, which son is now christened John 
Wesley Johnson, I give and bequeath unto him my gold watch, and all 
right, interest and title in lands, bank stock and cliattels bequeathed to 
my deceased daughter, Ida Louisa, in the body of this will. 

In witness whereof, I have hereunto set my hand and seal this lOtli day 
of Januarv, 1878. 

James Johnson. 

Signed, sealed, published and declared to us by the testator, James 
Johnson, as and for a codicil to be annexed to his last will and testament, 
and we, at his request and in his presence, and in the presence of each 
other, have subscribed our names as witnesses thereto, at the date hereof. 

Thos. Dugan, Dayton, Ohio. 

Charles Jackson, Cincinnati, Ohio. 


This article of agreement, made and entered into on this day 

of A. D. 188-, by and between , of the county of , 

and State of Missouri, of the first part, and , of the county of 

, and State of Missouri, of the second part, witnesseth that the 

said j>arty of the first part has this day leased unto the party of the second 
part che following described premises ;*to-wit., 

{Ilere insert description.l 

for the term of from and after the day of A. D. 188-, 

at the rent of dollars, to be paid as follows; to-wit., 

{Here insert termsJl 


And it is further agreed that if any rent shall be due or unpaid, or if de- 
fault be made in any of the covenants hei-ein contained, it shall then be law- 
ful for the said party of the first part to re-enter the said premises, or to 
distrain for such rent; or he may recover possession thereof, by action of 
forcible entry and detainer, or he maj^ use all or any of the remedies to effect 
such possession. 

And the party of the second part agrees to pay to the party of the first 
part the rent as above stated, except when said premises are untenantable 
by reason of fire, or from any other cause than the carelessness of the party 
of the second part, or persons family, or in employ, or by su- 
perior force or inevitable necessity. And the said party of the second part 

covenants and agrees that will use the said premises as a , and 

for no other purpose whatsoever; and that especially will not use said 

premises, or permit the same to be used, for any unlawful business or pur- 
poses whatsoever; that will not sell, assign, underlet or relinquish said 

premises without the written consent of the lessor, under a penalty of a for- 
feiture of all rights under this lease, at the election of the party of the 

first part; and that use all due care and diligence in guarding said 

property, with the buildings, gates, fences, trees, vines, shrubbery, etc., from 
damages by fire and the depredation by animals ; that will keep build- 
ings, gates, fences, etc., in as good repair as they now are, or may at any 
time be placed by the lessor, damages by superior force, inevitable necessity, 
or fire from any other cause than from the carelessness of the lessor, or per- 
sons of family, or in employ, excepted; and that npon the expira- 
tion of this lease, or upon a breach by said lessee of any of the said cove- 
nants herein contained will, without further notice of any kind, quit 

and surrender the occupancy and possession of said premises in as good 
condition as reasonable use, natural wear and decay thereof will permit, 
damages by fire as aforesaid, superior force, or inevitable necessity, alone 

In witness whereof, the said parties have subscribed their names on the 
date first above written 

Signed in presence of 


Know all men by these presents: That , of county, and 

State of , in consideration of dollars, in hand paid by , 

of county, and State of , do hereby sell and convey unto the 

said , the following described premises, situated in the county of 

, and State of ; to-wit, 

{Here insert description.'] 
and do hereby covenant with the said that lawfully seized of 


said premises, that they are free from incumbrance, that liave good 

riglit and hiwfiil authority to sell and convey the same; and do hereby 

covenant to warrant and defend the same against the lawful claims of all 

persons whomsoever. To be void upon the condition that the said 

shall pay the full amount of principal and interest at the time therein spec- 
ified, of certain promissory notes, for the sum of dollars, 

One note for $ — , due , 18 — , with interest annually at per cent. 

One note for $ — , due , 18 — , with interest annually at per cent. 

One note for $ — , duo , 18 — , with interest annually at per cent. 

And the said mortgagor agrees to pay all taxes that may be levied upon 
the above described premises. It is also agreed by the mortgagor that if it 
becomes necessaiy to foreclose this mortgage, a reasonable amount shall be 
allowed as an attornej^'s fee for foreclosing. And the hereby relin- 
quishes all her riglit of dower and homestead in and to the above described 

Signed the day of , A. D. 18 — . 


Know all men by these presents: That , of county, and 

State of , in consideration of dollars, in hand paid by , 

of county, and State of , do hereby sell and convey unto the said 

, the following described personal property, now in the possession of 

, in the county of , State of ; to- wit., 

\_Here insert description.'] 

and do hereby warrant the title of said property, and that it is free from 
any incumbrance or lien. The only right or interest retained by grantor in 
the said property being the right of redemption herein provided. This con- 
veyance to be void upon comlition that the said grantor shall pay to said 
grantee, or his assigns, the full amount of principal and interest at the time 

therein specified, of certain promissory notes of even date herewith, 

for the sum of dollars, 

Ore note for$ — , due ,18 — , with interest annually at per cent. 

One note for $ — , due , 18 — , with interest annually at per cent. 

One note for % — , due , 18 — , with interest annually at per cent. 

The grantor to pay all taxes on said propertj^ and if at any time any part or 
poi'tion of said notes should bq due and unpaid, said grantor may proceed 
by sale or foreclosure to collect and pay himself the unpaid balance of said 
notes, whether due or not, the grantor to pay all necessary expenses of such 
forecilosure, including $ attorney's fees, and whatever remains after pay- 
ing cfFsaid notes and expenses, to be paid over to said grantor. 

Signed the day of , 18 — . 



Know all men by these presents: That , of county, 

State of , in consideration of dollars, to in hand paid by 

■ , of county, and State of , the receipt whereof do 

hereby acknowledge, have bargained, sold and quitclaimed, and by these 

presents do bargain, sell and quitclaim unto the said , and to 

heirs and assigns forever, all right, title and interest, estate, claim and 

demand, both in law and in equity, and as well in possession as in expect- 
ancy, of, in and to the following described premises; to-wit., 

\_IIere insert description.'] 

With all and singular the hereditaments and appurtenances thereto be- 

Signed this day of , A. D. 18 — 

Signed in presence of 

warranty deed. 

Know all men by these presents: That , of county, and 

State of , in consideration of the sum of dollars, in hand paid 

by , of county, and State of , do hereby sell and convey 

unto the said , and to heirs and assigns, the following described 

premises, situated in the county of , State of Missouri; to-wit., 

{Here insert description?] 

And do hereby covenant with the said that a — law- 
fully seized in fee simple of said premises, that they are free from incum- 
brance; that ha — good right and lawful authority to sell the same, 

and do hereby covenant to warrant and defend said premises, and; ap- 
purtenances thereto belonging, against the lawful claims of all persons 

whomsoever; and the said ■ hereby relinquishes all her right of 

dower and of homestead in and to the above described premises. 

Signed the day of • , A. D. 18 — . 

Signed in presence of 


All forms of deeds, mortgages, or bond for deed, shall have the following 

form of acknowledgment: 

laws of missouri. 127 

State of Missouri, 

County of- 

Be it remembered, that on this day of , A. D, 18 — , before 

me the undersigned, a in and for said county, personally appeared 

, to me personally known to be the identical person who executed the 

above (deed, mortgage, etc.,) as and acknowledged signature 

thereto to be voluntary act and deed. 

Witness my hand and seal, the day and year last above written. 


Form of note is legal, worded in the simplest way, so that the amount 
and time of payment are mentioned: 

$100. New York, Sept. 1, 1881. 

Sixty days after date I promise to jpay to John Doe, or order, one hun- 
dred dollars, for value received, with interest. 

Richard Roe. 

A note to be payable in anything else but money, needs only the article 
substituted in the above form. " With interest," means at the legal rate, and 
any other rate must be mentioned, or if no interest is to be paid until after 
the maturity of the note it should be so stated. 


Orders should be simply worded: 

Mr. D. II. Waters, St. Louis, Mo., January 2, 1881. 

Please pay J. Walker twenty-five dollars and charge to account of 

J. Turner. 

If it is to be paid in trade it should be so expressed after the word dol- 

Receipts should state when received and for what; thus: 

$100. St. Louis, Mo., January 1, 1878. 

Received of J. W. Hardin one hundred dollars, for services in the harvest 
field to date, in full. 


Received of J. W. Hardin fifty dollars, for one week's work of self and 
team, in hauling stone, in fall. 

R. W. Fields. 

If only part is paid it should read, " on account," instead of " in full." 



It should state each article and price, as follows : 

J. TV. Shattuck, St. Louis, Mo., January 1, 1878. 

Bought of J. D. Adams. 

To 5 Yards Jeans @.50 $2.50 

"20 " Brown Domestic .08 1.00 

Received payment, $4.10 

J. D. Adams. 


How to find the ot-oss and net weiorht of a hoo^, is bv the rule that a hou's 
net weight is one fifth less than his gross weight. For instance, a hog 
weighing 400 pounds gross, would when dressed weigh 320. 

A good rule to find the capacity of a granary or a wagon-bed is multiply 
by (short method) the number of cubic feet by 6308, and point ofi' one dec- 
imal place — the result will be the correct answer in bushels and tenths of 

To find the contents of a corn-crib multiply the number of cubic feet bv 
54 (short method) or by 4-|- ordinary method, and point oti' one decimal — 
the result will be the answer in bushels. Tliis rule applies when it is first 
cribbed and before the corn shrinks. 

For the contents of a cistern or tank, multiply the square of the mean 
diameter by the depth (all in feet) and this product by 5681 (short method) 
and point oft" one decimal place — the result will be the contents in barrels 
of 31^ gallons each. 

To measure boards multiply the length (in feet) by the width (in inches), 
divide the product by 12 — the result will be the contents in square feet. 

Note. — This is the correct measurement for every inch of thickness. 

The same in substance is the rule for scantling, joists, plank, sills, etc. 
Multiply the width, thickness and length together (the width and thickness 
in inches and the length in feet) and divide the product by 12 — the result 
will be square feet. 

To find the number of brick required in a building, multiply the nuuiber 
of cubic feet by 22|-. The number of cubic feet is found by multiplying 
the length, height and thickness (in feet) together. 

A congressional townshij) is thirty-six sections, each a square mile. 

A section of land is 640 acres. 

A quarter section, 160 acres, is a half a mile square. 

Eighty acres is a half mile long and one quarter of a mile wide. 

Forty acres is a quarter of a mile square. 

The sections of a congressional township are all numbered from one to 
thirty-six, commencing at the northeast corner of the township. 



One hundred and ninety-six pounds is one barrel of flour. 

Two hundred pounds is one barrel of pork. 

Fifty six pounds is called a firkin of butter. 

A cord of wood is four feet wide, four feet high, and eight feet long. 


The lawful, weight of the following articles is the following number of 
jiounds per bushel, and so understood when no special contract is made. 

Apples, peaches and quinces 48 

CheiTies, grapes, currants or gooseberries 40 
Strawberries, raspberries or blackberries. 32 

Osage-orange seed 32 

Millettseed 45 

Clover seed 60 

Flax seed 56 

Sorghum seed 30 

Timothy seed 45 

Hemp seed 44 

Broom-corn seed 30 

Blue-grass seed 14 

Hungarian grass seed 45 

Sweet potatoes 46 

Castor bean 46 

Dried apples 24 

Dried peaches 33 

Rye 56 

Salt So 

Sand 130 

Lime go 

Beans 60 

Bran 20 

Oats 33 

Wheat 60 

Barley 4,3 

Buckwheat 52 

Corn-meal 48 

Stone coal 80 

Corn, in the ear 70 

Potatoes 60 

Onions 57 

Shelled corn 5^ 

There is a fine and penalty attached for giving false weights. 





















o • 





















District of Columbia. 




















New Hampshii-e 

New Jersey 

New Mexico 

New York 

North Carolina 




Rhode Island 

South Carolina 







West Virginia 



Total United States. 



































































.50,1-52,866 43,402.408 





































































































































Per cent of increase from 1870 to 1880: 

Total population 30.06 per cent.lChinese population 67.07 per cent. 

White population 28.82 " " Indian population (civilized or 

Colored population 34.78 " " I or taxed) 156.02 " " 



The inhabitants of Alaska and the Indian Territory (both unorganized 
as yet) are not included in the above total. The census of Alaska 
in 1880 showed: White, 392; Creoles (issue of intermarriage between the 
whites and natives), 1,683; Aleuts, 1,960; Innuits, 17,488; Indians, 8,655; 
total, 30,178. 

The Indian Territory is estimated to contain 60,00 D to 75,000 inhabit- 

The Indians included in the census in each State and Territory are those 
reckoned as civilized, or outside of tribal organizations. Indians not taxed 
are by law excluded from the census. Estimates of their numbers vary 
widely — from 200,000 to 350,000 (the latter as- estimated in the census of 

In the Chinese column (for want of space elsewhere) have been reckoned 
a very few Japanese, East Indians and Sandwich Islanders, not exceeding 
250 in all. 


1850 9,021 

1855 18,374 

1860 30,635 

1865 35,085 

1870 52,914 

1875 74,374 

1880 84,715 

There were in the whole world, January 1, 1881, 192,952 miles of railway. 


In 1866 there were 37,380 miles of telegraph line in the United States and 
75,685 miles of wire; in 1870, 54,109 miles of line and 112,191 miles of 
wire; in 1875, 72,833 miles of line and 179,496 miles of wire; in 1880, 
85,645 miles of line and 233,534 miles of wire. 

There were 29,216,509 telegraph messages sent in the year 1880. 




















1S64 , 

1865 " 

1866 12,193,987 

3,-527,845 j 


1871 . 



















The crop for 1880 is given by States, as follows: 








South Cai'olina. 


North Carolina. . 




Indian Territory. 



Note.— Total, 5,781,018. The average net weight per bale is 440 pounds. 







C 02 
.- 13 

_ a 

(U O 
O . 

'O . 

p.— ^ 
— o 

, CO c^ 

X 00 




00. .1, 

T— 1 -" 

173 <U 
o en 




r. T ■ } Anthracite.. 

Pennsylvania \ Bituminous 



Maryland, Bituminous. . . . 

West Virginia 

















Rhode Island. 




Total . 
































































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-{ George Washington 

( John Adams •. 

I Thomas Jefferson. . . 

♦Thomas Jefferson.. 

Aaron Burr 

John Adams 

j Thos. Jefferson 

I C. C. Pinckney 

i James Madison 

i C. C. Pinckney 

i James Madison 

/ DeWitt Clinton 

J James Monroe , 

I Kufus King 

\ James Monroe 

♦John Quincy Adams. . 

Andrew Jackson 

W. H. Crawford 

Henry Clay 

Andrew Jackson 

John Q. Adams 

Andrew Jackson 

Henry Clay 

John Floyd 

William Wirt 

Martin Van Buren 

Wm. H. Harrison et al. . . 

Wm. H. Harrison 

Martin Van Buren 

James K. Polk 

Henry Clay 

Zachary Taylor 

Lewis Cass 

Martin Van Buren 

Franklin Pierce . 

Winfleld Scott et al 

James Buchanan 

John C. Fremont 

Abraham Lincoln , 

J. C. Breckeuridge et al. 

Abraham Lincoln 

Geo. B. JVIcClellan 

Ulysses S. Grant 

Horatio Seymour 

Ulysses S. Grant 

Horace Greeley 

R. B. Hayes 

Samuel J. Tilden 

Peter Cooper et al. 

James A. Garfield 

W. 8. Hancock 

James B. Weaver 




















































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1 El '1 vote 

in opp'n. 

























































Michigan ... . ... 






New Hampshire. 

New Jersey 

New York 

North Carolina.. 




Rhode Island . . . 
South Carolina. . 





West Virginia 









































♦Elected by House of Representatives. 

tElection November 2, 1880. 


Washington, February 22, 1732. 
J. Adams, October 30, 1735. 
Jefferson, April 2, 1743. 
Madison, March 16, 1751. 
Monroe, April 28, 1758 
J. Q. Adams, June 11, 1767. 
Jackson, March 15, 1767. 

Van Buren, December 5, 1782. 
Harrison, February 9, 1773. 
Tyler, March 29, 1790. 
Polk, November 2, 1795. 
Taylor, November 24, 1784. 
Fillmore, January 7, 1800. 
Pierce, November 23, 1804. 

Buchanan, April 23, 1791. 
Lincoln, February 12, 1809. 
Johnson, December 29, 1808. 
Grant, April 29, 1822. 
Hayes, October 4, 1822. 
Garfield, November 19, 1831. 
Chester A. Arthur, October 5. 1830. 

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4 p^^tns^^ 

History of Grundy County. 



Geological Formation — Surface — Boundaries — Name — Early Inhabitants — The Home of the 
Indian — Irresistible March of Civilization — When Grundy County Was Settled — Tlie Van- 
guard of Progress — ''The Good Old Times" — Reverence for the Pioneer. 

There is, perhaps, no portion of the temperate zone showing a more de- 
sirable climate than that which we have in the State of Missouri, or one 
wherein the demands of an advanced and progressive civilization are so well 
met. While all portions of the State have their separate or local advant- 
ages, we are inclined to think that in such comparison Grundy county and 
central north Missouri hold their full share. The geology of the State shows 
that the carboniferous period gave to Missouri much of that magic element 
of which the soil. is composed, and at the age of man, or quartenary age, 
developed her most valuable resources. The coal of the former period, and 
the soil, sand, marl, peat, clay and gravel of the latter, formed the ground- 
work of the State of Missouri for the liabitation of man. Much might be 
given from tlie geological historj^ of the State that would interest the reader, 
but in this work it would be of little practical value. 

When this continent rose from its waste of waters, it left its rugged sur- 
face to be worn bv the elements for asres before it became habitable for man : 
but with that we ha^'e little to do. 

Missouri in her magnificent proportions and unlimited productive wealth, 
her mild and salubrious climate, and that part of her municipal corporation 
bounded by the line forming Grundy county, is what we have at present to 
record. The present boundary of Grundy county was first made the home 
of the pale-face in 1833. 

That year the first white man gave to civilization a habitation and a name 
within its border. At that time it was a part of Livingston county, but 
still the home of the red men — a home which they were loth to part with, 
and which for years after they continued to visit and occupy as a hunting- 
ground. God had given them this beautiful valley of the Grand River as 
their home. It was a migratory field for the restless buffalo; the elk and 
the bear roamed its wooded hills; the deer and wild turkey made it their 


home; the valleys and the uplands were filled with smaller game; fish sported 
in the cool, placid waters of her rivers and creeks ; and in shady nooks and 
near bubbling springs, the aborigines built their wigwams. It was a para- 
dise for the hunter, and the red man was the lord of all. 

Nature had indeed been lavish of her gifts. The tribes of Sacs, Foxes, 
Pottawattamies and Musquakies who inhabited this magnificent country 
were indeed loth to leave it, and it is no wonder that many, very many, of 
these warriors were more willing to join their departed braves, in the happy 
hunting-grounds of the " Great Spirit," tlian give to the pale-faces the lands 
of their fathers. But manifest destiny knew no obstacle. The Saxon and 
Gallic races had decreed that this should be their home and that of their 
posterity. They came as the leaves of the forest in number, they pressed 
forward and the gallant, heroic and vengeful struggle of the Indian for his 
home is written in letters of blood, in burning cabins and wide-spread deso- 
lation, but all gave way before the irresistible march of civilization. The 
cabin of the hardy pioneer took the place of the wigwams of the savages. 
The war-whoop and the war-dance gave way to the woodman's ax, the 
stealthy tread of the Indian hunter, to the sturdy walk of the old pioneer, 
and civilization and Christianity walked arm in arm to the glorious future of 
to-day. Let us drop a silent tear to the memory of the red man. He had 
a beautiful home and he was despoiled of it; he had the hunting-ground of 
his father, it became his burial-place. We can rejoice in the glory of our 
country, but the fate of the original possessors of the. soil is a dark and 
bloody chapter in the record which gives the history of the onward march 
of civilization. However, when Grundy county was first settled the strug- 
gle for supremacy had ceased, and the Indians had given way to the pale- 
faces, who had full possession of the country. The remnants of tlie dift'erent 
tribes found here became the friends of the whites, and they roamed the 
country at will. There is no record of aught but friendly greeting between 
the whites and the Indians when this county assumed a place upon the 
page of history. 

The advance-guard of civilization, the heroic and self-sacrificing band of 
pioneers now took possession of tlie country. They — whose place is ever to 
the front of progress — began blazing the wa}^ (in the light of burning cabins, 
and ofttimes the victim of the scalping-knife) which was to guide the grand 
army of occupation, an army imbued with the spirit of true i-eligion, and a 
faith which builds and populates a country, and makes it great and prosper- 
ous. We hear much of the good old times in the earlier history of our 
country, but the people of to-day have little knowledge and less realization 
of the troubles, trials and privations of the early settlers. The men and 
M'omen of the present generation may feel thankful that they know, by bit- 
ter experience, nothing of the lives of those who gave a score or more of 
years in their struggles to make a home for their children, and their 


cliildren's children, free from the cares, tlie trials and vexations of a pioneer's 
life. The people of to-day should reverence these people of a past half cen- 
tury, and those who are spared tons at this late day should have all the 
care that loving hearts can give. Years of devotion-is but a small recom- 
pense for the heroic sacrifices made by the pioneer in the early settlement 
of the county. 


Early Settlers— 1833— 183i— First Store— Heatherh/ Gang— 1838— 1839— New Settlement— 
Mormon Family — Campaign 1840 — Women Pioneers — Wedding Tours — Marriage 
Record — First Coffin — Cheaper Market — Hard Cider Campaign — Names of Old 
Settlers — Tetherow and Lomax — The Coming County Seat Struggle— Poem — 1841. 


The early settlers are entitled to a high and honored place in the pages 
of history. Many, many days of toil have been devoted to gathering the 
facts which shall embalm the memory of this band of civil heroes who 
gave to' Grundy county its first step in the progress of civilization, and 
who, in all the phases of life, have proven themselves not only true sons of 
toil but noble men and respected citizens. If the time spent in trying 
to secure facts and reliable information necessary to make this history com- 
plete has been one of incessant toil to the author, it has, also, been no less a 
work of love on his part, for in the records of the past, and when the light 
of civilization and progress first dawned upon this section of our common 
country, and in the early reminiscences which have been secured, he has 
found much which brought to mind many bright and glowing incidents of 
early days, and of those who taught him what life was and is, and what 
might be in the vista of the far oft' future, but who have now gone to the 
home beyond. 

Memory is ofttimes treacherous, and a confusion of dates has not been the 
least of the troubles which has fallen in the pathway of the compiler. Re- 
liable dates of the early settlement of the county are all important to those 
who take an interest in the progress of events, and who desire of its early 
days a correct and succinct history. 

Many of these old settlers have removed to other States and climes; very 
many have crossed the "dark river "to the impenetrable and mysterious 
beyond; while those Mdio are left are weak in body, with memory sadly at 
fault on many facts of deep interest. IS'evertheless, they liave been willing, 
so far as health and memory would permit, to imjmrt all the incidents and 
trials of early years, and with a spirit of cheerfulness that makes it a pleas- 


lire to record them. 'They are to-day, as in olden times, the same self-sac- 
rilicing people. It is well that in the sordid, grasping avaricionsness which 
characterizes so many of the present generation, that they should have yet 
within them, by consanguinity, the leaven which made the grand old pio- 
neer stand out so prominently in unselfish and heroic sacrifices as " God's 
noblest work." ' 


Tliere may have been a few settlers somewhere on the southern line of 
Grundy county, but when or where they settled, if at all, is not of record 
earlier than 1835. It has been reported that a few families had made a home 
there so close to the border of Livingston county that when the Grundy 
county line was run they found themselves just over the border, for there are 
no foot-prints of man found on this side of the line, not even an initial spot 
where the historic cabin iniHit have been erected. 

Forty-eight years have passed since the first settler placed his foot upon 
the soil of Grundy county, and the date was October, 1833. All previous 
to that date is a blank, unsolved mystery. 


The first white man who came to Grundy county to make it his home 
was Gen, W. P. Thompson, of Ray county, who came here the last of Octo- 
ber, 1833, and was followed in a few days by Jno. Scott and Harvey Meek, 
who settled on the M-est side, northeast of Edinburg, on the Thompson 
River, at that time known as the West Fork of the East Fork of Grand 
River. Dr. Thompson's was the first cabin in the woods, quickly followed 
by others, and the Tliompson settlement became the pioneer one of the 
county. They proved an energetic class of citizens, and Gen. Thompson, 
perhaps better known as Doctor Thompson, for years was the most prom- 
inent man in this whole section of countiy. 


We can find notliing to dispute the point that Moore's settlement con- 
tained the first white invaders of the soil of Grundy county, east of Grand 
River. They occupied the land which is now the flourishing city of Tren- 
ton, the metropolis of Grand River Valley, and built cabins thereon in the 
spring of 1834. The family of Levi Moore was a large one, consisting of a 
wife and a number of children, besides his four sons-in-law. Their names 
were Wm. Cochran, John Thrailkill, George Tetherow and Yancy Stokes. 
The first had a family, and Mr. John Thrailkill had just married. Wm. 
Thrailkill came at the same time. They came from Randol])h and Howard 
counties, and their cabins were located near the bluff's. Of course this set- 
tlement soon began to grow, and not only this part of the county, but 
other sections began to receive their quota of the hardy and venturesome 



Next is found in the early spring of 1835 tliat the Ileatlierleys, whose 
reputations were not of tlie most savory kind, with the Watsons and Hawk- 
inses, settling in the southeast corner of the county. Then the Dohbinses and 
others on the east side, near where Lindlev now is. Settlers, however, while 
dropping in, were not numerous. There were miles of wooded hills and bot- 
tom-lands and open prairie between the cabins of the pioneers. It was 
weeks, and sometimes months, before the lonely occupant of tlie wilds would 
see a sign of a human being outside of his own family. These settlers of 
■34 and '35 1>ecame, many of them, of much note in the county. Cochran 
and Thrailkill held some offices in the early organization of the county, the 
latter, Mr. Thrailkill, being the first sheriff. But the man of grandest note 
at that day was Dr. Thompson. He came from Kay county, in the full 
prime of his manhood, a man of noble mould and a character so self-sacri- 
ficing as to win the love of all his neighbors and retain it until the earth 
covered all that was mortal of his giant frame. He practiced as a physician 
for many years, and that practice was immense, literally covering hundreds 
of miles in extent. The west fork of the Grand River was named after him. 
He died in 1848. Both Harvey Meek and John Scott, who came with Dr. 
Thompson from Ray .county, were hardy, progressive men, who fully met 
the demands of a pioneer's life. Humphrey Best was another of the early 
immigrants, and settled here in 1835. It is reported of him that he was the 
first man to break prairie in the county. Cochran owned most of the site 
of Trenton. He bought it at government price and sold it to Jas. R.Merrill, 
for $400. It is worth something over a half million dollars to-daj'. That 
old pioneer. Uncle Levi Moore, outlived nearly all of those who came to the 
county past middle age. He was of a lively, jovial character, was loved and 
reverenced by the young folks, and never more happy than when telling the 
wonderful stories of pioneer life, or joining in the fun and frolic going on 
around him. He lived to be one hundred years of age and died in 1875. 
His farm became known as the Lomax and Jacob land, and among his 
many descendants are his two sons, Capt. John Moore and James Moore. 
Among the few other settlers scattered through this section are found 
the names of George Peery, and his sons William, Archibald and a daughter 
Louisa, Jewett Harris, Pliilii^ Wild, George" Bunch, Humphrey B.est 
and others. There were three other Peerys, Evan and his son William 
N., and a Thomas. The latter was a Methodist minister who preached in 
the Bain settlement off and on all the winter of '37-38. Mr. George Peery^ 
wdio settled on the w^est side of the river in 1835, was held in the highest re- 
spect by his neighbors and was for years a leading spirit in advancing the 
social and material interests of Grundy county. He lived to the good old 
age of ninetv years and died, in the vear 1874, leavino- a large familv, and 
his death seriously mourned. Jewett Xurris finding himself rather cramped 


for room, several settlers gathering within a mile or two of liim, after living 
here several years left for a pioneer's life in Minnesota. Before leaving he 
had become quite a pnblic man. Ilis neighbors believed in him, and he was 
made a member of the first connty court and thrice elected State Senator. 
He was both merchant and farmer, and is reported as doing well in his new 

Daniel Devaul came in March, 1835, bringing a wife and eight children. 
He first settled near the river on the east side, known since as the Old Ben- 
son tract, Devaul having sold his claim to Samuel Benson, in 1838. Daniel 
Devaul was a man of great energy of character, and was of much value as 
an early settler, for he could turn his hand to almost anything. He believed 
in pushing things and built, with the assistance of his son, James K. De- 
vaul, the first store-house erected in Grundy county. It was a fine build- 
ing for those days. Generally the cabins were built of round logs, but in 
this new store building the logs were all hewn square and fitted nicely, and 
the plastering was done with real lime mortar. This last w^as, also, a de- 
cided innovation, for up to that time, according to the language of the na- 
tive poet, 

"Our cabins were made of logs of wood, 
Put up in squares and corked with mud; 
If the cost was light, the roof was good, 
For a new country." 

It was located on the ground now known as the Ridgeway property, and 
on that part where the vineyard and nursery now stand, in the southeast 
corner of the present town-site. On a visit to Richmond, Ray county, in 
the fall of 1838, Mr. Devaul persuaded James I. Lomax and his brother-in- 
law, Thomas Jacobs, to bring a stock of goods to the settlement and open a 
store, agreeing to rent the log palace aforesaid to them for a place of busi- 
ness. They accepted the ofter, and Lomax and Jacobs opened the first store 
in Grundy county. The settlement up to tliat time had been called Moore's 
and sometimes the Bluff's, but on the opening of the store was afterwards 
generally known as Lomax's store. Still, the old familiar name would crop 
out quite often, 'when a settler would call out to his neighbor, " I am going 
down to the ' Blufts,' can I do any tiling for you?" Mr. Devaul continued 
actively engaged during his stay in the settlement. He had the great misfor- 
tune to lose his wife early in Februai-y, 1837, but resided here until the gold 
fever broke out in 1849, then left for Califoi-nia. He remained a while in 
^Nevada prospecting, but eventually went to California, settling near San 
Jose, where he died in 1871. He left a large family here, among whom 
James R. Devaul, a resident of Grundy county since 1835, is the oldest; 
Mrs. Capt. Woods, a daughter, now sixty-one years of age, is a woman 
of fine presence and remarkable pi'eservation — looks not over fifty — with 
all the openness and frankness of the " old time " settler. James R. 


Devaul is still living, now an honored resident of Trenton, but lived for a 
number of years in what is now Lincoln township. He was the first 
justice of the peace in that township, and was elected a second time, but de- 
clined to serve. In what was called the lleatherly War, in 1830, James II. De- 
vaul, then a young man of twenty-two yeai's, carried Brigadier-general 
Thompson's recpiisition for two companies of militia to Ray count}'. Gen- 
eral Thompson was the Dr. Thompson previously spoken of Mr. Devaul 
acted also under orders of the general, in taking charge of the wagons filled 
with stores and ammunition and their escort, and bringing them to this 
county, from Livingston, to General Thompson's home. Lomax and Jacobs 
did business for several years. Mr. Jacobs is dead and Mr. Lomax is now 
a resident of California. They, however, did not long have a monopoly of 
the mercantile business of those early days. William Thi'ailkill & Brother 
started a store the following year and they were followed by James L. Hen- 
shaw. This latter store was located not far from the Lomax store, and on 
the Ridgevv'ay property. It is said that some of the logs heWn for the Lo- 
max store by Daniel Devaul, are yet doing duty as a part of a residence on 
Trenton Avenue. Lomax hauled his goods from Richmond with ox wagons. 
Previous to the of)ening of tlie Lomax store, most of the trading was done 
at Glasgow, on the Missouri River. Some few went to Richmond, and 
later to Brunswick, but the main trading-point was Glasgow. The farmers 
loaded their wagons with skins of all kinds, such as deer, coon, mink, musk- 
rat, and with venison and venison hams, honey, etc., and brought back 
their winter supply of groceries, a little flour and some whisky. The his- 
torian will mention right here that the latter article was not used in those 
days for intoxicating purposes. The Old Pioneer was the advance-guard of 
civilization, but he left it to a later, and by some called a more cultured, era 
to introduce wliisky as a beverage, and to furnish to this higher type of 
civilization the "common drunkard." Goods were hauled in those davs 
from Glasgow at sixty cents per one hundred pounds, and the merchant 
would fill a wagon with skins and produce and bring back goods, thus load- 
ing both ways. 


In 1836 the Heatherlys, who were known to be hard cases, had organ- 
ized into a regular band of horse-thieves, and, becoming bolder, were 
making raids wherever they would likely meet with success. In the fall of 
1836 a man by the name of Dunbar and a corajjanion were robbed of their 
horses, and in the defense of their property were both killed and their 
bodies thrown into the Medicine River. For fear of the consequence of the 
discovery of this terrible crime which was traced to them, they gave out 
that the Indians, the lowas and Sacs, were on the war-path killing and 
scalping, and their way lighted by the burning cabins of the settlers whom 
they had murdered. This report caused the wildest excitement, for the 


people, having no defenses, were powerless against the supposed army of 
savages then so near. The settlers at Moore's and Thompson's settlements 
assembled and those at Moore's hastily cut logs and raised a sort of a block- 
house for protection. Gen. Thompson ordered out the militia, two companies 
having been ordered from Ray county and two from Clay, while a number 
joined from this and Livingston. A reconnoisance in force soon dispelled 
the fears of the people, but the settlers were determined to investigate the 
cause of this false alarm, which was traced to the Heatherly gang, who had 
stated men had been murdered. The bodies of the two men Avere found in 
Medicine River and the Heatherlys, a man by the name of Hawkins and a 
negro were arrested. They had murdered these men, stolen their horses 
and outfit, stripped them of their valuables and consigned their bodies to 
the river, and to cover up their crime cliarged it to a party of Indians, on a 
hunting expedition, composed of the above named tribes. These facts 
were gathered from one of the gang, Hawkins, who turned on his com- 
panions in crime, as State's evidence. The gang were sent to the peniten- 
tiary. The four militia captains who commanded the companies under 
General Thompson all became men of note in the political history of the 
State, Captain David R. Atchison, one of tl:ke four, becoming a United 
States Senator in 1844. 

Thus ended what was called the Heatherly War, and by which name it is 
known to this day. The gang was efl'ectually broken up, and they were the 
only desperadoes that ever had a footliold in Grundy county. 


Immigrants continued to arrive, and the years 1836, '37 and '38 were 
memorable ones, for they brought to Grundy county some of her best and 
foremost citizens. They came from all parts of the country, but chiefly 
from Kentucky, Virginia and Ohio. They most always came in squads of 
from five to fifteen families each, generally settled in the same neighbor- 
hood, forming a company of old time acquaintances, which their new home 
and widely diffused population cemented more firmly together in bonds of 
friendship and brotherly love. James Bunch, who has been mentioned as 
belonging to the Thompson settlement, put up the first horse-mill in the 
county. It was patronized extensively by the Bain settlement on the east 
side, and the west side settlers. Mr. Bunch, however, while furnishing the 
mill did not furnish the motive power — each customer hitched on his own 
animal and ground away until he was through. The next took his turn and 
owned the mill for the time beino:. The toll for the use of the mill was one- 
eighth. Samuel Benson, and his nephew William Benson, came in the fall 
of 1837. So, also, did Evans and William N. Peery, who came from Yir- 
ginia; William McCammon, William Metcalf, Elisha Inman, 'the Oxfords, 
Grubbs, Applegates and Winns, who made their homes on the west side of 
the river, while on the east side came those sturdy pioneers of Lincoln 


township, who settled some six miles north of Ijomax's store, Jesse and 
Riason Bain, Samuel Kelso, Henry Foster and William Dille. This was 
called for a lon^^ time the Bain settlement. These all came, as we have said, 
in the fall of 1837; they represented as noble a band of pioneers as ever 
walked in the van of the onward march of civilization, and their descendants 
have proven themselves worthy sons of noble sires. At that time the Bain 
settlement was the most northerly one in the county. Mr. Samuel Benson, 
who bought the Devaul property, the present site of the city of Trenton, 
owned the ferry across Grand River, put up a horse-mill, the second in the 
county, which was the stand-by of the people for miles around, and by his 
great hospitality and kindness of heart placed himself among the leaders of 
men of other days. William Metcalf became county judge and sheriff, 
Kelso was a leading spirit, and Elder McCammon stands out in the broad 
expanse of to-day as a beacon-light which has guided many and many of 
the old settlers to a haven of rest. 


Then came^ the Merrills, Landys, Houstons, Townsends and George 
McCready, all of whom were originallj^ from Maryland, adding to the pop- 
ulation and wealth of 1838. There came, also, the same year, James Wel- 
don, who settled up the river, and from whom the east fork of the Grand 
River takes its name, who proved a worthy addition, because of his being a 
persevering and progressive man. Thomas ]^. Carnes, the Kirkendalls, Stokes, 
Moores, Cochrans and Woods moved here in the spring of '38, and also may 
be added the names of A. C. and Larkin Fields, John and Jethro Sires, 
Robert Hobbs, Judge John McHargue, John Priest, the Ashbrooks, School- 
ers, Collins, Renfroes, Rooks, Holloway, Lydas, Drinkards, Spears, Win- 
ters, Andersons, Perkins and Chrismans, who all called Grundy county 
their home from and including the year 1839, and here add the names 
of the Warrens, Kilburns and Merrimans, of Wilson township. 

A sad and terrible accident happened to Jethro Sire, one of the last 
named settlers, December 9, 1873, he having been killed by the falling of a 
tree on him while engaged in felling it. He made a mistake as to the way 
the tree would fall, and before he could turn, on discovering it, the tree 
crushed him, breaking his neck and one arm and killing him instantly. He 
had proven, in a residence of thirty-four years in the county, a kindly 
neighbor and an upright man. 

From the south part of Trenton township, now Jackson, there were few 
sturdier men than James May, John Henry, John Roberts and Peter Con- 
ner, who made their appearance in 1839. They belong to the true pioneer 
stock. The latter named, Peter Conner, left some years after for California, 
and never returned, living and dying in that great El Dorado of the West 
and of the Pacific slope. All of the above named are now dead, but they 
left the footprints of their energy and progressive spirit in the broken prai- 


lies and the clearing- of the woodlands. There were many othei-s of that 
early day of whom we have been unable to gather satisfactory record, but who^ 
like their neighbors, came to make a home in the valley of the Grand River. 

The Evanses came in 1842 or '43, William and Thomas, long known as 
substantial farmers and upright citizens. Tlie principal settlement was be- 
tween Grand River and Honey Creek. Some good farms were located near 
Honey Creek. 

The settlers were sometimes disturbed by the prowling wolves which oc- 
casionally made the nights hideous, and warned owners to take care of their 
stock — more especially at that time hogs or pigs. Mr. John Priest, who came 
in the year 1839, relates one of his scrapes with the wolves. He had a fine 
sow and a lot of pigs, eleven in all, taken in one night. John said a pig or 
two wouldn't have made him mad, but this going the entire hog, pigs 
thrown in, was too much for his temper. He took a few pones of corn-bread, 
blanket and rifle, and tracked the wolves through the snow to their den, 
some twelve miles distant. There he laid in wait, and within two days 
and a half he was back home, with the scalps of the two old wolves and 
eight cnbs. Those scalps paid his taxes that year. It wasij't equal to the 
expected pork crop, but John said he felt satisfied, for besides paying his 
taxes there was the sweet revenge. 

Wm. T. Cornwell settled here in October, 1839, some two miles north of 
the Bain and Kelso settlements; his son, B. B. Cornwell, is now living on 
the old homestead. Wm. Cornwell came from Tennessee to Grundy county,, 
but was reared in Virginia. He was born in the year 1800; married in Ten- 
nessee, November 21,1824, to Miss Jane Payne, and died in Grundy county, 
Lincoln township, March 18, 1874. B. B. Cornwell, of Lincoln township, 
was twelve years of age when he came here with his father, in 1839. He 
was born in Smith county, Tennessee. Mrs. Jane Cornwell, the wife of 
Wm. T., and mother of B. B. Cornwell, died at the latter's residence, on the 
old place, February 25, 1880, leaving one daughter, two sons, thirty-two 
grandchildren, and eight great-grandchildren. Mr. Cornwell was a prom- 
inent citizen in his township. 

In 1839 the Rev. Thomas Thompson settled on the Weldon River, near 
where Spickardsville now stands. He was one of the first settlers in Frank- 
lin township, the father-in-law of Geo. A. Spickards, an early settler of the 
same township. 


There are pretty strong evidences that a few Mormon families lived for a 
short time in Franklin township some years previous to its reported first 
white settler, James Weldon. The arrival of these families dates from the 
time of the settlement of the Mormon colony wliich located in Daviess 
county in the spring of 1836. These were, undoubtedly, an offshoot of that 
colony, and settled near the river. The families found it too lonesome, and 


seemed to have left in tlie fall. The Indltui hunters of that day reported 
that these feinilies lived on the east side of the river for several moons, and 
then left for tlie Grand River. It is believed they joined the main body at 
their settlement in .Daviess county. These families antedate the arrival 
of Mr. Weldon some two years. The story is given not as the record of 
actual settlers, but to show that a white tamily had trod the soil of Frank- 
lin township as early as 183G. The object of this work is to give the facts 
and a faithful record, so far as they can be gleaned from young and old, 
and from the written records of the past. There is no doubt that the fami- 
lies lived there, for Mr. Weldon found evidences enough to convince him 
of the fact. What was learned all tended to confirm the belief that they 
joined their friends in Daviess county. 


In 1839 new arrivals, consisting of several families, settled in Lincoln 
township, about three miles east of the Bains and Kelsos, and quite a num- 
ber of other families joined them in the winter of '39 and '40. The county 
now, 1839, began to be generally settled, with, perhaps the exception of the 
northwest section. The west part of Washington and the north part of Tay- 
lor townships, or what are now known by tliese names, had very few settlers 
np to the organization of the county, in 1841, but all other sections im- 
proved rapidly and very evenly, excepting the Lomax store, which seemed 
to be recognized as the central headquarters, and from it radiated the 
political power which controlled the count}'-. It improved faster than 
any other colony of settlers in its general welfare, and its population in- 
creased more rapidly. The fact is, an embryo Trenton was under way. It 
was the location. The Grand Kiver, a mile and a half below the junction 
of the Thompson and Weldon rivers, assumed proportions that made its 
water-power valuable. The high bluft", with its circular mound in the bend 
of the river, gave a bold, picturesque site for a town and a healthy residing 
place for its inhabitants. A strong desire to have the county seat located 
on the Big Muddy, between three and four miles northeast of its present 
location, was entertained by the settlers in that neighborhood, claiming it 
to be nearer the center of the county, which had been decided as being in 
the northwest corner of section two, township sixty-one, range twenty-four, 
and the commissioners first located it near where said settlers wanted it, but 
there was so much dissatisfaction that a new commission by the county 
changed the decision of the State commissioners and located it on the present 
site. It is now about three and a half miles southwest of the actual center 
of the county, and the Grand River is to blame for that. 

Harrison and Franklin townships began to gain in population in 1840. 
Those who came in the year previous were doing well; some splendid land 
was to be had at government price and a good share of it was preempted in 


the first named year. Jake Faulkner, Franklin Woods and Thomas Tucker 
settled in the first named township, and the following well kno\^Ti persons 
claimed Washington township as their home: Henry Woods, Robert 
Hobbs, the Templers, Jennings, John Barr, James Sperry and Andrew 
Weldon. Thomas Pembertou took possession of Myres township in 1840. 
He remained monarch of all he surveyed but a short time before he was 
surrounded by neighbors who began to settle in all parts of the township, 
not, however, in very large groups. 


The leading townships, up to the organization of the county in 1841, 
proved to be in the following order, by the names afterward given them: 
Trenton, Lincoln, Marion, Wilson and Madison. The latter claimed to 
lead Wilson, but it was, on examination, proven to be a mistake. Then we 
record the remainder of the townships in this order: Liberty, Jackson, 
Jefierson, Myres, Franklin, Harrison, Washington and Ta3dor. The town- 
ships are given in this shape to show more particularly how the county was 
settled, and where the bulk of the population and wealth was to be found in 
the old townships. Thus we find Trenton, the largest of the old townships, 
decidedly the greatest in wealth and population, as it included two-thirds of 
Lincoln and all of Jackson. Marion came next, and it claimed half of 
Liberty and all of Wilson, Then came Liberty, Madison, Jefferson, 
Franklin, and Washington. There were several settlements made on the 
east side of the county. What are now known as Myres, Liberty, Marion 
and Wilson townships were improving more rapidly than any part of the 
county excepting Trenton and the j^artnow known as Lincoln. There were 
no roads laid out in the several townships, but the settlers had made their 
way through the woods in the direction they wished to go and these had 
become beaten tracks. The southeastern part of the county M-as settling 
quite fast, and along the Medicine Eiver, and following it up to the north- 
east part, seemed to be a favorite portion of the county. The trading- 
point for those in Wilson and Marion townships, or what was then Ma- 
rion, was principally at Brunswick. The northeast settlers came to the 
Lomax store. This latter place began to be recognized as a trading-point 
in 1839 and 1840. The cabins in the county were generally miles apart, 
and, in fact, up to 1850 there were no villages in the county, always ex- 
cepting the county seat. The Whitifields, Perkinses and Hooks, Lyda, 
Beckner, William Anderson, John and Jacol) Halloway, Michael Chrisman 
and others were to be found in Marion township and in Liberty. They 
soon gathered to a point for a village settlement and Lindley proved to be 
the point. We have spoken heretofore of the Indian luinting parties in 
the settlement of the Bains and Kelsos. The principal hunting-ground oft" 
ot the Grand River, where the white settlers first encroached upon them. 


was the country lying between Big Muddy Creek and Medicine River, 
and along the bottoms of No Creek. This country up to 1840 continued 
to be a wilderness, with the exception of a few settlers, and was a splendid 
country for game of all kinds. 

Coonrod Woltz and Jacob Thrailkill settled in what is now Myres town- 
sliip, in 1840, and helped along the other settlers in improving that section 
of the country. Myres, which was then a part of Liberty, was a good 
body of land with a sufficiency of water for stock purposes, but like 
the northwest township, Washington, it has been slow of settlement. It was a 
splendid hunting-ground for years after the more southerly portion of the 
county was settled. The Brassfields, however, went in the southern part 
and commenced to make an opening in the wilderness. They were a large 
family and hard workers, clannish to some extent, keeping and being with- 
in themselves. They were the leading settlers in that section for several 
years. D. L. Winters settled in the same township in 1840, and for years 
took a leading part in the affairs of that section of the country. William 
Warren of Wilson township, "Uncle Billy" as they called him, was among 
the first in the settlement of that township and came there in 1839. Wil- 
son township had an energetic population and she still retains it, ranking 
third up to 1880 in wealth in the county, and probably holds her own yet- 
After the Heatherly War, peace reigned within her borders, and she has 
proved conclusively that she had no use for that class of citizens, and that 
horse-thieves and murderers have not proved indigenous to her soil. 

The lower part of Trenton township seemed slow of settlement, yet there 
is very little land found in Grundy county superior to that found east of 
the Grand E-iver, in the bottoms and on the ridges that lie along that river 
and Honey and 'No creeks. It is really a farmer's and stock-raiser's para- 
dise. Reuben Merriman is one of the early pioneers in that section, and a 
few others gathered around him, but there were so many strong attractions 
further north, that the section of the county now known as Trenton and 
Lincoln townships was more rapidly settled than the lower portion, but it 
would take a very close observer, so far as the land is concerned, to say why 
this was so, or where those superior attractions were found. Undoubtedly 
the county seat location was one of the reasons of its rapid increase 
and the fighting qualities of the Trentonites and the Liucolnites called 
forth the greatest activity and a desire for settlers. It is pretty clear that 
the old pioneers who made the fight in Lincoln, or what is now Lincoln 
township, had no cause to weep over their failure, nor of their descend- 
ants in the fighting qualities of their ancestors. Trenton won as much by 
what nature had done for her, as by her determined effort to have the 
county seat. Tetherow made a gallant fight, but Lomax held the fort, 
planted by nature and man. Those were good old times, and the early 
settlers had their battles in public life and enjoyed them as much as the 
men of to-day. 


The presidential election of 1840 has had no parallel in the history of the 
country. The log cabin and hard cider campaign of that memorable year, 
a year of song and story, was an entirely new element in the political his- 
tory of the countr3^ It was claimed that the crash of 1837 was due to the 
administration of Martin Yan Buren, and was brought on by his extrav- 
agance, and " Old Tippecanoe," Wm. Henry Harrison, was not only a 
soldier boy but a farmer. One verse of a song which was intended to show 
the extravagance of Van Buren's administration of office, and which song 
was sung with a wild enthusiasm in the campaign was as follows, speaking 
as coming from the president: 

" Bring forth, he cries, the glittering plate, 
We'll dine to-day in royal state; 
He speaks, and on the table soon 
Tliey placed the golden fork and spoon. 
Around him bends a servile host, 
And loud they shout the welcome toast, 

Down with Old Tippecanoe ! 

Down with Old Tippecanoe!! " 

Henry Cla}^, of Kentucky, was the leader of tlie Whig party of those 
days and he was made the target for Democratic thunder. Tlie songs were 
not all on one side; but the charge of royalty was the winning card of the 
Whigs. However, the Democrats got off a good many songs against Clay 
and his party, and a verse is given to show the tactics of the opposition. 
Here it is: 

" There's Harry Clay, a man of doubt. 
Who wires in and wires out; 
And you cannot tell when he's on the track 
If he's going on or coming back." 

This was the kind of work that the Old Pioneers of Grundy took part in, 
and you will not find a man among them but what claims that campaign to 
be the "boss." Those were good old times; they had big meetings, bar- 
becues were held and the political days of Jackson, Yan Buren and Har- 
rison were the ne plus ultra of all presidential campaigns, and there has 
been nothing like them of late years. 

So the old pioneer revels in the times of long ago, and he is not far out 
of the way. Those days were as full of wrangling and bitterness as those 
of the present, but it was a square fight for principle only, and the spoils 
were not considered. Money was not the mighty power which has con- 
trolled the elections of the last decade. It did not rule Congress, buy leg- 
islatures or elect presidents. It had the will to do it, but its representative 
power, the old United States Bank, was crushed and tariff and protection 
was the principal question which divided parties, and, it might also be 
added, extravagant expenditures. The people of those days believed in 
economy. In talking with one of the oldest residents of the county he said 


that it was generally believed that Van Bnren's administration had been 
extravagant, and so much of the country was new and the old settlers had 
to struggle so hard to get even corn bread and bacon that the " golden fork 
and spoon " charges did the business that year for the Democracy. 

There were two old settlers located north of Madison who made their 
homes in what is now called Harrison township. Their names were Charles 
W. Scott and Alvin Johnson. The former came in the fall of 1834:, and 
probably was nearly the first settler west of tlie East Fork or Weldon 
Branch of Grand River. He has proven himself a good farmer and neigh- 
bor. Mr. Johnson came a year or two later, lives on section ten about a 
mile fioni Mr. Scott. He is hale and hearty, has a good memory, and can 
relate much of the earl}^ history of Grundy county, and also of the State. 
In Taylor township we find the Grubbs, Woods and others and their de- 
scendants who have some of the finest farms in the township. 

There was a general settlement all over the county in 1841 at the time of 
the organization of the county in that year, but Taylor, Washington, 
Myres, Harrison, Jefferson and Jackson, or the country composing the 
townships now known by these names, was but thinly settled. Trenton, 
Lincoln, Madison, Marion and Wilson secured the largest population up to 
that time, and in fact to this day they seem to hold their own as the leading 
townships in wealth and population. Such has been in a measure the his- 
tory of the early pioneers of this beautiful country, and those who are liv- 
ing can look back wdth interest to the days which tried the nerve, the mus- 
cle and the indomitable will of the fathers and mothers who had the infancy 
of Grundy county in their keeping. 

In closing this part of our history, covering but a short period, less than a 
decade, there has been much given founded more upon traditions than facts. 
The early pioneers made history, but took no care to j^reserve it. This 
is a sad loss to the country. Those years, and the lives and the actions of 
the heroes and patriots then living, were of the greatest importance. Then 
it Avas that the foundation was laid and a noble and enduring superstructure 
was to be reared, upon which the moral, physical and political future of the 
county was to rest. There were no stirring events, or remarkable happen- 
ings, but it was a time of self-reliance, of persevering toil, of privation, of 
suffering, that was endured with heroic fortitude, believing in a future re- 
w^ard of successful labor, of the good time coming when the woods and the 
open prairie would resolve themselves into well-cultivated farms, and their 
humble cabins into residences befitting their improved financial condition. 
The}' had come into the boundless wilderness poor in purse, but rich in faith 
and powerful in endurance, and their future was before them. All coming 
poor, their social lives were lives of brotherly love and neighborly feeling, 
and they worked harmoniously together. If trials and troubles came to some 
they liad the heartfelt sympathy of their neighbors, and that sympathy was 


expressed in acts and deeds, as well as in words. If a settler lost his rude 
cabin by fire his neighbors would at once come together and assist him to 
erect another, and that, too, with such willing ness and hearty rendering of 
their services as would cheer the hearts of those who had suffered. This was 
the way they lived and moved in early times, and not in this county alone, but 
wherever the track of the pioneer was found, or the ring of the ax 
heard, there you would find a neighbor and a friend. Tliis sj)irit prevailing, 
wuth unity of action and concentration of purpose, has made Grundy 
county rich and prosperous. There were laws to protect them, but the civil 
authorities were too weak to be of much force, and so the spirit of self-pres- 
ervation to shield them from grievances was the spirit of brotherly love and 
neighborly affection. 


The pioneer cabins were, perhaps, as worthy of mention as many other 
matters tliat have been, or may be given in this work. Rude and primitive 
were they in style, with, in many cases, the earth for their floor and the 
roof thatched and held down with weight-poles. Yet, as simple and una- 
dorned as they were, they proved to be the best that could be built with the 
tools at hand. It is to be doubted much if there can be found in the palaces 
of to-day more happiness, more refinement — that which is bred in the heart, 
not its outward show — than was found in the cabins of the early pioneers 
of this western countiy. That the people of early times were happy in all 
that constitutes the real wealth of afi'ection is plain enough. The heroes and 
heroines of those days joined hands to make the wilderness blossom like the 
rose. There was no waiting until the cage was built to secure the bird, but 
the latter joined its mate and helped to finish the rugged house, furnished 
with the smiles of a loving heart, greeting her partner in life with the work of 
willing hands, and while the one went into the forest to clear the way for 
bread and a future competency, the other in the homely cabin was keeping 
her true womanly talents at full play, not only in doing culinary work, but 
weaving and spinning, making her own garments and those of her husband 
and children. Many have read in our day of the " Old Pioneer," and his 
struggle in the early j-ears of his life, heavy trials, misfortune, and ulti- 
mately his success, but little has been recorded of his noble companion, the 
light of his cabin, the one to cheer him in his misfortune, nursing him in 
sickness, and in health giving her whole strength to labor for their future 
welfare and happiness. There was little luxury or ease for the pioneer's wife 
of those early days, but whatever her destin}^ might be, it was met mth a 
firm faith and a willingness to do her whole duty, living in the love of her 
husband and children, and trusting in Providence to receive her final reward 
for the unceasing labor of years, well and nobly performed. 

Yes, there was something decidedly primitive in the building and furni- 


tare of tliose cabins of old. Houses M'ere built one-ancl-a-lialf stories high, 
in many cases, that they nii^ht have a " loft " to store away things and 
sometimes to sleep in. A house-raising in those days meant something. It 
meant the very hardest kind of work in getting the heavj' logs in their 
])laces, and the settlers for miles around would come, to the number of 
twenty or thirty, and the cabin would go up with a rush and with cheers. 
And right in that brush, "just over there," was a jug of good old whisky. 
It was there to be drank, and it was, but they went home sober. The new- 
comer had his house, and he and his wife took possession witli the hearty 
cono-ratulations of the neic-hbors and an earnest wish for their welfare. The 
cabin had no iloor yet, windows had yet to be cut out, if the logs had l)een 
all of a length ; but they went to housekeeping and were as hopeful and 
happy as could be over their new home. The windows were covered by a 
light quilt to keep the wind and rain out, the puncheon floor was to be laid, 
the stick and mud chimney set up, a table and chair or two, or stools made 
of a split log. Math auger-holes bored to put in the legs. Some shelves made 
of the same material, holes bored and pins put in, to hang up their clothes 
or other things, and that pioneer heroine was ready to meet her friends and 
neighbors, and the world at large, in a roomy and comfortable home. A 
housekeeping outfit of that style in these days would send a young woman 
into hysterics, make her declare she would go right home to her pa — and pi'oba- 
bly for herself and that young man it would be the best place for her. Corn- 
bread and bacon was the principal food the first year. They generally 
had a cow, and with this they were content. Often living miles from the 
mill, they took a bag of corn and went on a horse to have it ground, and if 
they didn't have a horse of their own would go to a neighbor's and borrow 
one for the occasion. And the wife often went, because the husband had no- 
time to go, sometimes swimming the horse across the river, as was often the 
case when Bunch's mill was the only one for miles around, and the cabin 
was on the wrong side of the stream. 


From Mrs. Capt. Jarvis "Woods, one of the female pioneers, who came to 
Grundy county with her father, Daniel Devaul, in 1835, is given a short 
account of what the wives of the early settlers performed as their part of 
the work for the regeneration of the wilderness. The old lady is hale and 
hearty, claims that her early days were as full of happiness as hard work, 
and she holds in slight contempt the effeminate beauties of the present day, 
who lack the courao^e and the will to do — that was the Morions trait the 
young women of olden times possessed, and what made them the equals of, 
and fit wives and associates for the men of those days. The wedding tour 
of Mr. and Mrs. Jarvis Woods was a horseback ride of about six miles, 
ending in the woods at a temporary log shanty. There the young bride 


jumped from her horse and took possession of lier home. It was built 
of slabs or puncheons, placed against a large white oak tree, and they 
were kept in their places by heavy logs placed against them. And in 
telling the author of this bridal tour and her new home, Mrs. Woods said 
she was just as happy as she could be. The floor of her home was of 
mother earth. Her chief cooking utensil was an iron bake-pan, used in 
old times to make pones of corn bread and to bake an occasional biscuit. 
The writer was shown this relic of olden time. It is doing dut^' now as a 
lye pot. This young bride also had a skillet, and with a gourd, or a tin 
cup or two, she had her culinary outfit. It would give a farmer's bride of 
to-day a chill of absolute despair if she were introduced to such an estab- 
lishment. Well, that was the bride's home for six short (not long) weeks 
before their new palace residence was completed. This happened in Feb- 
ruary, 1838 — the couple being married on the 26th of February by Squire 
Thrailkill, and the road to their home was simply a not over-beaten path- 
way in the woods. She milked the cow, and cooked, and sewed, wove and 
spun, and went to mill, thus doing her part and keeping her end of the line 
taut. They made tlieir bread literally by the sweat of their brows and led 
haj)py and contented lives. They were the first couple married in Grundy 
county, A calico or a gingham dress in those days was a piece of finer}' 
good enough to visit in or go to church, but you would oftener see a new 
homespun dress do duty on the same occasions; then these fine dresses would 
last a year or two, and it only took eight j'ards for a dress. Hoop-skirts had 
not 3'et put in an appearance and pin-backs were of another day and gen- 
eration. So with a multiplicity of duties the young wife kept on her way. 
By and by, when a family had grown up around tiiean, cares began to in- 
crease and the wife and mother was often compelled to sit np night after 
night that the husband's and the children's clothes might be mended, their 
stockings darned, and the preparations for the coming morning's work made 
ready. Then it was discovered that a woman's work is never done. The 
household was asleep. Tlie tired husband and father was resting his weary 
.limbs in dreamland, the children were tossing here and there on their beds 
as restless cliildren always do. Nature itself had gone to rest and the outer 
world was wrapped in darkness and gloom, but the nearly exhausted mother 
still sewed on and on, and the midnight candle was still shedding its pale 
light over the work or the vigils of the loved and loving mother. And 
this is the record of the thousands of noble women, the female pioneers, 
whose daily presence, loving hearts, earnest work and keen judgment, made 
tlie work of civilization and progress one of success. And tlie question 
has oftentimes been asked, '"what would the men of the olden times have 
done if the women of the olden times liad not been with them?" and the 
reply comes back, "Ah! yes, what would they have done?" 



Then there was Mrs. Liuney, one of the first who ti-od the soil of Grundy 
county. She, too, can tell you of the times when the loving strength of a 
woman's heart, and the willing hands of the wife and mother, were put to 
sore tests to meet the trials, vexations and privations of a pioneer's life. 
She is the mother of Mrs. P. W. Bain, of Lincoln township, and she can 
give you many a story of the olden time. Then we have Mrs. Mary Jones, 
who came from Kentucky in 1839, Mrs. Davis, and Mrs. Devaul, the wife 
of James K. Devaul. The latter was married March 2d, 1837, but in 
Daviess count}', at the home of the bride's parents — had the ceremony been 
performed this side of the line it would have been the first wedding in 
Grundy county. However, James Devaul was the first resident of the 
county united in the silken bonds of matrimony. Then there was another 
wedding tour attached to this marriage. Young Devaul had a horse and 
rode it over to Daviess county; he was accompanied by Kobt. Benson, 
Henry Henderson and Boone Best as liis " best men," but he didn't have 
another to bring back his new made bride. But the next morning a horse 
was borrowed, the bride's clothes'were tied up in two bundles and equally 
divided between the young couple, and with the blessing of the old folks 
and the good wishes of kind neighbors they started on a wedding tour of 
twenty-five miles, and on their return trip the brother of the bride. Marshal 
Howel, was added to the trio who formed the escort coming over. The 
old man, Daniel Devaul, promptly met them on the west bank of the 
Grand River with a canoe, and escorted the young couple over and to their 
home. They got into the canoe with their bundles, and leading the horses 
into the river compelled them to swim over, and that was the end of the 
wedding tour. Mrs. Devaul, Jr., went right to housekeeping. There 
wasn't any fooling around. The young bride didn't come to be set up into 
a corner to be looked at, or to simper return congratulations to callers. 
She came, in the lanffuaije of even earlier davs, " to boss that ranch." 
Bossing in those days was slightly different from what is known at this 
time. It meant hard work and constant watchfulness, and it took a pow- 
erful sight of the heart's afi'ection and a strong will to make a person 
willing to become a boss, and that is why the women of those early years 
should be known in history, as well as men, as "Pioneers." 

Daniel Devaul had, some little time before, lost his wife, and the family 
needed a woman's love and care, and so Miss Sarah Howell, of Daviess 
county, became Mrs. James R. Devaul of Grundy, and did a mother's part 
to the half orphaned brothers and sisters of her young husband, and did it 
well. This history speaks of only a few of the women pioneers of Grundy 
county. They are those the author has met, and from whom he has gath- 
ered the reminiscences of their early life, its trials and its happiness. There 


were many otliers who are now sleeping quietly beneath the sod, who per- 
formed their earth's allotted work nobly and well, who carried the crosses 
of this earthly pilgrimage iincom]ilainingly to the end, and they have gone 
to their reward. But the memory of their loving kindness will never be 
forgotten by those who were with them, and who hope to meet them in the 
happy beyond. May God bless the women pioneers now living! They one 
and all, living or dead, deserve a place in the history of our country, and the 
author of Grundy county's history has contributed these few words to the 
noble band who made civilization a possibility^ in this countr3^ It is not 
much, but it is a pure token of esteem and veneration for the few whom he 
has met, and a cherished memory for those who have gone before. 


The first marriage of record in Grundy county, reads as follows: 

" This is to certify that on the third day of January last, I did join John 
B. Howard and Rebecca Williams in the marriage covenant. Given under 
my hand this 27th day of March, in the year of our Lord, 1841.'' 

" Thomas Thompson, P. G." 

The second one recorded reads: 

" Grundy County, Jan. 14, 1841. 

" I do hereby certify that on the 14th day of January, 1841, I did sol- 
emnize the bonds of matrimony between Ansel Brassfield and Susannah 
Brassfield, both of this county. Witness the undersigned being an ordained 

minister of the gospel. 

"^Nathan Winters." 

We find that Joseph Thrailkill and Elizabeth W. Ilarsha were united in 
marriage, February 25th, 1841, by Henry Blaisdell; and John S. P. 
Marshall andlSTancy Young, both of Grundy county, on the same day, Feb- 
ruary 25, 1841, by Malilon H. Harlan, justice of the peace. 

Joseph Sullivan, justice of the peace, united John Belew and Cincinnati 
Dunkerson in marriage, February 26, 1841. 

These were the first marriages recorded, the next of record being in April 
following. One certificate reads as follows, P. G. meaning preacher of the 
gospel : 

" State of Missouri, | 

Grundy County. j 

'' This is to certify that I did join William and Sarah Jones in the mar- 
riage covenant, on the 5th of February, 1846. 

• " Wm. Reid, p. G." 

The shortest certificates recorded are four, by Jas. G. Benson, J. P. All 

are alike except the dates and names of the parties. One specimen is here 

" July 20, 1862, married Selbourne Reed to Sarah Belden. 

"Jas. G. Benson, J. P." 



We liave spoken of tlie death of Mrs. Daniel Devaul in a previous chap- 
ter. She died early in February, 1837, some two j^ears after the arrival of 
the family in Grundy county. There were no coffin storerooms in those 
days, neither were there any cabinet-makers, but such work needed was 
done with an ax, a broad-ax and a whip-saw. Mrs. Devaul's coffin was 
made out of a wagon box belonging to Mr. Samuel Benson and furnished by 
him. It was the only resource for boards to be found in the settlement. 
Another death occurred soon after in the Thompson settlement, near the 
river, in Madison township. It was of an old lady by the name of Downey, 
and her coffin was made of plank cut out by a whip-saw. She died at the 
residence of Dr. William P. Thompson. These are the earliest deaths of 
record, but while many more followed in later years, these tell of tlie 
sorrows of those days and the best arrangements that could be made for the 
loved ones in death. 


In one respect the early settler had a few advantages not possessed by the 
poor mortals of to-day or of those even of a generation back. While they 
endured the privations with which they were encompassed with heroic for- 
titude and a patience which exalted them, these old time heroes and heroines 
could get the necessaries of life at a good deal less cost than their favored 
children and grandchildren of this day. They did not purchase any silks 
or satins, in fact a calico or gingham was considered fine enough for church 
wear, or visiting, and even these would give way to the enduring, durable 
homespun, when an extra quality of yarn and coloring had been secured for 
weaving. But it was not of this alone we would speak. There was any 
quantity of good land lying around loose at government price, $1,25 per 
acre, anxious to be tickled with a hoe that it mio:ht lauorh with a harv-est. 
The financial crash of 1837 had completely demoralized values. Property 
shrank to such amazing smallness as to put many people in doubt as to 
whether they possessed anything except their lives and their families. The 
necessaries of life were cheap, and they who sufl:ered most in those days 
were of the class called wealthy. The farmer and the mechanic had*little to 
complain of. Their wants were few and the supplies cheap; if corn .was at 
a low figure, tea, cofl:'ee, sugar and whisky were also cheap. And i-ight here 
we will quote, from an article contributed to the Grundy County Times by 
the Hon. George H. Ilubbell, tlie prices which he gave for many purchases, 
and the market prices of the many necessaries of life as late as 1842, The 
article was contributed and read at the celebration of the fourth of July in 
the centennial year, 1876, and j)ublished in the issue of the Times of July 
13. It was a histoiy of (rrundy county, in a condensed form, from its 


settlement to that date and a production well worthy of record and preserva- 
tion. Tiie aiithoi- would here acknowledge many other extracts taken from 
the same source. 

The article says: "The situation as regards general business had up to 
1842 been depressed for several years. Tlie monetary crisis of 1837 still 
hovered over the land. For nearl}' five years prices of goods and products 
of every description had ruled very low and the prospect for a raise still 
seemed far from encouraging, and the time somewhat distant. In 1842 I 
paid five dollars for the first cow I ever owned, and $7.50 for a good cow and 
calf in trade. Horses were also cheap; while the best could be iiad for $40, 
■others could be purcliased at from $25 to $35. Working cattle were down to 
what they called in those days almost notliing, $22 buying a good yoke. 
Hogs, dressed, without much regard to weight, were held at the enormous 
price of $1.25 to $1.50 each — neither were they full of trichina. Garnered 
wheat only brought from 35 to 40 cents a bushel; corn 50 cents per bar- 
rel, delivered, and a good veal calf, 75 cents. You could go out into the woods 
and cut down a bee-tree, gather the honey and bring it to market, and you 
got 25 cents a gallon for it; it was tliought the bees got well paid for their 
boney. And such honej', so clear and transparent that even the bee-keeper 
of to-day with his patent hive and his Italian swarms would have had a look 
of envy covering his face from ear to ear on beholding it. The wild deer came 
forward and gave us their hams at 25 cents each, and the settlers generally 
■clinched the bargain by taking the skin also, which, when not cut up into 
strings or used for patches, brought another quarter, cash or trade, as de- 
manded. It was also a habit in those days for farmers to hel]) each other, and 
their sons to work in the harvest field or help to do the logging to prepare 
for a new seeding. Tins was a source of wealth to the early settler and to 
liis rising famil3\ They raked in 25 to 50 cents a day and board. That was 
wealth. It was the foundation of their future prosperity. It was the first 
Gij^g laid to hatch them a farm, and it was guarded with scrupulous care. 
Economy was often whittled down to a very fine point before they could be 
induced to take or touch that nest-egg, the incipient acre of the first farm. 
And then again, a day's work meant something besides getting on the shady 
side of a tree and three hours for nooning. It meant labor in all its length, 
and breadth, and thickness, from holding the breaking-plow behind two 
yoke of oxen, to mauling rails. Right here we will mention that rails were 
made at 25 cents a hundred. Just think of splitting rails at 25 cents a hun- 
dred! It is enough to take the breath away from every efleminate counter- 
jumper in the State. This covers a good deal of what the old pioneer had 
or received for labor and fai*m products." 



In some respects the inei'cliants held a better hand in the game of life, 
and in others they didn't. They wanted from tifteen to twenty-live cents a 
yard for calico, and from twenty-live to seventy-live cents for gingham, but, 
as said before, those early settlers were a self-sacrilicing peoj)le, and they 
let the merchants not only ask these prices, but allowed them to keep these 
goods upon their shelves to give their stores the appearance of carrying a 
large stock. The fact is, the merchants of those days didn't coin money 
from their calico and gingham departments. Trade and burter were their 
"best holt." Plere is where they got in their best work, growing up and 
thriving, like a veritable Yankee, by what they called " dicker." Ten pounds 
of good Rio coffee for a dollar, and from sixteen to twenty pounds of coffee 
for the same sum of money, were standard pi-ices. When they sold a calico 
or a gingham dress pattern tliey threw in their profit by giving a spool of 
thread (200 yards), hooks and eyes and lining. In the thread business, 
however, it was only a few years after before thirty and fifty yard spools 
took the place of the former of 200 yards. Tea could be bought for from 
tw^enty to fifty cents a pound; soap was "powerful " cheap, either by the gallon 
or by the bar; saleratus took the place of baking-powder and was as low as 
five to eight cents; and whisk3% good old whisky, one drink of which 
would make a man love his neighbor as himself, was eighteen cents a gal- 
lon by the barrel, and from twenty to twenty -five cents per gallon retail. 
It is questionable, to the writer, whether the extravagances and the high 
prices of the present age, with all its boasted improvements, taken in con- 
nection with its varied and high taxes, the increased cost of living, are a 
fair equivalent for the good old days of hog and hominy, of venison and 
honey, of jeans and linseys, of low prices, and of peace, plenty and hap- 
piness. In those days of log houses and log churches ajid schools, when 
puncheon floors, and puncheon stools their softest seat, when a skillet and a 
kettle with a big fire-place, did duty for a modern $75 stove, with its new 
tangled hot water arrangement and extra ovens, and wagons without 
springs served as carriages, the people were as happy as to-day and far 
more contented. That these improvements are desirable all will grant. It 
must be borne in mind that the increased wants and extravagances of the 
present era, and the accumulated wealth of the country, is what has made 
these things not only a pleasure but a necessity. 


In closing the record of the old pioneers the names of those who figured 
in the history of the county at that early period will be of interest. It 
was impossible to get all, and if familiar names to some are missing it is 
because the author failed to find them or hear of thein, while many names 
will be found in other parts of the work that ai*e not recorded in this list: 




Edmund Furgeson. 
Kiley Burgess. 
William Gentry. 
Russell Oxford. 
John Buriy. 
Thomas Cole, 
James Lucas. 
Charles Htiman. 
James J. Hobbs. 
Ezra B. Evens. 
Samuel Howard. 
Benjamin F. Wood. 
Henry Wood. 
John Bennett. 
James E. Darnaby. 
Cornelius Darnaby. 
John S. Darnaby. 
Thomas Clark. 
Gideon Gouck. 
Wesley Reynolds. 
Mahlon H. Harlan. - 
David R. Benson. 
Nathaniel M. Landy. 
Henry I. Landy. 
Henry M. Henderson. 
Hugh Ogden. 
James Brown. 
William Wyatt. 
Daniel Brock. 
Wm. C. McAfee. 
Henry Roger. 
James D. Roberts. 
Martin D. Lono-. 
James Work. 
R. T. Nance. 
Wm. Fruer. 
■Sampson Beathand. 
Duncan R. Standbey. 
John Stucker. 
Jethro Sires. 
William Cox. 

Zela Conkling. 
John S. Miller. 
William Cole. 
Daniel Mickey. 
John Henry. 
Moses Bennett. 
John S. Miller. 
William Long. 
Noah Benson. 
Daniel McAtee. 
B. A.FerrelL 
Harvey Low. 
James Phillips. 
Felix Wild. 
Henry Hampton. 
r-v.kSamuel Chesnut. 
Calvin Renfro. 
Andrew Weldoii. 
David Cole. 
Richard Bennett. 
Aaron Wilson. 
Charles Chappie. 
James Slinger. 
Wm. McCammon. 
Wm. P. Thompson, 
James Bunch. 
L. P. Shirley. 
Isaac Shirley. 
James R. Devaul. 
Madison B. Moss, 
Thos. W, Jacobs. 
Stephen Forbes. 
E. B. Harris. 
John Scott. 
Thos, Hamilton. 
George W. Hamilton. 
John McCammon, Jr. 
John McCammon, Sr. 
Norris McCammon. 
James Nordyke. 
Joseph Applegate. 



John Johnson, Jr. 
Bazel Tinsley. 
Josiah Anderson. 
Edward Cox. 
James Bennett. 
Moses Gee. 
Joseph Sherring. 
Moses Sherring. 
Michael Horn back. 
Archibald Chitvvood. 
John Harsher. 
Riason Bain. 
Jesse Bain. 
Wm. T. Corn well. 
B. B. Cornwell. 
Daniel Devaul. 
Samnel Kelso. 
James "Weldon. 
John Priest. 
Wm. Cochran. 
George Tetherow. 
Jacob Bain. 
John Bockhold. 

Benj. Saxton. 

Royal AYilliams. 

Chas. W. Scott. 

Rev. Thomas Thompson. 

Jacob Thrailkill. 

Coonrod Woltz. 

Chas. W. Prescott. 

Wm, Reed. 

Allen England. 

Wm. C. Benson, 

Richard Williams. 

Jewett Norris. 

Robert Peery. 

Benj. F. Woods. 

Wilson G. Perkins. 

Richard Minchel. 

Wm. P. Fitzpatrick. 

David Ashbrook. 

Abiel Miles, 

Geo. Wood. 

John Moore. 
Hamilton Bennett. 
James Harvey. 
James D. Nordyke, 
David Phillips. 
Jacob Applegate. 
James Applegate. 
J. C. Renfro. 
William Willis. 
John Charlton. 
Arthur Charlton, 
Jetson Ray, 

China Best, 

Sarah Tandy, 

Charlotte Merrill, 

John Sires, 

Robert Hobbs, Jr. 

Hiram Marshel. 

Evans Peery. 

John J, Gibson, 

Marcellus Renfro. 

Albert G. Pngh. 

John G, Woods. 

Bryan F. Woods, Jr. 

B. A. Fewell. 

J, Livino'ston. 

Jesse Harris. 

Thos. E. Tootle, 

Jas. S. Estes, 

Stanley Arbuckle, 

James Johnson. 

Talton Masters, 

Lorenzo D. Thompson. 

James R. Blackburn, 

John Blackburn. 

Edward Smith. 

Joseph Davis. 

Andrew Davis. 

George Tront, 

John Yarney. 

Wm. AY. Bond, 

Hiram Smith. 

John W. Bond, 



Harrison Weldon. 
Allen Scott. 
Wni. DonnelHn. 
James Morgan, 
John Lambert. 
Yancy Stokes. 
Wm. Hawkins. 
P, H. Thompson. 
James Chappie. 
John Chappie. 
Thos. C. Jones. 
Wm. Thornbrnffh. 
Jesse Miller. 
Evans F. Grubbe. 
W. B. Grnbbe. 
Jas. Claypole. 
Wm. Bennett. 
Thos. Kilburn. 
Henderson Work. 
Philip Wild. 
James Wilson. 
Belintha Gentry. 
W. P. McAfee. 
John Gentry. 
Jas. F. Hamilton. 
Jas. H. Meek. 
Jno. C. Hamilton. 
Caleb Brooks, 
Thos, Hntton. 
Eobt, B. Moss. 
Wm. Metcalf. 
John Chaney. 
Willis D. K. Elkins. 
Samuel Johnson. 
John Casteel. 
G. W. Dickson. 
John A. Hurst. 
Levi Merrill. 
Wm. Evans. 
Jno. M. Nichols. 
.Alex. Work. 
K. D. Manzey. 
Larkin Fields, 

Hiram Warinner. 
Richard Chenoweth. 
Wm. Estes. 
Wm, Collins. 
Walter Bennett. 
G. H, Forkner. 
A. B. Forkner. 
Samuel Forkner. 
Geo. Drinkard. 
Abram Fields. 
Lee Spenser. 
Alfred Mordley. 
Benj. Mourning. 
Erris Casteel. 
Matthew Childers. 
Elisha Inman. 
Levi Moore. 
Samuel Benner. 
Lemuel Casteel. 
Howard B. Best. 
Elijah Meddle. 
Benj, S. Lomax. 
Moses T. Ellis. 
Benj. Townsend. 
Henry Warmouth 
J. C, Boies. 
Richard S. Lomax 
Harvey Odell. 
Jas. R. Merrill. 
Wm. Renfro. 
Waddy L. Curran. 
Carter L. Reynolds, 
Wm. Thrailkill. 
John L. Turner. 
Peter Conner. 
Robert PL Benson. 
Jas. B, Tilii'liman. 
Samuel Knight. 
A. J. Walker. 
Wm. Clark. 
John Dille. 
Jarvis Woods. 
Samuel Benson, 

^c^ ^ ^:^ki^^2_-^(^ 



^^i-iC LlHlAHY 




Thos. Ettinojer. 
Jas. Blizzard. 
Jas. Houston. 
Richard Turner. 
Wni. Wold ridge. 
Geo. Dockry. 
Jas. S. Lomax. 
James Cash. 
Daniel Schooler. 
Martin Winn. 
G. W. Warmoth. 
A. More. 
Thos. Dobbins. 
Humphrey Best. 
Archibald Feery. 
Thos. Peery. 
Jas. L. Henshaw. 
Henry Foster. 
Geo. McCready. 
Thos. N'. Carnes. 
Moses Kirkendall. 
Carter B. Whitfield. 
John Sires. 
Henry W. Lyda. 
Jacob Spears. 
Michael Chrisman. 
Samuel Rooks. 
James Rooks. 
John Holloway. 

James May. 
Terry Wilson. 
Jab Holloway. 
Jolm McHargue. 
James May. 
Peter Conner. 
Joseph Faulkner. 
Franklin Woods. 
Thomas Tucker. 
Wythe Tem]3le. 
James Hennings. 
John Carro. 
James Sperry. 
Thomas Pemberton. 
Mrs. Linney. 
Mrs. Davis. 
Mrs. Mary Jones. 
Mrs. Jarvis Wood. 
Mrs. Jas. R. Devaul. 
George Nocks. 
Benj. V. Casteline. 
Jarvis 0. Boies. 
Francis F. Petty. 
Benj. A. Fewell. 
Norris Metcalf. 
Alvin Johnson. 
E. L. Winters. 
Chas. W. Scott. 


'Tis almost half a hundred years, 
Since you and I, old pioneer, 

With aspirations free 
A home within this region sought; 
But who of us then dreamed or thought 
To see the many changes wrought. 

That we have lived to see? 

From different counties then we came; 
Our object and our aim the same — 

A home in this far West. 
A cabin here and there was found, 
Perhaps a little spot of ground 
Inclosed and cleared, while all around 

In nature's garb was dressed. 



Here then we saw the groves of green 
Where woodman's ax had never been — 

The svireading prairies, too. 
Within these groves so dense and dark 
Was heard the squirrel's saucy bark; 
The bounding stag was but the mark 

To prove the rifle true. 

But all is changed and cabin's gone; 
The clap-board roof with weight-poles on, 

The rough-hewn puncheon floor; 
The chimneys made of stick and clay 
Ai'e seen no more — gone to decay — 
The men who built them, where are they? 

I need not ask you more. 

They're gone, but they're remembered yet, 
Those cabin homes we can't forget 

Although we 're growing old : 
Fond memory still the spot reveres. 
The cabin homes of youthful years 
Where with compatriot pioneers 

We pleasure had untold. 

The dense and tangled woodland, too, 
The groves we often wandered through 

No longer now are there; 
The prairie with its sward of green 
With flowerets wild no more are seen. 
But farms with dusty lanes between 

Are seen where once they were. 

Large towns and villages arise 
And steeples point toward the skies, 

Where all was desert then; 
And nature's scenes have given place 
To those of art; the hunter's chase 
Has yielded to the exciting race 

Of speculative men. 

Ah! what a change the pioneer 
In forty years has witnessed here; 

The country changing still; 
How many changes it's passed through — 
And we, old friends, are changing, too — 
Theie's been a change in me and you 

And still that change goes on. 

And when we think upon the past, 
Those friends whose lots with us were cast 

On this once wild frontier, 
And pass them all in our review. 
As oftentimes in thought we do — 
Alas ! how very few 

Are there remaining here. 


A few more years will come and go, 
As other years have done, you know; 

And then — ah! yew, what then? 
The world will still be moving on; 
But we, whose cheeks are growing wan, 
Will not be here! V/e'U all be gone 

From out the ranks of men. 

Our places will be vacant here, 
And of the last old pioneer 

The land will be bei-eft. 
The places which we here have filled, 
The fields which we have cleared and tilled. 
Our barn, though empty or though filled, 

To others will be left. 

Let us go back — in memory, go 
Back to the scenes of long ago. 

When we were blithe and young. 
When hope and expectation bright 
Were buoyant, and our hearts were light; ' 
And fancy, that delusive sprite. 

Her siren sonnets sung. 

''Tis natural that we should think, 
While standing on the river brink, 

How wide the stream had grown. 
We saw it when 'twas but a rill. 
Just bursting from the sunny hill. 
And now its surging waters fill 

A channel broad, unknown. ■ 

'Tis natural and proper, too, 

That we compare the old and new — 

The present and the past — 
And speak of those old-fogy ways 
In which we passed our younger days. 
Then of the many new displays 

That crowd upon us fast. 

We little knew of railroads then, 
Nor dreamed of that near period when 

We'd drive the iron horse; 
And 'twould have made the gravest laugh 
Had he been told only one-half 
The wonders of the telegraph — 

Then in the brain of Morse. 

We did not have machinery then, 
To sow and reap and thresh the grain, 

But all was done by hand; 
And those old-fashioned implements 
Have long ago been banished hence. 
Or rusting, lie inside the fence — 

No longer in demand. 


Yes, there are grown up men, I know, 
Who never saw a bull-tongue plow, 

A flail or reaping-hook; 
And who could not describe, you know, 
A swingling-board or knife, although 
Their grandmas used them long ago. 

And lessons on them took. 

The young man now would be amused 
To see some things his grandsire used. 

Some things he ne"er had seen. 
The way in which we cleaned our wheat. 
When two strong men with blanket-sheet 
Would winnow out the chaff and cheat. 
And twice or thrice the thing repeat. 

Until the grain was clean. 

The single-shovel plow and hoe, 

To clean out weeds was all the show — 

We knew no better ways; 
And now our sons would laugh to scorn 
Such poky ways of making corn, 
And bless their stars that they were born 

In more enlightened days. 

They say the world has wiser grown. 
They've got the speaking telephone — 

Talk hundred miles or more. 
And preachers now may preach and pray 
To congregations miles away; 
And thousand other things they say 

We never had before. 

And yet I do not know but what 
The pioneer enjoyed his lot, 

And lived as much at ease. 
As men in these enlightened days 
With all the strange new-fangled ways 
The world of fashion now displays 

The mind of man to please. 

'Tis true we did not live so fast, 
But socially our time was passed. 

Although our homes were mean. 
Our neighbors then were neighbors true,. 
And every man his neighbor knew, 
Although those neighbors might be few 

And sometimes far between. 

Ah! yes! old pioneers, I trow 

The world was brighter then than now 

To us gray-headed ones. 
Hope pointed us beyond the vale. 
And whispered us a fairy tale 
Of coming pleasures ne'er to fail 

Through all the shining suns. 


Ambition, too, with smile so soft, 
Was pointinf^ us to seats aloft. 

Where fame and honor last. 
We had not learned what now we know — 
The higher up the mount we go 
The storms of life still fiercer blow, 

And colder is the blast. 

That though we reach the mountain top; 
Fruition find of every hope, 

Or wear the victor's crown; 
Though tar above the clouds we tread, 
Other clouds there are still o'erhead, 
And on the mind there is the dread. 

The dread of coming down. 

Ah! yes! Old Settlers, one and all. 
Whatever may us yet befall, 

We will not, mnt forget, 
The simple, old-fashioned plan, 
The routes in which our fathers ran 
Before the age of steam began 

To run the world in debt. 

And while we talk upon the past, 

Of friends who are dropping off so fast, 

And those already gone. 
It may not be, my friends, amiss 
For each of us to think of this — 
The curtain of forgetful ness 

Will soon be o'er us drawn. 

The mind goes back thi'ough all the years — 
We call to mind the pioneers. 

Those bold and hardy men ; 
We pass them in the mind's review, 
The many dead, the living few. 
Those unpretending settlers who 

Were our compatriots then. 

Men who of toil were not afraid. 
Men who the early history made 

Of this now famous land ; 
The men who ere the Mormons came. 
This heritage so fair to claim. 
Were here, prepared through flood and flame 

Those claimants to withstand. 

But time would fail to speak of all 
Those changes that our minds recall; 

The world is shifting strange. 
And soon its shifting scenes will bear 
The last old pioneer to where 
His lost an loved companions are. 

Low in the silent grave. 


But ere, my friends, we hence embark, 
"VVe fain would place some lasting mark 

Upon this mountain shore, 
A mark the traveler may see 
In coming years and know that we 
Have lived and passed the road that he 

May then be passing o'er. 

When death's dark curtain shall be drawn 
And we old pioneers are gone. 

Let truthful history tell 
To far posterity the tale. 
As down the stream of time they sail, 
How we with motto "never fail" 

Came here and what befell. 

Let history then impartial state 
The incidents of every date. 

And that it so may d(f, 
Let pioneers of every age 
In this important work engage, 
And each of them produce his page. 

His page of histoiy true. 

The incidents of early years. 
Known only to the pioneers, 

With them will soon be lost, 
Unless, befoi-e they hither go. 
Those incidents are stated so 
Posterity the facts may know, 

When they the stream have crossed. 


Metes and Bounds — First Elections — First Road — School Lands — First School Organization 
— Tou'Hship Boundaries — Count// Organization — Hon. Felix Grundy — First Sheriff — 
County Justices — First Circuit Court — County Seat Imbroglio — Writ of Error — Elec- 
tion County Officers — New Court-house — First Deed — Stray Notices — Original Town- 
ships — Mexican War — Freeman of Color — Naturalization — In Court. 

" Lift we the twilight curtains of the past 

And, turning from familiar sight and sound, 

Sad and fiill of reverence let us cast 
A glance upon Tradition's shadowy ground 
Led by the few pale lights which, glimmering round 

That dim, strange land of Eld, seem dying fast." 


As it is well known that Grundy county was formerly a part of Livings- 


ton county, and that this hitter county inchided not only tlie present ter- 
ritory of Grundy, but of Mercer also, running to the Iowa State line, it is 
necessary to go back to 1837 to Und wliat Grundy county was supposed to 
represent at the time Livingston county itself was organized and her boun- 
daries defined, which was in 1837, and tlie territory now Grundy and 
Mercer counties was included in her civil jurisdiction until 1841, when the 
legislature passed a bill organizing Grundy county and placing the terri- 
tory now known as Mercer county under the civil jurisdiction of Grundy, 

On the organization of Livingston county in 1837, the county court of 
that county divided all the territory north of her north line between two 
townships. The order of the county court which was held April 7, 1837, 
reads as follows: 

" By the order of court all the territory north of Livingston county is 
to be divided into two townships. All east of the East Fork be known by 
the name of Muddy Creek township, all west of the East Fork be known as 
Sugar Creek township." ^ . 

These townships took in all the territory of Grundy and Mercer counties 
as now defined north of the forks of the Grand River, 


The county court of Livingston at the same session, April term, 1837, 
ordered elections to be held in both townships on May 27, 1837, for justices 
of the peace. The election in Muddy Creek township was to be held at the 
house of Daniel Devaul, and the election in Sugar Creek township was 
held at the house of Wm. Peery. The judges appointed to hold the election 
in Muddy Creek township were John Thrailkill, Daniel Devaul and Wm, 
Cochran, and in Sugar Creek township W, P. Thomj^son, George Bunch 
and Philip Wild. The house of Daniel Devaul was designated as the 
election precinct for Muddy Creek township, and the dwelling-house of 
Philip Wild as the voting precinct for Sugar Creek township. Another 
election was held in August, 1837, of which John Thrailkill, Samuel Benson 
and Wm, Cochran were the judges. This was about all that transpired in that 
year, but in 1838 there is recorded that James S. Lomax secured a license 
as retailer of merchandise and liquors at the June term of the Livingston 
county court, which license was dated June 25, 1838. 


The first road known by any man in this wliole section of country at that 
day was called the Iowa trace, and mau}^ of the petitions afterward presented 
to the county court of Livingston county from this section was worded to 
start from, run to, or intersect the Iowa trace, sometimes called Iowa trail. 
The first petition for a road in Grundy count3% or territory of Livingston, 
was made by George Tetherow and others at the August term, 1838, for a 
road leading from Chillicothe by the nearest and best route to section thirty- 


five, township sixty-two, range twenty-four, which was granted by the court, 
and James Conner, "William Evans and Francis Preston were appointed re- 
viewers. The next road located was from Chillicothe to the house of Wm. 
P. Thompson in Sugar Creek township which was ordered at the February 
term of the county court, 1839. 

Up to this time Wm. Martin liad been the presiding justice of the Liv- 
ingston county court, but at this, the February term, February 4, 1839, 
Wm. P. Thompson of Sugar Creek township was one of the three justices 
elected, comj^osing the county court of Livingston county, and on meeting 
of the court was, by motion of David H. Dunkerson, one of his associate 
justices, made presiding justice, which position he held up to and including 
the February term, 1841, of the Livingston county court. Grundy county 
then having been organized and his residence being in this county he 
vacated his seat. 


An examination of the county* court records of Livingston county, show 
the following sections of Grundy county school-lands were ordered sold by 
that court. The first sixteenth section sold was in township sixty- 
one, range twenty-four, and this was at the August term, 1838. The next 
was the sixteenth section of township sixty-three, range twenty-four, which 
was ordered sold at the May term, 1839. At the February term, 1840, 
the sixteenth section of township sixty-one, range twenty -five, was ordered 
to be sold, while the last sold by order of the Livingston county court prior 
to the organization of Grundy county, was at the November term, 1840, 
and was the sixteenth section of township sixty, range twenty-five. 


within the limits of Grundy county, and also within the township of Tren- 
ton, was by order of the Livingston county court, and was congressional 
section sixty-one, range twenty-four. It was organized by appointing Jas. 
R. Merrill commissioner, and Martin Winn and Samuel Benson school- 
inspectors. The first meeting was at the house of Jas. S. Lomax. 


The original order making two townships out of the territory composing 
the present counties of Grundy and Mercer was afterward changed and 
these townships cut up into several others and the names Sugar Creek and 
Muddy Creek townships were known no more. There are no records to be 
found of Scott, Clark and Monticello townships, in the minutes of the Liv- 
ingston county court, and as Grundy county records of the first five years 
are lost and destroyed, the only supposition is that these townships were 
formed by the first county court held, in Grundy county, after it was organ- 
ized, as the records of the election of the justices of the peace for these town- 


ships gives the fact that elections were ordered by tlie county judges in reg- 
ular sesssion. There is no mention of Liberty township either in the Livings- 
ton or Grundy county records, until 1846, and in what year the seven town- 
ships which composed the civil districts of Grundy county up to 1872 were 
organized, cannot be determined prior to 1846. It is easily to be be- 
lieved that the townships named, formed the civil districts of the territory 
yet under the jurisdiction of Grundy county, until it was organized as 
Mercer county. By the action of the Livingston county court, the follow- 
ing orders are of record defining the metes and bounds of the townships 
hereinafter named, and which are, more or less of them, within the pre- 
scribed limits of the present boundary of Grundy county. 

Februauy Term, 1839. 
Ordered, That a township be made in the territory of Livingston, called Washington town- 
ship, to commence at the mouth of the Weldon River, running with same to the State line; 
thence west with the stated boundary line to where the same crosses Grand River, thence 
down said river to the beginning. 

February Term, 1839. 
Ordered, That atownship be made in the county of Livingston, commencing where town- 
ships sixty and sixty-one cross Grand River; thence west to the intersection of said line 
with Daviess county; thence south with said line to the road leading from JeiTy Bannon's to 
Robert McGaw's; thence with said road to Black Mills. Said township to be called Jeffer- 
son township, running from McGaw's so as to include James Black in Jefferson township; 
thence to N. R. Hobbs, so as to include Hobbs in Jefferson township; thence running with 
Bear Creek to the mouth; thence with the river to beginning. 

February Term, 1839. 
Ordered, That the name of Sugar Creek township, be changed to Madison township in 
honor of James Madison, former President of the United States. 

May Term, May 6, 1839. 
Ordered, That a township be laid off as follows; to-wit. Beginning at the southeast corner 
of township fifty-nine, range twenty-four; thence north with the said line dividing sections 
twelve and thirteen in township sixty-three ; thence west with said line, to where said line 
crosses the east fork of Grand River to the township line, dividing of townships fifty-nine and 
sixty; thence east with the said line to the beginnmg. And the name of the said township 
to be called Franklin. Changed from Muddy, in honor of Benjamin Franklin. 

May Term, 1839. 
Ordered, That a township be laid off as follows; to-wit. Commencing on range line be- 
tween twenty-four and twenty-three, said line to where (lead) at the section line between 
twelve and eighteen, township sixty-three; thence west to the east fork of Grand River, 
thence up said east fork to the township line between townships sixty-three and sixty-four: 
thence west with said line to the main river, and all that portion of territory between said 
range line twenty-three and twenty-four and the main river, and north to township sixty- 
three, and the said township be the bounds thereof. Be called Morgan township. 

May Term, 1839. 
Ordered, That a township be made as follows; to-wit, Beginning at the east comer of 
township fifty-nine, range twenty-four; thence north with the said range line to the State 
boundary; thence east with said boundary to where the Linn county line intersects the same: 
thence south with the said Linn county line to township fifty-nine; thence with the said 
township line to the beginning. Said township to be galled Marion township. 


June Term, June 15, 1840. 
Ordered, That Morgan township be so divided, that the west side of Weldon Fork of Grand 
River be known and designated as Lafayette township. 

In 1836-37, the United States government surveyed this portion of the 
State, and Grundy county was a part of that survey. In 1839 the govern- 
ment opened a hmd-office at Lexington, Lafayette county, on the Missouri 
River, and the Lands of the survey were thrown open to entry. At this 
time the country began to attract considerable attention for its splendid 
agricultural resources, and settled rapidly. Upon the opening of the land- 
office for entry of lands, the settlers lost no time in entering the claims 
which they liad located, but it went hard with many, for they were unable 
to pay for their, lands. There was also a heavy rush by speculators who 
took up large tracts of land. Speculation was rife, and the lands in the 
beautiful valley of the Grand River, were sought for with avidity. This, 
however, did not last long, and those who had purchased on speculation met 
with a serious drawback in the opening to entry of the celebrated " Piatt 
Purchase," a body of land east of the Missouri River, which went by that 
name, wdiicli was a part of the old Indian Territory and which had, in 1836, 
been annexed by Congress to the State of Missouri. In 1837 the Indians 
were removed farther west, and the famous " Piatt Purchase" became the 
agricultural El Dorado of a vast throng of settlers and speculators. Tiiis at 
once checked immigration, and settlement of this valley that had just begun 
to hold out an earl}^ promise of rich fruit. It proved a serious drawback for 
several years, the country settling slowly. The principal trading done by 
the early settlers was at Glasgow on the Missouri River, nearly one hundred 
miles distant, and also at Richmond, in Ray county. The farmers would 
load up their wagons with the currency of the country, such as skins, furs, 
venison, bees-wax, honey, etc., with an occasional small mixture of silver 
and bank bills. The silver was generally hoarded to enter lands. Those 
who had and could spare it, who did not wish to enter more land, could 
loan it at a big rate of interest to those who wanted to preempt a claim. 


In the year 1839 the legislature passed a bill detining the limits of 
Grundy county. The name given it was in honor of the distinguished 
statesman and U. S. Senator from Tennessee, the Hon. Felix Grundy. The 
bill passed November 12, 1839, but for all civil and judicial purposes it was 
to remain attached to Livingston county until its organization into a county 


The county of Grundy was named after the Hon. Felix Grundy, of Ten- 
nessee, and it is meet and proper that a short biographical sketch of the 
man should be ii-iven. Felix Grundv was born in Yirginia in 1777. In 
growing to manhood he had evinced studious habits and social qualities 


which made him popular both for his learning and that charm of manner 
so hetitting the young as well as the old-school gentleman of the earlier 
times. He was originally educated for a physician, but his mind running 
to law he gave up medicine and entered into a tlKn'ough course of law 
reading and study, and was soon admitted to practice. He was a meni])er 
of the constitutional convention, a member of the legislature, and judge 
of the Court of Errors and Ap})eals of Virginia. In the year 1807, when in 
his thirty-first yeai-, he was made chief justice of Kentucky, but resigned 
soon after and made his -home in Nashville, Tennessee. His law practice 
soon became extensive. His popularity gained on acquaintance, and he 
was twice elected to Congress from the Nashville district. In IS'ill he be- 
came United States Senator from Tennessee, took high rank among the 
statesmen of that day, and was an active as well as an able supporter of 
President Andrew Jackson. In 1838 he was appointed attorney-general 
of the United States, succeeding Benj. F. Butler, July 5th. He held the 
position until his death early in January, 1840, in the sixty-third year of 
his age. He was a peer among the intellectual giants of that da^, and his 
loss was sincerely mourned by the whole country. In naming Grundy 
county after such a man, while doing justice and perpetuating the name 
and fame of a statesman, she glorified herself while honoring, his memory. 


But years were being added to the settlements, and as the time passed the 
population had increased, and Grundy county began to assume the import- 
ance and independence of a distinct and distinctive municipal corporation. 
The government had finished the survey of the land, and the legislature 
had defined the boundaries. The population, though not great, was steadily 
gaining, and Chillicothe seemed too far distant to transact its civil business. 
It thus became apparent that a county organization was becoming a neces- 
sity and steps were accordingly' taken to accomplish it. The legislature of 
the winter of 1840-41 was applied to carry into effect a county organiza- 
tion. A bill was brought in that session to organize counties, and among 
the number was that of Grundy county. The act referring to Grundy 
county reads as follows: 


"An Act to oi'ganize counties therein named, and to define the boundaries thereof. Approved 
January 29, 1841. 

"Section 13. All that portion of territory north of Livingston, and in- 
cluded within the following described limits; viz., Beginning at the north- 
east corner of Livingston county; thence north, with the section line, twen- 
ty-one miles, or to the corner of sections nine, ten, fifteen and six- 
teen, township sixty-three north, of range twenty-two west of the fifth 
principal meridian; thence west; thence along the section line dividing 


sections nine and sixteen, continuing said section line west to range line di- 
viding ranges twentj-tive and twenty-six; thence south with said line to the 
northwest corner of Livingston county; thence east with said county line to 
the place of beginning, is hereby created a separate distinct county, to be 
called and known by the name of the county of Grundy. 

" Sec. 14. The circuit and county court of said county shall be held at the 
dwelling-house of Jas. S. Lomax, in said county, until the permanent sea 
of justice for said county is established, or the county court shall otherwise 

"Sec. 15. John Minnis, of Linn county; Jeremiah S. Stockart and John 
Wolfscale, of Livingston county, are hereby appointed commissioners to se- 
lect the permanent seat of justice for said county." 

The bill was brought before the legislature early in January, but it was 
not approved until January 29, 1841. Thus, while the sections thirteen, 
fourteen and fifteen, making Grundy a county, were passed by the legisla- 
ture January 2, 1841, the bill was not completed for several days after and 
■did not become a law until approved January 29, 1841. From that day, 
and not the 2d of January, was Grundy an organized county, nor was there 
any county business transacted prior to its approval. From the latter date, 
however, Grundy became a county in fact as well as in name, and assumed 
all the rights and prerogatives of a free and independent municipal corpor- 
ation. Governor Reynolds on the same day he approved the act, commis- 
sioned Wm, Thrailkill, the first sheriff of Grundy county. His commission 
read as follows: 

*' commission of wm. thrailkill, sheriff of GRUNDY COUNTY, STATE OF 


^^To all who shall see these presents, greeting: Whereas, that reposing 
especial trust and confidence in the integrity and ability of William Thrail- 
kill, I, Thomas Reynolds, Governor of the State of Missouri, in behalf and in 
the name thereof, do hereby commission him sherift' within and for the 
■county of Grundy, of the State of Missouri and do authorize him to dis- 
charge according to law the duties of said ofiice, and to hold and enjoy the 
same, together with all the powers, privileges and emoluments thereunto 
•appertaining until the legal termination thereof. 

" In testimony 1 have hereunto set my hand and caused to be affixed the 
great seal of the State of Missouri. Done at the city ot Jeffferson, this 29th 
day of January in the year of our Lord 1841, of the independence of the 
United States the sixty-fifth, and of this State the twenty-first. 

"(Signed) Thos. Reynolds. 

[seal.] " By the governor: 

" Jas. L. Minor, Secretary of State. 

" Filed for record the 22d day of February, 1841. 

Thos. W. Jacobs, Cleric. 


" State or Missouri, | 
County of Grundy. ( 

Be it remembered tluit on this 22(1 day of February, 1841, l)etbre me, tlie- 
undersi<^ned, as clerk of the Circuit Court within and for the county of 
Grundy, personally came William Thrailkill, who took an oath to support 
the Constitution of the United States, the Constitutii^n of the State of Mis- 
souri and to demean himself faithfully in office as sheriff of said county. 

In testimony whereof, I, Tiios, W. Jacobs, clerk of said Circuit Court,, 
hath hereunto affixed my private seal, there being no public seal yet pro- 
vided, this day and year aforesaid. 

[seal.] " Thos. "W. Jacobs, Clerl'.^^ 

The boundary proper of Grundy county, as defined by the act of the leg- 
islature gives nearly a perfect square. The exact distances being, north and 
south twenty and a half (20^) miles, and east and west twenty-one (21) 
miles. There was no map of the county giving the original townships, as 
some of thelii, as will be seen by the orders of the Livingston county court, 
reached to the Iowa State line, which included the present county of Mercer^ 
Grundy county, with the above dimensions contains 427|- square miles, and 
in acres 273,357.39. 


The most important record of the county, that of the county court, the 
author is compelled to state, in Grundy was lost or destroyed, up to August^. 
1846. It seems from the best information to be obtained that the economy 
and the want of information as to the value of these records by the citizens, 
was, in a great measure, the cause of that loss. The records of the sessions 
(if the county court were kept upon cap paper and at the end of each session 
rolled up and tied with a string. When finally done with, they were tossed 
into a box or into some corner, and their value supposed to be what old 
paper was worth a pound. This loss would not have been severely felt if 
this history had been written some fifteen or twenty years ago, but as it is, the 
loss is to be deeply regretted by all who have, or take an interest in the- 
early affairs of the county. It is impossible to give but a fragmentary 
compendium of the history of Grundy county for the first fiv^e years. The 
search for the records has been close and careful, and days have been given 
to the work of gathering from the old settlers, from all parts of the county, 
their reminiscences of early days, and all this and more is given. By close 
comparison, and with persistent effort, we have l)een able to gather much 
history of the county in those blank years not of record, and if it were not 
here mentioned, perhaps few would have found or recognized the missing 
link. What the county court did those years, is only found in the progress 
the county made in its material advancement and the political history as- 
gathered from a few of the sages, who are yet a living reality on the world's 


stage. History, it is said, repeats itself, but the record of pioneer life, and 
of the dead past, is not likely to again loom up in the history of Grundy 
county, and whenever it may repeat itself, to this people it will be a bar- 
ren result. 


The first justices were Jewett Norris, liobert Peery, Isaac J. Harvey, 
and Benj. F. Woods. Jewett Korris was president of the justice court and 
so signed himself. The first elections for justices of the peace were held 
on the 20th day of March, 1841. They were held in several townships on 
that day. On June 19th other townships held electious for two or three, 
each, as the law required, and the curiosity of these elections was that 
while eleven municipal townships were defined by the election of these jus- 
tices, their metes and bounds are not of record in any book or writing yet 
discovered. A list is given of the justices elected during the year 1841, 
and from their respective townships also is published a verbatim copy from 
the records of the election of one and his oath of office: 

" State of Missouri, ) 
" County of Grundy, f 

" The State of Missuri, to all whom it may concern: Know ye that at an 

election held at the house of Nathaniel Winters in Marion Townshi]^ 

county and state aforesaid on Saturday the twentyeth day of March 1841 

for the purpose of Electing two Justices of the peace for said Township 

that we the Justices of the County Court of said County of Grundy do 

certify that we did find upon A full Examination and Comparison of the 

Poll Book of said Election that Alexander Work was duly Elected for t}ie 

office of Justice of the peace for said Township for the period of four years 

In witness hereof we have hereunto caused the Clerk's private seal to be 

affixed there to being no official Seal provided this 17th day may 1841. 

[seal.] " Jewett Norris, 

President Justice Court. 
" Attest: T. W. Jacobs, Cleric. 

'' State of Missouri, 

" County of Grundy. 

" This day personally appeared before the undersigned a justice of the 
peace within and for said county aforesaid Alexander Work and made oath 
that lie would support the constitution of the united States and of the State 
of Missouri and faithfully demean himself in office as Justice of tlie 
Peace of marion Township and County aforesaid sworn to and subscribed 
to before me this 17th day of May 1841. 

"filed for Kecord the 17th may 1841." 

" Benj'n F. Wood, 

'■' Justice of the Peace. 
" T. W. Jacobs, Clerh. 


Wilson Ct. Perkins was the other justice elected from this township. 
In Washii\gton township, March 20th, 1841, an election for justices ot 
the peace was held at the house of Benj. V. AV'ood, and Wni. lieed and 
Wesley lleynolds were elected. 

In Jefferson township, same date, an election was held at the house ot 
Jos. Sherring. Jas. Nordyke and Zela Conkling tied, each receiving 
twenty-two votes and the justices appointed Jas. Kordyke. Mr. James 
Johnson was elected at the same time. 

Monticello township elected two justices of the peace June 19, 1841, the 
election being held at the house of George Tetherow. 

Jewett Norris and Richard Minchel were elected. Those elections were 
certified to June 21, and they took the oath of office June 30, 1841. On 
the 2d day of August, James R. Merrill was also elected a justice of the 
peace in this, Monticello, township. 

Wm. Schooler and Wm. P. Fitzpatrick were elected justices of the peace 
for Franklin township, the election being held June 19, 1841, at the house 
of David Ashbrook. 

Lafayette township elected Abel Miles and Wm. Miller June 19, 1841. 
The election was at the house of Jno. Hartz. 

Clark township election was held August 2, 1841, at the house of Wm. 
Clark, and Mr. John Eockhold was elected a justice of the peace. 

Scott township elected Geo. Wood and Harrison Weldon as justices of 
the peace. Election August 2, 1841, and at the house of Allen Scott. The 
latter removed in February, 1842, and the county court appointed John 
Dunkerson in his place. 

Madison township elected Wm. Renfro March 20, 1841. He resigned, 
but was appointed August 10, 1841, and seems to have served. The election 
was held at the house of Isaac J. Harvey. Evans Peery was elected at the 
same time. 

Dr. Wm. P. Thompson was one of the original justices of the peace. Xo 
record can be found of the election of the following justices, but all were 
serving at that time, April, 1841: Dr. Wm. P. Thompson, Jewett Norris, 
Robert Peery and Isaac J. Harve3\ William Donnellin was also elected 
from Monticello, June 19, 1841. 

The election for justice of the j^eace in Morgan township was held at the 
grocery store of James Morgan, August 2, 1841, and John Lambert was 

A large number of justices were also elected in 1842, some to fill vacancies 
by deatli or resignation and others for new terms. James Nordyke, of 
Jefferson township, died and his successor, Michael Hornback, was appointed 
June 21, 1842. Andrew J. Walker, of Trenton township, resigned and the 
county court, May 4, 1842, ap{)ointed John C. Griffin to fill, the vacancy. 
Walker had been appointed to fill the vacancy of Richard Minchel, resigned. 



An impression prevails .among the few old settlers now living that Dr. 
W. P. Thompson, the untiring physician and true-hearted man, was the 
iirst clerk and acted as such at the first and second sessions of the county 
court, but of this it is impossible at this day to find a record, or an old 
settler who can distinctly call the matter to mind. There had been a session 
of the county court, on or about the first of March, ordering an election of 
justices of the peace in several townships on the 20th of March, 1841. On 
that day Thomas W. Jacobs signs himself as clerk, and is so recognized by 
the first circuit court held in Grundy county, April 4, 1841. Mr. Jacobs 
was a brother-in-law of James S. Lomax and came with Mr. Lomax from 
Ray county. He held the position of circuit and county clerk about five 
years. He proved an efficient clerk and stood high among his fellow citi- 
zens. The records of 1845 of the book in which commissions were recorded 
are, also, among the missing, and the next clerk mentioned is the Hon. Geo. 
H. Hubbell, to this day a leading and honored citizen of the county. 

It will be seen from the records that at the organization of Grundy 
county eleven townships completed her municipal division, that justices of 
the peace were elected from each and that this division continued as late as 
January, 1845, if not until 1846. The townships were named as follows: 
Monticello, Trenton, Scott, Franklin, Lafayette, Morgan, Marion, Clark, 
Jefferson, Madison and Washington. 

The first book of record of the county court is Book A, and its first entry 
for records is August 6, and it iS in that year (1846) that the seven town- 
ships are first mentioned, and it was upon the ordering of an election to 
vote for congressman to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of the 
Hon. Sterling Price, of Chariton county. His successor was Wm. McDaniel, 
of Marion county. The next important feature was the first session of the 
Circuit Court. 


It was a little over three months after the organization of the county 
before the first session of a circuit court M^as held in Grundy county. It is 
found of record, as follows: 


Be it remembered that at a Circuit Court bes^un and held at the store- 
house of James S. Lomax (the temporaiy seat of justice for Grundy county, 
in the State of Missouri), on the 8th day of April, A. D. 1841: Present — 
The Hon. James A. Clark, judge; Wm. Thrailkill, sheriff; Thomas W. 
Jacobs, clerk. 

This being the first court held, the business of the same, as well as of the 
county court, was all transacted in a log building built by the settlers and 


called tlic 15aptist Cliurch. It was near the old grave-yard and did duty 
as a court-house for a number of years. The town of Trenton at that time 
was known as "Lomax Store," and went by that name, as will be seen by 
the record above, and was also known as " Bluff Grove." The Hon. James 
A. Clark produced here the following commission as judge of this, the 
eleventh judicial circuit and of this court, which was ordered to be recorded; 

jq-QTR —Here a space was left Wank for the recordinf? of the commission but it was never 

Following this came the circuit attorney's record; to-wit, 

Benjamin F. Stringfellow, Esq., produced in court here the following 
commission as circuit attorney for this, the eleventh judicial circuit, which 
is ordered to be recorded; to-wit. 

Note — This blank was left like that of the judge but the commission was not of record. 

The records then show the following: 

The following named gentlemen having procured their licenses, were 
ordered to be enrolled as attorneys of record of the court; to-wit, Amos 
E,ees, Wm. G. Slack, Robert Ewing, B. F. Farr, James H. Savage, Philip 
L. Edwards and James Conner. Many of these gentlemen were lon'^ mem- 
bers of the bar in this judicial district. 

The sheriff returned into court here the State venire facias, as executed, 
and the following gentlemen were chosen as grand jurors; to-wit, 

Note. — The names were not entered but the space left blank as in that of tlie judge's and 
circuit attorney's commissions. 

Who being sworn, and having received a charge, retired to consider of 
their presentment. They returned seventeen indictments, recorded as 
follows : 

State V. Richard Lommc^ card-playing; State v. Waddy L. Curran, bet- 
ting; State V. Ahraham Cavault^ betting; State v. sa?ne, card-playing on 
Simd-^y ; State V. A?2 drew I. Walker, betting; State v. same, playing at 
cards ; State v. Jacob Applegate, card-playing on Sunday ; State v. Waddy 
L. Curran, card-playing on Sunday; State v. John Tatmctn, card-playing 
on Sunday; State v. Benj. Toionsend,Q,iiV(\.--\^\^ymg', State v. Joseph Apple- 
gate, betting; State v. same, card-playing on Sunday; State v. SamH 

Knight, card-playing; State v. John Tatman, ; State v. Waddy Z. 

Curran, betting; State v. John Harris, perjury. 

Andrew I. Walker pleaded guilty on both counts and threw himself on 
the mercy of the court, and was fined eight dollars, four dollars on each 

Richard Lomax pleaded guilty also, and got oft' with a five dollar fine. 

Abraham Cavault didn't scare worth a cent, and stood his trial on a plea 
of " not guilty." The judge and attorney both acknowledged that the evi- 
dence was against them, and the attorney announced to the court that he 


wouldn't any longer prosecute the said indictment, and Mr. Cavault waltzed 
out a free man. 

Mr. Jno. Harris's case tor perjury was carried over to the next term of 
the court by agreement. His bail was lixed at $1,000, and he was recom- 
mitted to the common iail of the county. 

The court in those days seemed to have but little general legal business, 
not enough to pay expenses of the court, so the grand jury was called on to 
fill up the gap by criminal indictments, and they, went to work with a will. 
It is proven by the Circuit Court records that card-playing was one of the 
leading amusements of that daj, as was also betting at cards and on the 
elections. The same record will- show that the grand jury made it their 
business to indict every man who played cards. They indicted about all 
the county officers, the merchants, lawyers, doctors, etc., in one grand swoop. 
The ii\dicted ones would go up to tlie court, plead guilty, ask mercy of the 
court and walk off after paying from five to ten dollars fine, each. Then 
the players would get together and lay for that grand jury. 

The fact is, " they all did it,'' and when court adjourned, the '' boys " 
went to work to play with the late members of that august body, and by 
the tiine the next session of court came round, some three months later, 
they had the entire grand jury. When the new grand jury was installed, 
the " boys " then stepped forward like little men, and had the ^jrevious grand 
jury indicted to a man, for playing cards or allowing card-playing in houses 
in their possession. It didn't take a great many years to convince the 
grand juries that card-playing wasn't so much of a criminal affair as was at 
first supposed. But by that time civil and criminal suits had become 
numerous enough to make expenses without calling on innocent and fun- 
loving gentlemen to contribute their mite to support the law and its 
worthy ofticers. There was a good deal of this kind of fun going on in 
those good old days, and many a diamond cut diamond afiair is hidden away 
in the forgotten record of the past. 

The first suit entered upon the record as the first after Grund}^ county 
was organized, is that of Leroy Templeman vs. Joseph Ajypltgate The 
plaintift" asked leave to amend his declaration by filing two additional counts, 
and the suit was then postponed and the defendant had leave to plead to 
the said plaintiff's declaration at the next term of the court. 

The suit was in assumpsit. 

The next w^as 

Peter Hart ) 

vs. \ Petition in debt. 

Wm. M. Hart. ) 

A motion to quash the writ of summons was overruled by the court, and 
the defendant was mulct in the full sum claimed by plaintifi', $168.75, dam- 
ages $27.40 and the court also kindly consented to said defendant paying 
the costs. 


These are the first cases of record. Harris for ]>ei-jury was suhseqiieiitly 
discharged, being declared not guilty. As the record shows no grand 
juror's names for the first jury, the following names have been gathered as 
a part of that jury: Jas, K. Devaul, Wm. Metcalf, Jas. U. Cash, Jasper 
Eoyce, Archibald J'eery, Joseph Collier and Jesse Miller; Judge Devaul 
and Di'. Peerv l)ein<>: the only survivors. 

The second grand jury was called August 5th, 1842, at the second term of 
the Circuit Court, and the following named compose the full jury for that 
term: Evans Peery, foreman; Wm. Collier, Robt. B. Moss, Thos. Hamil- 
ton, James Nordyke, rJethro Sires, Al)ram Fields, Benj. F. "Woods, George 
Henson, Moses Kirkendall, James Winn, Martin Winn, Wm. Donnellin, 
Rich. Minchel, Jas. Simpson, Alfred Caldwell, Jno. L. P. Marshall and 
Thos. Ogle. This session proved of but little importance, except in one 
instance. It was made up of but few indictments by the grand jury, and 
the docket cases were principally civil suits, with the exception of John 
Harris who 'was on trial for perjury, on which charge he was declared not 
guilty, as heretofore mentioned. 


The importance of this, the second session of the Circuit Court, was the 
Opening of the county seat fight in dead earnest. Trenton, or rather the 
citizens of Bluff Grove, or Lomax Store, looked upon the county seat as be- 
longing to them by the right of possession, by the right of old age, and the 
known fact that it was nearer the center of the county than any other vil- 
lage or settlement the county could boast of. The river was here, the 
water-power was of value, mills, both flour and saw-mills could be put up, 
and in fact nature had designated this Bluff as the seat of a thriving town 
which would loom up into metropolitan proportions. All this was more than 
satisfactory to the citizens of Lomax Store, or Bluff Grove, and, as it seemed 
afterward, on a test of the question, satisfactory to the people of the county. 
But Lincoln township could not see anything in these statements worth 
a rush. The people of that township had already made history and pro- 
posed to make more. They wanted that county seat as near the geographi- 
cal center of the county as the nature of the country would admit, and 
they went to work to get it; to make history and to kick up a row, declaring 
that that part of sections thirty-four and three of congressional townships 
sixty-one and sixty-two, range twenty-four should become the proud metrop- 
olis of Grundy county with the waters of the Big Muddy to baptize the infant 
" future great." This location was within a mile of the geographical center 
of the county. At the time of the organization the metes and bounds 
-of the county had been defined by the legislature, the latter, also, appointed 
three commissioners to locate the county seat. It seems that they decided 
the question earlj^ in May, and it proved an ominous blow at the prosperity 


of Blnff Grove, which then had really some pretension to being a village 
while the site located was yet in its primeval state, or in other words, it 
was in the woods and a few stakes driven here and there marked its boun- 
daries. Lincoln was happy; that is, the Bain-Kelso settlement and all 
around them felt in a good humor, for they had won. But as there is many 
a slip between the cup and the lip, this proved no exception, and Bluff 
Grove, headed by James S. Lomax and eighty acres of land at his back free 
to the county, led the troops located on the banks of Grand River, while 
Georo-e Tetherow led the forces marshaled in the bottoms of the Bis' 
Muddy. From this time on we will let the records show the progress of 
events and the final defeat of George Tetherow and his forces, who kept 
the field just as long as the law would let him. It must be understood that 
the commissioners while deciding this question in May, were to report to 
the Circuit Court at the August terra, and that since the count}^ had been 
organized in the previous January, the county business had been transacted 
at Bluft* Grove or Lomax Store. Now for the record. The first one is the 
report of the commissioners appointed by the State, who handed it to Thos. 
W. Jacobs, circuit clerk, to file and present to the court at its coming ses- 
sion in August. These gentlemen were from adjoining counties and were, 
as they claimed to be, unbiased as to their decision, and their action was un- 
doubtedly under the belief that a central location would please all. 

THE commissioners' REPORT. 

"At a circuit court for Grundy county, in the State of Missouri, begun and 
held at Lomax Store, the temporary seat of justice for said county, on 
Thursday, the 5th day of August, 1841, amongst others were the following 
proceedings; to-wit, 

"Be it remembered that on this day came John W. Minnis, John Wolf- 
scale and Jeremiah J. Lockhart, commissioners appointed by the legislature 
of the State of Missouri to locate the permanent seat of justice for Grundy 
county, and filed in court their report, as follows: 

'•To the Honorable, the Judge of the Circuit Court of tlte county of 
Grundy, State of Missouri: — We, the commissioners, appointed at the 
last session of the legislature of the State of Missouri, for the purpose of 
locating a permanent seat of justice for the county of Grundy, beg leave 
to offer the following as the result of their proceedings: Having met in 
pursuance of law, we proceeded to examine the face of the country, and 
have selected a part of sections 34 and 3 in townships 61 and 62, range 
24, as exhibited in the inclosed deeds and papers. 

' John W. Minnis, 
'Jno. Wolfscale, 
'Jeremiah J. Lockhart, 

'Athens, May 24, 1841. Commissioners.^ 


" Which report having been read and lieard by tlie court here, and the title 
of the land in said report mentioned having been examined by the court, 
and the court being satisfied that the same is perfect and sufficient, it is 
ordered by the court that the county court of Grundy county aforesaid be 
certified of the same. 

" I, Thos. W. Jacobs, clerk of said Circuit Court, do hereby certify that the 

foregoing is a true copy of the record and order made in the above cause, 

this 9th day of August, A. 1). 1841. 

"Thos. W. Jacobs, Clerk:' 

The knowledge of the true purport of the above document put Bluff Grove 
on her mettle, and the location in the woods was not to be thought of Peti- 
tions were at once drawn up and sent out to every section of the county, and 
the bearers of these petitions bore the strange device, "■ Excelsior." Bluff' 
Grove was going forward and higher. These petitions, some ten in number, 
read as follows: 

"Jb the Honorahle, the County Court of Grundy county, Missouri: — 
Your petitioners would respectfully represent to your honors that the seat of 
justice of Grundy county, Missouri, has been located, and not agreeable to 
our wishes, therefore we, your petitioners, would, and do prefer the seat of 
justice at the store of James S. Lomax, in said county, and would, there- 
fore, pray your honorable body to appoint five commissioners to locate the 
seat of justice according to law, and your petitioners will ever pray." 

The names followed. Indorsed on the back of each one of these peti- 
tions, in a bold, manly hand, and a regular John Hancock signature, of rev- 
olutionaiy memory, was the following: 

" For which I, James S. Lomax, bind myself to donate to the county 
eighty acres of land, at Bluff' Grove, for the location of said seat of justice. 
" May 18, 1841. James S. Lomax." 

Lively work brought in two hundred and sixty names, which was in ex- 
cess of the number needed, three-fifths of the last vote. polled in the county 
being all that was necessary. They counted a less number than here given, 
but the petitions show 260 names, and they came from every quarter of the 
county. While the minutes of the county are not to be found, the report 
of the five commissioners to the circuit, by the order of the Grundy county 
court, shows that on the return of the petitions with the names thereon, that 
a session of the county court was convened and five commissioners, as prayed 
for by the petitioners, were appointed. These commissioners, like those ap- 
pointed by the State, were from adjoining counties, but not like the State 
appointees, their work was all cut out and their principal business was to 
stake out Mr. James S. Lomax's eighty acres of land, get the deed and make 
their report. They did so in the words following: 


" To the Honorable Judge of the Grundy Circuit Court: — In compli- 
ance with tlie order of the Grundy county court to us directed as commis- 
sioners appointed by said court for the purpose of locating the permanent 
county seat of said county, respectfully report that we met on the ground 
selected by the petitioners of said county on the 5th day of August, 1841, 
and after being duly qualified, proceeded to the discharge of our duties, and 
after examining the ground within the boundary prescribed by law, have se- 
lected the following described premises for the permanent county seat of 
said county; to-wit, 

" Beginning at the half-mile corner stake, being the northwest corner of 
the northeast quarter of section num])er twenty, of township number sixty- 
one, range twenty-four, running south 125 poles to a stake; thence east 
ninety poles to a stake; thence north twenty-eight poles to a stake; thence 
east seventeen poles and four links to a stake; thence north ninety-seven 
poles to a stake; thence west 115 poles to the place of beginning, contain- 
ing eighty acres, donated by James S. Lomax for the use of said county 
for the county seat, to which premises we, the commissioners, have received 
a deed for the use and behalf of said county, and which deed is herewith 

"All of which is respectfully reported to the honorable judge of the 
Grundy Circuit Court this 6th day of August, 1841. 

" Th. K. Bkyan. 

" Thomas Jennings. 

" John Austin. 

"' Samuel Feenandis. 
To Hon. James A. Clark, Judge. " James H. Wilson. 

The foreo^oino- document was indorsed on the back as having been " tiled 
for record this 6th day of August, 1841. (Signed) Thos. W. Jacobs, 

The legal proceeding instituted by George Tetherow now comes in, and 
from liis legal papers on "file, the reader gets something of tlie proceedings 
of the County Court to which he refers; also of their action in this county 
seat contest. As tlie August term of the court had overruled his motion not 
to vacate tlie county site from the banks of the Big Mudd}^, and did relocate 
it at " Lomax Store," Tetherow commenced his legal light through Wm. Y. 
Slack, his attorney, on the County Court. His first legal document reads: 

" State of Missouri, \ n -^ n * q -it (^ * i ^ io i i 

,, ry r^ f Co until Couvt. bpec'ial lerm, bept, lo, 18 AL 

" Grundy County, j -^ ' ^ ^ 2 -r 

" George Tetherow, a resident householder of Grundy county, Missouri, by 
his attorne}^ Wm. Y. Slack, moves the court here: First, to rescind the 
order made by the court on the 30th day of June, A. D. 1841, at a special 
term thereof, receiving the petition of James Livingston and others for the 


removal of the county seat of GruiKly county, Missouri, and ordering the 
same to be filed, and also appointing Thos. R. Bryan, Thos. Jennings, Sam- 
uel Fernandis and others commissioners to locate the county seat of the 
said (Irundy county, Missouri. And, second, to rescind all further orders 
and proceedings made and had in this said court rehitive to or concerning 
the removal of said county scat of Grundy count3^ 

"Filed of record this 13th day of Scptomber, 181:1. 

" Wm. Y. Slack, 

'' Thos. W. Jacobs, " Attorney J-or Plaintiff. 


Tlio County Coui-t took the foregoing paper and overrnlcd it in the tV»l- 
lowing ordci" of the court: 

'' State OF Missouri, \ ri 4. n 4. o • i ti o ^ io ioii 

" County of Grundy. \ ^^^^^^^V Gourt, Sj^ecicd Term, Sept. 13, 18J^1. 

" Be it remembered, that on the 13th day of September, A. D. 1841, at a 
special term of County Court of Grundy county, Missouri, George Tetherow, 
by his attorney, moved the said court to rescind an order made at a special 
term of said court, held in June, A. D. 1841, receiving a petition of James 
Livingston and others, for the removal of the county seat of said county, 
and appointing commissioners to relocate the same, etc., and also to rescind 
all further orders made in reference to said removal of said county seat". 
Which said motion said court overruled and to which said opinion of the 
court the said George Tetherow excepts, and prays that this, his bill of ex- 
ceptions, may be signed and sealed by the court here, and made a part of 
the record in said proceedings, which is accordingly done. 

" Filed for record this 13th day of September, 1841. 

" Jewett N orris, 

" Tn. W. Jacobs, '•'- Presiding Justice of Grundy County." 

" Clerk.''. 

The attorney for George TetheVovv now demanded a full and complete 
copy of all the papers in the case up to date, which was October 28, 1841, 
of the County Court, and the clerk proceeded to do so, in which we gather 
some further actions of the County Court in the case. The papers start out 
with the proceedings of the June term. These papers were indorsed: 

" Georoe Tetherow ) 

vs. \ Eri'or. Writ of Error to County Cou^'t.'''' 

" County Court. ) 

" State OF Missouri, ) Writ of Error. County Court, June Term 

" (Jounty of Livingston. ) {Sjjec'ud), ISJf,!. 

'' Be it remembered, that at a countv court bea:an and held at the store 


house of James S. Lomax, the temporary phiee of holdini^ court for G-rundy 
county, State of Missouri, on the 30th day of June, A. D. 1841. 


"• Jewett Norris and Isaac J. Harvey, justices, and Wm. Thrailkill, sheriff, 
and Thos. W. Jacobs, clerk. Among others, were tlie tbllowing proceed- 

" James Livingston and others presented their petition; the body of said 
petition is in words and figures as follows; to-wit, 

Note. — Here follows a copy of the petition, which is given on a previous page, witli Mr. 
Lomax's indorsement, promising to give eighty acres of land. 

" Upon said conditions being filed, the court made tlie following order as 
follows; to-wit, 

''Ordered, That the petition of Jas. Livingston and others, for to remove the county 
seat of Grundy county, Missouri, is ordered to be filed, which is done accordingly, and after 
an examination of the tax -book of the taxable inhabitants of the county of Grundy, it is found 
that there appears on said tax-books to be 312 taxable inhabitants found to be on said tax- 
books, and it is found after an examination of said petition to be 238 petitioners of the said 
taxable inhabitants, which is over three-fifths (3-5) of the taxable inhabitants of said county 
as ascertained by the last tax-list made and returned. And it is further ordered that Thomas 
R. Bryan, Thomas Jennings, Samuel Fernandis and John Austin, of Livingston county, 
and Jas. H. Willson, of Daviess county, be and they are hereby appointed commis- 
sioners to locate said county seat of Grundy count}', Missouri, according to said petition, to 
meet at the dwelling-house of Thos. W. Jacobs, in said county, on the 5th day of August 
next, to locate said county seat agreeable to said petition and law. 

" Jewett Korris, President J^ 

"Be it remembered that a county court began and held at the store house 
of Jas. S. Lomax, in said county of Grundy, on Monday, the 9tli day of 
August, A. D. 1841, present, justices of the county court Jewett Norris, 
Isaac J. Harvey and Robert Peery, and James Boies, dept. sheriff of said 
county, and Thos. "W. Jacobs, clerk. Amongst others was the following pro- 
ceedings; to-wit, At this day came Thos. W. Jacobs, clerk of the Circuit 
Court of Grund}'^ county, and presented to the court here a coj^y of the 
orders and proceedings of said Circuit Court approving the title to the lands 
selected by John Wolfscale and other commissioners appointed hy the legis- 
lature of the State of Missouri, to locate the permanent seat of justice for 
Grundy county, together with the report of said commissioners as made to 
said Circuit Court, which orders and report were as follows; viz.. 

Note. — Here follows the report of the commissioners, Minnis, Wolfscale and Lockhart, 
already given. 

" Which said orders and report are ordered by the court liere to be filed 
in the ofiice of the clerk of this court. 

"At this day came Thos. W. Jacobs, clerk of the Circuit Court of 
Grundy county, and presented to tlie court here a copy of the order and pro- 


ceedings of said Circuit Court approving the titles to the lands selected hy 
Thos. R. Bryan, John Austin, Sain'l Fernandis, Thos. Jennings and Jaines 
H. AVillson, commissioners appointed by the county court of Grundy county 
and State of Missouri, to locate the permanent seat of justice for Grundy 
county, together with the report of said commissioners as made to said 
Circuit Court, which orders and report are as follows; to-wit, 

" At a Circuit Court began and held for Grundy county, in the State of 
Missouri, at Lomax Store, the tem])orary seat of justice for said county, 
on Tliursday, tlie 5th day of August. Amongst others were the following 
proceedings: On Saturday, August 7th, 1841, court met pursuant to ad- 
journment. Present, same as 3'esterday. Be it remembered that on this 
day came Thos. R. Bryan, Thos. Jennings, John Austin, Samuel Fernandis, 
and Jas. H. Willson, commissioners as appointed by the county court of the 
county of Grundy, in State of Missouri, to locate the permanent seat of 
justice for said county, and filed in court here their report as follows; viz., 

Note. — Here followed their report, which has previously been given. 

" Which report being heard and read here, and the title to the land 
therein mentioned having been examined by the court here and adjudged to 
be perfect and sufficient, it is ordered by the court here that the county 
court of Grundy county, aforesaid, be certified of the same. 

*' I, Thos. W. Jacobs, clerk of the said Circuit Court, do hereby certify 
that the foregoing is a true copy of the record and proceedings of said 
orders in said cause. 

"Given under my hand this 9th day of August, A. D. 1841. 

" Thos. W. Jacobs, ClerJi. 

" Which said orders and report are directed by the County Court here to 
be filed in the office of the clerk of this court, which is done accordingly. 

" Jewett Norris, President^ 

" Be it remembered that at a county court began and held at the store of 
Jas. S. Lomax, in said count}- of Grundy, on tlie 13th day of September, 
1841, present, justices of the County Court, Jewett Norris and Robert 
Peery, Wm. Thrailkill, sheriff, and Thos. W. Jacobs, clerk. Among others 
were the following proceedings: 

" Now at this day came George Tetherow, a resident householder of said 
county of Grundy, by his attorney, and filed his motion, to rescind an order 
made at a special term of this court held in June, 1841, which motion is in 
the words and figures; to-wit. 

Note.— Here followed "Atfy Slack's motion to vacate order as above, which will be found 
a few pages back. 

"Which said motion being heard, is overruled by the court here, where- 
upon the said George Tetherow, by his attorney, excepts and files here in 


court bis bill of exceptions, and prays tbat it may be made a part of the 
record in tliis proceeding, which is accordingly done, which said bill of 
exceptions is in the words and figures as follows; to-wit, 

NoTK. — Here follows the order of Justice Norris overruling the motion which has been here 
tofore given. 

" State of Missouri, ) 
" County of Grundy. \ 

" I, Thos. W. Jacobs, clerk of the Count}' Court of Grundy county, Mis- 
souri, do hereby certify that the above and foregoing is a true and perfect 
transcript of all the entries, records and proceedings, had and made by the 
County Court of Grundy connty, Missouri, relative to the removal of the 
county seat of Grundy county, Missouri. 

"In witness whereof, I, Thos. W. Jacobs, clerk of the Connty Court of 
said county, have hereunto set my hand and private seal affixed (there being 
no official seal provided by said court), at my office, this 28th day of Octo- 
ber, A. D. 1841. 

[sEAL.j " Tiios. W. Jacobs, Clerk:' 

The following order of the Circuit Court to produce the foregoing record 
from the Countv Court, is below: 

"State of Missouri, | /r- •, rt ^ r» j ti -iui-i 

,i, (X r^ \ Vircuit Vourt, JJeceinher lerin. 18 Al. 

Grundy Countv. ( - ' ' 

^" To the Couiitij Court of Gi'Uiidy county, greeting: Whereas, It has 
been suggested to us that in the orders and pi'oceedings, had once made by 
you, in and about the removal of the county seat of said Grundy county, 
there is manifest error, and these are therefore to command you, that you 
transmit to our Grundy Circuit Court, and at least thirty days before the 
first day of the next December term thereof, a true and perfect transcript 
of all the record and proceedings had and made j'elative to the removal of 
the county seat of said Grundy county, in y(jur said court, so that the same 
may be in our said Circuit Court now fully adjusted. 

" Witness, Thos. W. Jacobs, clerk of said Circuit Coui't, with his hand and 
private seal affixed (there being as yet no official seal provided), at office 
this 27th day of October, A. D. 1841. 

[seal.] ' " Thos. W. Jacobs, Cle7^Jcy 

On the back of the above was indorsed the folhnving as county clerk: 

" I executed the within by making out a true and perfect transcript of all 
the records and proceedings had and made by the County Court of said 
Grundy county, Missouri, relative to the removal of* said connty seat of 
Grundy county, this 28th day of October, A. D. 1841. 

"Attest. " Thos. W. Jacobs, 

'•Clerk of the Qounty Courts Grundy County^ Missouri. 


a ^ ' A ' r Circuit Court, December Term, 18 Al. 

" County of Grundy, j ' ■> t 

" George Tetherow | 

vs. V Writ of error to the County Court of Gn mil y county. 

'' County Court. j 

"Wm. Y. Slack, attorney for tlie plaintiff, will in the ar<^unient in this 
case rely upon the following points; to-wit., 

'■'•First — That at the time James Livingston and others filed their petition 
praying the removal of the county seat of Grundy county, and said county 
seat was not established, and that there was no county seat established in 
said county of Grundy at that time. 

" Second — That the acts and proceedings of said County Court, had and 
made relation to the removal of the county seat of said Grundy county that 
were premature, and are null and void. 

"Authorities relied upon: statutes of Missouri, of 1837, page 39, statutes of 
1835, pages IM and 145. 

" Wm. Y. Slack, 

" Attorney for plaintiff ."■ 

" State of Missouri, ]^. ■. ri ^ n z rr 1011 

.; n^^..,. c^ ( Circuit Court, Deceraber lerrn, IbJfl. 

County of Grundy. ) ' 5 ^ 

" George Tetherow, ) 

vs. V Error to County Court. 

" County Court. ) 

" And the said plaintiff by his attorney, Slack, with the leave of the court 
here, had asked and obtained asssigns as error committed by the County 
Court of said Grundy county, relative to the removal of the county seat of 
the said county of Grundy. 

" First — That said County Court erred in overruling said plaintiff's motion- 
filed in said court, moving said court to set aside and rescind an order made 
by said court, receiving the petition of James Livingston and others, and 
appointing commissioners to relocate said county seat of said Grundy 
county. And that said County Court erred in every act, order and proceed- 
ing had and made relative to the removal of said county seat of said Grundy 

''For which said errors the said plaintiff asks the court here to reverse the- 

judgment of said county court therein made, etc. 

" Wm. Y. Slack, 

" Attorney for ^jlain tiff\ 

"And the said defendant in error comes and joins in the assignment of er- 
rors in this case and says there is no error in the record or proceeding of 
the County Court of Grundy county in the case of George Tetherow vs. The 
Co2C7ity of Grundy as in the within assignment alleged. 

" Ross, Attorney for defendants^ 


*' State of Missouri, ] circuit Court, December Term, ISJ^l. 


*' George Tetherow j 

vs. \ Error. 

^' County Court of said county. ) 

" The said Tetherow, by his attorney, moves the court here to set aside the 
judgment rendered in tliis cause, affirming the judgment of the county 
court in this cause. 

" First — Because said court here affirmed the proceedings of the said 
county court contrary to law. 

'' Second — Because said court here ought to have retained the proceedings 
of said county court and 

" Tidrd — Because said court here erred in affirming said proceedings of 
said county courts. 

" Wm. Y. Slack, 

''For Tetherow r 

L. r\ ' Vi ' \ Circidt Court, Deeeinber Term, 18kl. 

" County of Ctrundy. j ' it 

*' George Tetherow | 

vs. \ Error. 

" County Court of said county. ) 

" Be it remembered that on the first day of said term, the said Tetherow, 
by liis attorney, appeared and filed the following: 

{Here insert the assignment in error.) 

" And the said County Court appeared on same day by attorney and filed 
the following: 

{Here insert the joinder in error.) 
" And on said day said Tetherow filed the following: 

{Here insert plaintiff^s brief.) 
" And the said County Court by attorney filed the following on same day: 

{Here insert defendants briefs 

" And be it remembered that on the third day of said term, the said cause 
was called up for hearing: "Whereupon the court affirmed the proceedings 
of the County Court of said county, to which opinion of the court in affirm- 
ing the same, the said Tetherow, by his attorney, excepts, and. prays the 
court here to allow the same and to sign and seal this, his bill of exceptions 
and make it a part of the record in this cause, which is accordingly done. 
[seal.] " James A. Clark." 


" State OF MissouKi, ) /-y v /> * r^ ; . t- ., n? f r 
,, ^ ^, ' ,• Circuit Court, JJecernoer leria. lb 1^1. 

" County of Grundy. \ ' 

" George Tetherow \ 

vs. > Error. 

" County Court of said County. ) 

" Be it remembered tliat uii the third day of said term (»f said court, the 
said Tetherow filed the followino; motion: 

{Here insert the motion.) 

" Which said motion the court here overrules, to which opinion of the court 
here, the said Tetherow excepts and prays that the same may be allowed by 
the court here, and that this his bill of exceptions may be signed and sealed 
by the court here and made a part of the record in this cause, which is ac- 
cordingly done. 

[seal.] James A. Clakk." 

As the Circuit Court overruled every motion made by the plaintiff, through 
his attorney, it seemed at last to Tetherow that he was making a hopeless 
light and that Lomax Store was destined to be the "Futnre Great" of 
Grundy county. Mr. Tetherow failed to appear, and Wm. Y. Slack, his 
attorney', slacked up in his legal efforts to squelch the rising importance of 
Lomax Store aforesaid. That is, it is thus given to appear by the following 
short but pithy order of the court, which reads: 

"George Tetherow, petition. Not being present, it is ordered that the 
same be stricken from the docket." 

That was all, and there is no further record of the great county seat tight 
in the proceedings of the court. The non-appearance of George Tetherow 
in the latter part of the December term of the Circuit Court of 1841, and 
the summary removal of the county seat case from the docket ended the 
struggle, and the next move was to have the eighty acres, donated by Jas. 
S. Lomax, surveyed and mapped. This was done. F. W. Poage, of Gal- 
latin, and Mr. Jonas Boyce, the first county surveyor, and Mahlon H. 
Harlan, commissioner of county seat, laid out the town and subdivided 
it into blocks and lots, and the town moved slowly along from that time. 
In fact, the ju-ogress of Grundy county in population and wealth Avas very 
much after the rest of the State, slow. Immigration though steady was 
not great, yet Grundy received her share of those who settled north of the 
Missouri River. 

election for county officers. 

The first election for county officers took place on the first and second dav 
of August, 1842, but, as j^reviously mentioned, no record of these elections 
can be found, with the exception of that of William Thrailkill for sheriff*, 
and the justices of the peace for the several townships, wliose commissions 
we find on record. 


The following is a true copy of the oath of office and the original bond 
given by Sheriff Thrailkill on taking possession of the office of sheriff and 
collector. He succeeded himself, having, as recorded, been appointed by the 
governor. The record: 

■" State of Missouri, ] 
" County of Grundy, f 

"I, Thos. W. Jacobs, clerk of the County Court, do hereby certify that 
Wm. Thrailkill was duly elected sheriff of the county of Grundj', on the 
first and second days of August, 1842. 

'• In witness whereof, I, Thos. W. Jacobs, clerk of the County Court of 
said county, have hereunto set my hand, and private seal affixed (there 
being as yet no official seal provided for said court), at my office this 8th 
day of Angust, A. D. 1842. 

[seal.] " Tiios. W. Jacobs, ClerJc. 

■'' State of Missouri, ) 

> ss 
"• County of Grundy. \ 

" Personall}' appeared before me, Thos. "W, Jacobs, clerk of the County 
Court, within and for said county, William Thrailkill, and took an oath to 
support the Constitution of the United States, and that of Missouri, and to 
faithfully demean himself in office as sheriff of said count}^, for the term of 
two years. 

" In witness whereof, I, Thos. W. Jacobs, clerk of the County Court of 
said county, have hereunto set ni}' hand, and private seal affixed (there being 
as yet no official seal provided for said court), at my office, this 20th day of 
August, 1842. 

[seal.] "Thos. W. Jacobs, Cleric. 

" The fores^oino; certificate of election was filed in mv office for record 
on the 20th day of August, 1842. 

" Thos. W. Z kco^%; Clerk. 

sheriff's bond. 

'■^ KnoiLi all men by these jyresents: That we, William Thrailkill, John 
Shinn, Willis G. Atkinson, Sam'l Knight, George Brawner, William Este, 
Moses Sheam and Asa Boyce, are held and firmly bound to the State of 
Missouri in the sum of twenty-two hundred dollars, to the payment of 
which well and truly to be paid, we bind ourselves, our heirs, executors and 
administrators, jointly and severally, firmly by these presents. The condi- 
tion of above obligation is such that whereas the said Wm. Thrailkill was, 
at the August election, in the year A. D. 1842, duly elected sheriff" of the 
county of Grundy, by virtue of said office is collector, ex officio, for the said 
county of Grundy, for the year 1842. Now if the said William Thrailkill 


will faithfully perforin all of the duties of such othce, then the above obli- 
o-ation will be null and void, otlierwise to remain in full force and effect. 
''Given under our hands and seals this 23d day of Auj^ust, 1842. 

'• William TuKAiLKir.L. 
"John Shinn. 
'' Willis G. Atkinson. 
'• Samuel Knight. 
" Geokge Bkawnek. 
" William Este. 
" Moses Sheam. 
" Asa Boyce. 
Attest: "Thos. W. Jacobs, Clerk. 
"Approved Nov. 8th, 1842. 

" Jewett Norris, President. 

"The above bond was tiled in my office for record on the 25th day of 

Nov., 1842. 

" Tiios. W. Jacobs, Clerl-:' 


The same year, 1842, a contract was made to build a new court-house. 
The ohl log Baptist church had been doing duty for a year or more, and 
Jas. S. Lomax's office, and the woods to which the juiy generally went to 
carry on their deliberations and bring in a large batch of indictments for 
selling liquor without a license and for card-playing, some of the indicted 
ones declaring that quite a immber of the aforesaid grand jurors being en- 
gaged in a quiet game while the others brought in the indictments. This 
would be good history if the stories thus reported could have some authen- 
tic backing by wa}' of corroboration outside of the spirit of retaliation in 
which the}: seemed to be made. That the grand jury took to the timber 
for delibg-ations, and that they brought in generally a large number of indict- 
ments, is true, but what else they did is not of record, though the charges 
are not altogether improbable. The contract was taken by AVm. Collier. 
Larkin Ilichardson and Joseph Thompson, all of Howard county, in March, 
1842, and the building stands to-day a monument to the work of honest 
<;ontractors and their faithfulness to their contract. They did their work 
honestly and welL The cost was to be, by the original contract, six thou- 
sand dollars. The superintendent of public buildings for Grundy county 
was Andrew J. Walker, and following we give verbatim copy of the contract 
as entered into by the high contracting parties, merely mentioning that 
Wm. Collier became an honored citizen of Trenton, and Grundy county: 



" Article of agreement made and fully agreed upon the eighth day of March, 
in the year of our lord one thousand, eight hundred and forty-two, between 
Andrew J. Walker, superintendent of publick building in the couTity of 
Grundy and State of Missouri, on the one part; and William Collier, Larkin 
Kichardson and Joseph Thompson as principal, and John B. Clark, Samuel 
C. Major, David Kemble, Nathaniel Ford, A. Patterson and Robert Lynch, 
their security, of the county of Howard and State of Missouri, of the other 
part, witnesseth: The said William Collier, Larkin Kichardson and Joseph 
Thompson shall and will on or before the first day of July, eighteen hun- 
dred and forty-four, in good and workman-like manner well and substan- 
tially erect, set up and finish one brick house, for a court-house, in the Town 
of Trenton, in the county of Grundy and State aforesaid, on block number 
two, thirty feet from Water street and thirty feet from Trenton Avanew, 
after the plot of said town of the. following dimensions: Forty-five feet long 
and forty feet wide. The length of said house fronting Water street. The 
foundation dug below the surface of the ground at the lowest part two 
feet deep and two feet and one-half wide, brought to a level with the surface 
of the ground at the lowest part of the ground with small stones pounded in. 
A wall thereon of stone dressed, eighteen inches high from the highest part 
of the ground from the surface. Coast work best hamered, with a wash cut 
three inches wide and one-half incli bevel, and two feet wide, all the stone 
wall to be grouted. The balance of the Avail to be brick laid in flemish 
bond. Eighteen inches thick the first story, and thirteen inches thick the 
second story. The higth of the brick wall twenty-six feet, the first story 
fourteen feet high and the second story twelve feet high. Two doors, one 
fronting Water street and the other fronting Trenton Avanew, each outside 
door venition transum overhead, Jam pannell each, one pannell plain, pilas- 
ters out and inside door, shutters each four pannels, painted outside a rock 
colour, twenty-one windows arranged after the plan of said plot hereto at- 
tached, twenty-four lites, each ten by twelve glass, sash of wallnut timber. 
Frames to be made of three inch stuff, window sells and caps of stone, the 
caps five feet, two inches long, cut with blocks and fillet sells, suitable 
length and thickness. The frames of the windows to be worked with a 
round Gothick joist, all to be twelve inches wide, three inches thick. Four 
girders, twelve inches squar each to be the full length of the house, solid 
timber. Cornish to be project twenty inches over the wall, to be a box 
cornish. Gothick cupelo, to be twenty-one feet high to the top of the 
dome, the base thirteen feet squar, four feet high, the base to be plain sealed 
up, the boards to run up and down with a heavy top of ten inches. From 
the top of the base to the eve of the dome eleven feet, the base to be Eight 
Squar, finished with venition bliues; rod to be eleven feet high. The top of 


1 «• '-** n PK 



the dome covered witli thick tin suitable for siicli work. Bar, oi' lowin-flooi-, 
to bo nineteen feet by forty, to ])e raised seven inclies al)ove the brick or 
lobv tlooi'. .ludore's seat to be raised three feet above the floor, front to be 
pannelhMl two feet six inches above the floor of tlie seat. Steps or stars 
from the seat l)anistered and liand railed. Jurau's seat to be raised two 
feet above the floor, the backs to be panelled, front to be banistered and 
hand railed all round, to be six feet squar. Attoney's tables to be seven feet 
lono^ and two feet wide. Wash boards to be twelve inches wide, plain, oidy 
worked with a rabit worked on two inches wide, one-half inch deep. C'heer 
boards in the lower story rabited the same as the wash boards. The pilas- 
ters to be seven inclies wide. 

"Window and door casing to be fln'ished with plain pilasters, plain 
blocks in the corners. The lower story to have one fire place, with plain 
lieavy mantle piece with a top two inches thick, nine inches wide, col urns, 
plaits and blocks in proportion. Upper story, wash boards nine inches 
wide; cheer boards five inches wide. Four fire places, chimney pieces same 
as below, with a flew seperate from the flew of the upper chimneys from the 
lower story to receive the pij^e of two stove pipes, one on each side of the 
bar. Entry, nine feet wide in the upper story, to be divided into four rooms; 
a door to enter each from the entry, six pannels each. Sash and venition 
blines all to be one and one-half inches thick. Four colums in the lower 
story turned twelve by fourteen inches in diameter, for the support of the 
girders. One lightning rod, three-fourths of an inch bar iron to extend 
two feet above the rod of ball and dart ; to be pointed with steel (magnet- 
ted); to have three prongs; the rod of ball and dart to have one ball two 
and one-half feet in diameter, and a dart, both to be gold leafed. The loby 
to be floored with brick, to be filled up level with the door sills with 
pounded in. The brick to be laid in sand; the fioor of the upper story and 
bar of good oak plank, five inches wide and one and one-quarter of an inch 
thick. The wall to be plastered with three coats, the ceiling above, one; 
below and petition walls to l)e lathed, and plastered with three coats each. 
Inside of the house to be painted a led colour; door and window frames to 
be ])ainted, outside, white; cupelo, white; all three coats; the top of the 
dome two coats painted. The top of the house covered Avitli Avallnut 
shingls to avrage four inches wide and three-quarters of an inch thick at 
the but; (gaged); nailed on with four penny nails; nailed to oak sheeting 
plank; nailed on with eight penny nails. The sheeting plank to be squar 
edged, laid clost togather. The rafters all to be sawed timbers; the roof to 
be four squar and painted a Spanish brown. The cornish painted white. 
The rod of ball and dart, up to the first ball, to be not less than two inches 
in diameter, the balance of the rod one and one-half inches in diameter. In 
consideration whereof the said Andrew J. Walker doth, for himself or his 
successor in office, covenant and promise, to and with the said William Collier, 


Larkin Richardson and Joseph Thompson, their executors and assignees, 
well and truly draw a warrant on the treasurer of the county of Grundy, 
for the sum of six thousand Dollars, to be paid in two installments; (to-wit.), 
the sum of two thousand Dollars on the first dav of November, eiMiteen 
hundred and forty-two, and the sum of four thousand dollars when the 
aforesaid house is finished: Conditioned, if the house is complected before 
the first day of November, 1843, the payment is not due until that time. 
And if not complected before the first day of July, 1844, the last payment 
is not due untile the compleetion of the work. 

" It is further agreed that aforesaid Wm. Collier, Larkin Richardson and 
Joseph Thompson, their heirs, executors, administrators or assignees, shall 
and will at their own expence find and provide all the stone, Inick, timber 
and other materials necessary for making and building the said hoiise. It is 
further agreed and understood that all things not stated in the above de- 
scribed house, that is left out, t() make it complete after the plot of said 
house, hereto attached, after the manner of such buildings, shall be fur- 
nished and finished in a workman-like manner by the undertakers, and shall 
be as binding as if specified above, and for the true performance of all and 
singular the covenants and agreement aforesaid, bind themselves, their heirs, 
executors and administrators unto the county of Grund3% in the penal sum 
of twelve thousand dollars, firmly by these presents. In witness whereof 
we hereunto set our hands and seals, this the eighth day of March, one 
thousand eight hundred and forty-two. Signed, sealed and acknowledged, 

"Andrew J.Walker [seal]. 

"William Collier [seal]. 

" L. Richardson [seal]. 

" Joseph Thompson [seal]. 

" John B. Clark [seal]. 

" Samuel C. Major [seal]. 

" David Kemble [seal]. 

" A. Patterson [seal]. 

" RoBT. Lyncu [sealJ. 
" In the presents of 

" [Signatures blank. — Aut]iOi'\P 

The above agreement was written in an easy, fiowi ng hand, still plainly 
legible, though the paper is yellow and worn with age. With the exception 
of the punctuation, the document is given verhatlm^ and is quite a curios- 
ity, compared with similar papers of to-day. Below is given the first deed 
recorded in Grundy county. It is, also, remarkable for its quaint wording 
and peculiar' style of spelling. It is printed verhatlm: 



^•Geo. Peery & Wife, 

TO )■ Deed. 

"Milton L. Moore. 

"•This iiideutiire made the 18th day of Marcli in the year ol" oiir Lord, 
one thousand, eight huiuh-ed and forty-one, between George Peery and Jane 
his wife, of the one part, and Milton L. Moore of the other part, of the 
Connty of Grundy and State of Mo. Witnessoth tliat the said George 
Peery and Jane his wife, for and in conciduation of tlie sum of one hun- 
dred dolhirs to them in hand paid, the receipt whereof is hereby fully 
acknowledged, hath Granted, bargained, sold, confirm and conveyed, by 
these presents doth grant, bargain, sell, confirm and convey unto the said 
Milton L. Moore and his heirs and assigns forever, all of the two following 
discribed tracts of land, being and being in the county of Grundy and State 
of Missouri, in all containing eighty acres of land, be the same more or 
less, to be particularly known hy the following numbers, (viz:) one piece 
containing forty acres, being the north half of north west half of the north 
west quarter of section no. thirteen in Township no. Sixty-one of range no. 
twenty-five north of the base line and west of the fifth principal Meredian: 
one other piece containing forty acres, being the north half of the north 
east half of the north west quarter of section no. thirteen in Township no. 
sixty-one of range no. twenty-five north of the base line and west of the 
fifth principal Meredian: To have and to hold all of the above discribed 
tracts of land together with all and singular the hereditaments and apperte- 
nances ther belonging or in any wise appertaining, and also all the estates, 
right, title, interest, claim or demand whatsoever of him, the said George 
Peery and Jane his wife, either in law or equity, of, in and to the above dis- 
scribed tracts of land and all and every part and parcel thereof, unto the 
said Milton L. Moore, his heirs and assigns forever against the lawfull let, 
claim or demand of them, the said George Peery and Jane liis wife, or their 
heirs or assigns and all and every person or persons whatsoever, shall, will 
and by these presents do warrant and forever defend. In testimony thereof 
we have hereunto set our hands and seals, the day and year above written 
in the presents of Wm. Penfro. 

" George Peery [seal]. 

" Jane Peery [seal]. 

" State of Missouri, ) 
" County of Grundy, j 

" Be it remembered that on this 18th day of March A. D. 1841, before 
me a justice of the peace within and for the county aforesaid personally 
came George Peery and Jane his wife, both personally known to me to be 
the persons whose names are subscribed to the foregoing insti'ument of 


writing as having executed the same and severally acknowledged the same 
to be their act and deed for the purpose therein mentioned, and she the said 
Jane Peery Being by me first made acquainted with the Contents thereof 
and examined separate and apart from her husband wliether she executed 
the said deed and relinquishes her dower to the said lands and tenements 
therein mentioned, voluntarily, freely and without compulsion or under in- 
fluence of her said husband, acknowledged and declared that she executed 
the said deed and relinquishes her dower to said lands and tenements therein 
mentioned, voluntarily, freely and without compulsion or under influence of 
her said husband. Taken and certifyed the day and year first above written 

" William Renfro, 

" Justice of the 2)6' ice.'''' 

Following will be found several documents taken from the county records^ 
which are jjublished in full, and each is the first one of the several kinds on 
file in the county. They are especially interesting as specimens of how such 
things were done in "ye olden time." Some of the old pioneers may recog- 
nize the descriptions, and claim the stock: 


" We the undersigned, persons appointed and duly sworn to appraise with- 
out partiality, favor or affection a certain mare taken up by liobert Peery,. 
as a stray, and taken before Evans Peery, a justice of the peace for Madison 
township, in Grundy county, do certify that we have viewed the said stray,, 
and find her to be a bright bay mare, with black legs, mane and tail, with a 
white mark on her forehead about two inches long and a (piarter of an inch 
wide, which we judge to be four years old fourteen and one-half hands high, 
no brand, and do appraise said stray to the value of thirty dollars. Certified 

under our hands, this 23d day of July, 1841. 

" John Scott, 

" Archibald Peery. 

" This is to certify that the above is a true copy, and filed for record this 

27th July, 1841. 

" Thos. W. Jacobs, Clerk:' 

Stock, it seems, sometimes strayed away in those old times, their out-doors 
in early days, covering a good deal of country, and their cattle and hogs 
ranged over a wide field, its extent being only bounded by the amount they 
wished to travel. The stock was generally branded or marked, so that it 
could be told by its owner. 


While cattle were generally branded, hogs had their ears marked in some- 
peculiar style which each farmer selected for himself, and placed it upon 
the records of the county, giving him a preemption to that mark, which he 


put on to all his hogs which ran loose, and in tliose days about all did, for 
most every fall the woods were full of mast. The following are a couple of 
marks placed on record by the parties named. 


" Thos. Kilburn records his stock mark with a smooth crop off of each ear, 
and an underbitout of the right ear. Filed for record Dec. 1, 1841. 

" December 31, 1841, Aboils Miles records his stock mark thus, a swaller 
fork in the left ear, and an underbit out of the right." 

The settlement on the east side continued to grow in 1842 and '43. The 
arrivals of the Winters, Brassfields, and others spoken of, seemed to put new 
life in that part of the county. Still the settlers were few and the distances 
between cabins uncomfortable for friendly and neighborly courtesies. * The 
hunting, however, continued good as the game was still abundant. 

In 1844 was the year of the great flood of the western waters. The Mis- 
sissippi laid claim that year, and spread that claim over an immense num- 
ber of acres of low land, that it was the " Father of "Waters." Yet those 
who lived upon the banks of the mighty Missouri, if they allowed the claim 
and the name gave to the " Big Muddy," the title of the " Mother of 
"Waters," and a " right smart chance " of people believed that the old woman 
was considerably the larger of the two. What happened to these great water- 
courses also fell to the share of lesser streams, and Grand River took the 
lead in Grundy county, to show what she could do in the way of spreading 
herself in a rainy season. Much damage to stock and farm improvement 
resulted from the high waters. Small steamboats plied up the Grand River 
quite a number of miles during the high water, and flat-boats were in suc- 
cessful operation for about nine months. That year two flat-boats were built 
at Trenton and William Peery loaded them with wheat and corn and took 
them to St. Louis. The principal mailing facilities were carried on on horse- 
back, and the hiffh water was a slight drawback to even the semi-occasional 
mail which was received at that time. During the time of the highest 
water no mail was received for a period of six weeks. The onward march 
of civilization in the shape of railroads and telegraph had not yet reached 
the State of Missouri, and postage was twenty five cents on a letter, and 
other news traveled slowly. Newspa])ers were not numerous, and in lieu 
thereof Madame Gossip did the heavy work while people gathered together 
to hear what " Mrs. Grundy " had to say. In the meantime a stranger who 
came within the gates was interviewed, if not after the most approved 
modern style, sufliciently persevering to find out about all he knew or 
«ver expected to know. It was not until late in the fall that mail facilities 
became at all regular. The winter of 1844-45 proved to be not a very 
severe one, and many new settlers came during the fall and winter months. 
In February, 1845, the county of Mercer was organized into a separate 


county and the civil jurisdiction of Grundy ceased over the territory of 
Mercer. The county began to assume something of civilization. Roads 
were being laid out and worked. Tlie Indians had ceased to make it a por- 
tion of their hunting-ground, and the condition of civil affairs by tlie 
cutting off of Mercer county caused a reorganization of boundary lines* 
and the townships of Mouticello, Clarke, Moi-gan, Lafayette and Scott 
wholly disappear, and the seven townships which formed the municipal 
division of Grundv for so manv years, came into sight. The orderino- of 
an election by tlie County Court in August, 184G, to be held October 31, 
1846, for the election of a successor to Sterling- Price, resigned, was the first 
record found of these seven townships. The patriotism of the people in 
those days is prominently shown in the names of the seven townships; i^ 
shows that the revolutionary patriots and the statesmen in the early history 
of our great republic were held in high esteein and veneration by the old 
pioneer. Such patriots as Washington, Franklin and Marion, etc., were 
remembered, and their names revered. In marking the boundary lines of 
these municipal corporations, the Grand River, and Tliompson and Weldon 
Forks were utilized as township lines as far as possible, whicli gave distinct 
divisions to the western and middle townships. 

First in the list in the northwest is Washington township, which included 
all the land between Thoni])Son's Fork and Weldon, or East Fork, to the 
Mercer county line. The inhabitants in the forks of the two rivers liad to 
swim out generally, when they wanted to conie to the county seat, as there 
were no bridges in those days. 

Franklin township occupied all of its present territory, with its southern 
boundary line extending two miles south, being, in fact, a congressional 
township six miles square and taking that much off of the north part of 
what is now known as Lincoln townshij). Fi-anklin was bounded on the 
west by Weldon River; north by Mercer county;, east by Liberty township 
and south by Trenton. Liberty township at that day was all of Myres 
township as now known, and the nortli half of its present boundary. 
Mercer county was on the north, Sullivan on the east, Marion township on 
the south, with a corner of Trenton and all of Franklin on the west. Ma- 
rion township extended to the south line of Grundy county, having Sullivan 
and Linn counties on the east, Livingston on the south, Trenton township 
on the west and Liberty township on the north,, containing at that time all 
within her present boundary, and, also, half of Liberty as now formed, and 
all of Wilson. The Heatherly gang gave this to-wnship some early noto- 
riety of rather an unsavory kind. Hi&tory did not exactly repeat itself, 
but the "men of Marion" township did their part toward extirpating the 
band of cut-throats and murderers that had, for a short space of time, an 
abiding place within her borders. If it were not the " Swamp Fox," the 
gallant Marion and his men, it was the spirit of this hero of revolutionary 


memory which led them oti, and wlio in years agone M'as famous in song 
and story, whose deeds of daring are recorded among the bravest of brave 
men in the annals of onr country's history, and whose heroic, self-sacrificing 
life will ever adorn the ])ages of that immortal record which flashed to the 
world a nation born and liberty triumphant. 

Trenton township was composed of all the territory south of Franklin to 
the Livingston county line, and east of Clrand and Weldon rivers to the 
Marion township line. West of Grand River and in southwest corner of 
the county was Jefferson township, its metes and bounds being Livingston , 
county on the south, Daviess on the west, Madison township on the north 
and (Trand Iliver on the east, her north line extending from Grand River 
to the Daviess county line, being one mile above her present boundar\\ 
Madison township, its south line being. lefferson, was all the country lying 
west of Grand and Thom])Son rivers, to the county lines of Daviess and 

The seven townships whose metes and bouiuls are thus described, com- 
posed the municipal divisions of the county, and their township officers were 
justices of the peace and constables, who looked after the local affairs. 


The next few years weve uneventful ones so far as local affairs were con- 
cerned. The Mexican War which beo;an in 184H sent a thrill of excitement 
through the hearts of the people. The regular army was not able to cope 
With the Mexican forces, on account of superiority of number of the latter, 
and a call for volunteers was made. The Southern States being nearest the 
scene of conflict rushed their volunteers to the front, but it was not long be- 
fore it was shown by the people of the country that the treasonable and cold- 
blooded utterance of an Ohio member in the halls of Congress had no resting 
place in the hearts of the people: "That Mexico should welcome our sol- 
diers with bloody hands to hospitable graves." General Taylor opened the 
fight at Palo Alto, Resaca de la Pal ma and Monterey, but it was done at 
the loss of the brave and gallant Ringgold, who met his fate at Palo Alto, 
and a host of others, who gave their lives to their country's glory. And it 
will do no harm to mention here the initial steps in the science of war taken 
by a number of gallant officers who proved themselves heroes upon more 
than one battle-field of the Mexican War, who on broader and more exten- 
sive fields, attracted, by their skill and daring, the attention of the world. 
These young heroes of the Mexican War were Grant, McClellan, Lee, 
Beauregard, Hill, Jackson, Sherman, Hooker, Longstreet, Buell, Johnston, 
Lyon, Anderson, Kearney, Thomas, Ewell and Davis. And of thirty offi- 
cers mentioned by General Scott, for their skill and daring, sixteen were gen- 
erals in the Union army, and fourteen were generals in that of the Confed- 
eracy. It was not until 1847, when a second call for ti-oops was made, that 


Grundy county responded to the call. Sterling Price, then a member of 
Congress, resigned, and was appointed by President Polk to command 
another regiment of Missouri mounted volunteers which liadbeen called for. 
Hon. John C. Griffin was appointed by the governor to raise a com])any 
and was requested to be at Independence, Mo,, within ten days. Volunteers 
responded promptly and the company was formed and an election of officers 
took place here, August 2Sth, 1847 and reported at Independence, Septem- 
ber 3, 184T. The following were the officers elected, and the privates as far 
as we have been able to secure their names. 

Officers — Captain, Jno. C. Griffin; first lieutenant, Oliver Bain; second 
lieutenant, Ashley Gulley ; third lieutenant, Ira Benson, all of Grundy county. 

Privates — J. H. Shanklin, N. A. Winters, James "Winters, Thos. Aubrey, 
William Winters, Milton Aubrey, James Williams, Bobt. Williams, Elisha 
Vanderpool, Dock Yanderpool, Jacob T. Tindall, David Arbogath, James 
Tindall, Simon Adamson, John Reyburn, Lyman Odle, Overly Clark, J. 
Puck, John Booher, Sol. Spear, Wm. Hughes, Ezekial Long, Sol. Cole, Alt'. 
Turner, Jno. W. Moore, Geo. Inman, Caleb Knight, John Swopes, Geo. 
Swopes, Wm. Hughes, Wm. Steers, Jos. Moore, Tillery Pruit, Jolin R. 
Clark, Sam'l Clark, Gouverneur Fisher, Milton Moore, John Moore, Jr., 
John Moore, Sr., Grundy county; Jno. McCroskey, Mansfield, Liv- 
ingston county; Webb joined at Independence, Mo. ; Jas. Preston, Liv- 
ingston county; Basil Barrett, Miles Wasson, Mercer county; Jacob Bain, 

Yandyke, John Mnnn, Jos. Kennedy, Jolm Burns, Jos. Applegate, 

Wash Duskins (deserted), John Boils, Lafayette Warmouth, Grundy county* 
The company numbered 112 men. At Independence they voted for Wm. 
Gilpin for lieutenant-colonel, and then marched to Leavenworth where 
Alex. W. Doniphan was chosen colonel, C. F. Rufi", lieutenant-colonel and 
Wm. Gilpin, major, and were mustered in and proved to be the only com- 
pany from north Missouri. Tliey \vere soon on the march for Mexico. 
When they reached the Cimaron River they were not long in finding an 
enemy. Tliey were on the border of New Mexico which was then a part 
of Mexico proper. Their orders were to keep open and guard the Santa Fe 
trail. The Comanche Indians, the allies of the Mexicans, and a number of 
the latter, six hundred strong, attempted to capture them, there being only 
ninety-eight officers and men in the command. In the engagement they 
whipped the Indians after a pretty severe fight, having quite a number 
wounded, but thanks to Providence, none killed. 

"Then louder than the bolts of heaven, 
Far flashed the red artillery." 

Their volleys of grajDe and canister saved them, it prevented the Indians 
from coming to close quarters. On the defeat of the enemy they resumed 
their march to Fort Masey, to which point they had been ordered. This 
Fort was some fifty miles north of Santa Fe, and from that as a base of 


■operations they were to guard and ])rotect tlic Santa Fe trail and keej) it 
open. The company under Ca])t. Griffin continued in service until August, 
1848, when the war heing over they were recalled. The order, however, 
did not reach them until three weeks after the w^ar had closed. They re- 
turned and were mustered out at Independence, Mo., Sept. 28, 1848, being 
nearly or quite thirteen months in the service without the loss of a man. 
Simon Adamsoii was taken sick and received his discharge and Wash. 
Duskins deserted. 

Maj. Gilpin's battalion, five companies, wintered on the x\rkansas River 
in the winter of 1847-48. This ended the Mexican War so far as Grundy 
county was concerned, and it is a record to be proud of. Only one company 
from north Missonri, and nine-tenths of that company came from Grund}' 
county. That record M'ill do to go down in history, and an example to be 
followed by the sons and grandsons of these heroes of Grundy county. 


The first reference we find to the institution of slaver}- is the following 
order of the County Court at its February term, 1847, and it was to divide 
the slaves of Henry Lyda and make report tr> the County Court. 

The two next, and all that is to be found of record, is given below, and 
will close the subject of slavery as the war of 1861-65 closed its practical 
working as an institution of involuntary servitude within the limits of this 
country. The following is a verbatim order for a free colored man to live 
in Grundy county: 

•'Jefferson Waterford, alias Thompson, a free man of color, files a certifi- 
cate of good character, and applies for a license to live within the State of 
Missouri, and it is ordered that he give bonds for his good behavior. ' Said 
J. Waterford files a bond for his good behavior with Wm. Metcalf and 
John R. Scott as his securities, wiiicli is approved,' this December 16, 1851." 
And the following: "Randall Darnaby, a free man of color, having been 
emancipated by C. Darnaby, his former master, applies for a license to re- 
main in this State, and having jirodiiced satisfactory evidence of good 
moral character, it is ordered by the court that said Randall, now about 
thirty-five years of age, 5 feet Q^ inches high, dark brown color, and 150 
pounds weight, and scar under the right ear, be and he is hereby licensed 
to remain in the State of Missouri, having given bond as is required by 
law." This was granted at the May term of the County Court, 1856. 


The first naturalization papers issued by the court of Grundy county was 
to Judge Valentine Briegel, of Lincoln township, who has proven to be one 
of Grundy's most progressive citizens. These papers were issued April 10? 
1848. Mr. Briegel's energy of character and worth as a citizen have been 


acknowledged by the people of Grimdy county by his election as county 
judge and as the presiding justice of said court for a number of years. 
Henry Wild, of Yorkshire, England, was the second person naturalized in 
this county, and his papers are dated in June; he having been declared a 
citizen of the United States at the June term of the (Jircuit Court for the 
year 1848. . 


The County Court at its July session, 1849, "ordered that a poll be 
opened in the respective precincts of Grundy county on the first Monday 
in August, A. D. 1849, for the purpose of voting for or against a probate 
court and for one probate judge, for one da3'." 

The County Court at its August term, the Tth day of August, 1849» 
"ordered that Wm. Renfro receive certificate of election as judge of pro- 
bate for Grundy county, he having received a majority of the votes cast at 
the August election." And so Wm. Renfro became the first probate judge 
of the county. Those who succeeded hi in will be found recorded in the 
chapter of county officers. 


Once in awhile in those early times in the county's history they would 
have a row in court just like they occasionally have in these enlightened 
days. Lawyers in those days seem to have been at times possessed of 
evil ways and would wake up an ugly customer to break the monotony of 
court proceedings. Henry W. Lyda succeeded in making a very angry 
man of Mr. Ezekiel Rouse, and while in that state of I'age Ezekiel made a 
violent assault on Lyda in open court. Things looked lively. Ezekiel was 
trying to wipe up the floor with the body of the unfortunate Lyda when a 
sufficiency of hel]) came to the assistance of the sheriff, and Ezekiel was 
hustled u]i before the court, of which he was in contempt, and the judge 
fined him fifty dollars on the spot for his outrageous conduct. In the 
language of the small boy, this took the "mad" all out of Mr. Ezekiel 
Rouse, and a more humble man never bowed in sorrow before his Honor, 
the Judge. Mr. Rouse didn't carry around with him fifty dollars all in 
hard cash, or the currency of the times, and he was permitted to go free, 
but came up before the next meeting of the court and settled his little bill 
for contempt. I'eing an honest man and a pretty fair talker when, what 
was called in those times, big money was at stake, Ezekiel came promptly to 
time and nuide the "greatest effort of his life." The court appreciated his 
eloquence and allowed him just thirtv-flve dollars for it, and Mr. Rouse was 
re(piired to pass over fifteen dollars and call the contempt square. This 
was done and lie was free. This ended the "great contempt" case of this 



New El Dorado — A Deficienci/ — Contest of 1861 — Union and Confederate Meetings — The 
I'weiiti/- Third Missouri — Pittshurfj Landinc/ — Field of Shiloh — Death of Tindall— 
Tribute to his Memory — Enlogi/ of Woolfolk — Roll of Company B — Confederates — 
Grundy County Battalion — The Forty-Fourth — Peace — The Blue and The Gray — The 
Dark Days of the Civil War, 1862-5. ^ 

" Let dust-begrim'd worm carrion clay 
On our rich vitals feast and prey ; 
And dig and delve with hungry greed 
For faintest trace of * golden lead.' " 

The roar of cannons through the mountain gorges and canons of Mexico, 
the angry shouts of the combatants, and the glad shout of victory which 
rang with a glorious sound from one end of our conntry to another had 
scarcely died away before the air was freighted witli rumors of a land where 
gold literally covered the earth. These stories, as they first came to hand, 
were vague, but Aladdin's lamps shone not more brightly on the wonders 
of ancient days than these tales assured of when the reality was reached, 
that gold had been found on that distant shore where the waves of the 
mighty Pacific lashed in fury when in its wrath, or kissed its pebbled 
beach when the storm cloud had passed, and he who ruled the storm had 
spoken, " peace, be still." Then, indeed, was the whole country excited. 
The excitement became intense as more definite news came continually to 
hand, and a perfect stampede took possession of those who were borne away 
by the wild and wonderful stories of that far-oft' land. The rush was 
terrible in the number who left all behind them to gain a fortune in the 
El Dorado of the West, and still more terrible in the sufferings and death 
of thousands who never reached the Pacific coast and whose bones, with those 
of thousands of cattle and horses, whitened the plains which lie between 
the home they had left and that golden shore. Men started out on foot, 
on horseback, with oxen and horses to wagons, some well ])rovided, others 
not; covered wagons whitened our State, for Independence and St. Joseph 
were favorite fitting-out places for those who had the money, while the 
great Santa Fe trail led from the former place. But nearly all who went 
overland made the soil of Missouri the route to their distant destination and 
her western border as the starting point, where civilization ended, and the 
* wild country beyond was the great unknown land whose dark and gloomy 
portals had to be passed before the liglit of a golden day would again greet 
their eyes. The plunge was made, and the discovery of California, that far- 
away treasure-trove, has left its footprints upon the pages <»f history in the 
trials and sufi'erings of a mighty host, and the death of thousands of brave 
hearts who suft'ered all and endured all for their loved ones at home. 


Grundy county had her gold-seekers, and scores of the bravest and best 
left in the wild hegira for the land of gold. All who had horses or cattle 
to sell got a good price for them for they were in demand. Trade seemed 
to take a new start, but all that was gained failed to compensate for the 
sturdy men and their outfit which left the country. Some of those who 
left died on the way, others reached the haven of their hopes, and after 
vears of toil concluded to make it their home. Others returned, some with 
fortunes and some with none; some in rugged health and others broken and 
dying, only anxious to reach their homes and loved ones once more before 
they closed their eyes in death. Not all had their wishes gratified. Those 
who returned well provided with the "root of all evil" were not slow in 
letting it be known that the}' had "made their pile,'' but just what was the 
size of the " pile" was one of those things " no fellow " ever could find out. 
Still, things took a livelier turn; farms were purchased, stock bought and 
an era of prosperity began to dawn more auspiciously than ever. 

At this time a full settlement was made with Wm. Thrailkill, ex-sheriflf, who 
was short in his collection for 1843 some ninety dollars. The County Court 
at their August term ordered suit for its recovery and his sureties paid it. It 
seems not to have been considered a wrong so much as an error. There 
were other discrepancies found for small amounts for different years, and all 
seemed to have been settled by him or his sureties. In November, 1848, 
the County Court took a notion to economize, a habit which had become 
chronic, and concluded not to advertise any more in newspapers but stick 
up written notices at cross-roads and other public places, and it was so 
ordered. They granted, at the same term of the court, on November 13, 
1848, a ferry license to Samuel Benson, across Grand River, and it went 
by the name of Benson's P'erry, until after the bridge was built. In 1849, 
at the May term, the tax collector had been enabled to collect some back 
taxes as far back as 1845, and he returned the following sums as evidence of 
his success: 

"Samuel Chesnut, delinquent 1845, State tax, 39 cents; county tax, 78 
cents; total, $1.17, paid." 

"Edward Williams, delinquent 1845, State tax, 25 cents; county tax, 50 
cents; total, 75 cents, paid." 

That May term was further noted for cutting all l)ills against the county 
down to where it met the bottom point of economy as entertained by the 

In 1850 three dollars were allowed for taking the census, but there was 
nothing that could give a clue to just what the census consisted of. Whether 
this extravagantly paid ofticial just took the enumeration of the population, 
•or included, also, cereals and live stock is not known by any one of this day 
and generation and must therefore ever remain unknown to history. There 
was a proposition entertained at the August term, 1850, to sell the old clerk's 


office and the slierifF was ordered to sell, but lie ])roved either too sh>\v or 
else purchasers had become ])aiiit'ully scarce, for the sale had not been effected 
when the court met again and the order was promptly countermanded. A 
new order of the court caused the same to be repaired as follows: "Brick 
work repaired, new roof, window, sash and ^laas, under floor repaired, doors 
and windows painted with two coats of white lead, shingles to be made of 
good oak or walnut timber, clear of sap, and to show but five inches to the 
weather, made full eighteen inches long and five-eighths of an inch thick; 
plastering, two coats overhead and whitewashed; walls, one coat and white- 
washed; also windows, shutters and fastenings, new door, lock, frame, etc." 
And thus the old clerk's office was made new and it stood until a fire a few 
years later consigned it to ashes with most of its contents, and with all the 
records of the probate court to that date. In 1850 it was decided to close 
the grand jury room and bar all secret societies from its use, and all the 
benches, tables, etc., taken to be returned at once under penalty of the law. 
This order seemed to have had the desired effect Yor nothing more was heard 
of the matter. 

The (Circuit Court turned out a batch of indictments at the April term, 
1850, and among the number was one against John Forkner, for assault 
with intent to kill, but the charge not being sustained, the attorney entered 
a nol. pros. 

It was in November, 1850, that grand jurors got tired of serving at fifty 
cents a day and petitioned to have the salary raised to one dollar per day, 
but the petition was rejected. No such extravagant salaries would be paid; 
not, in the language of the day, if the court knew herself, and the unfor- 
tunate foreman of the grand jury retired, abashed, while the court expressed 
itself astonished at his presumption. And so a grand juryman was com- 
pelled to grind out indictments and board himself at fifty cents a da}'. It 
will be admitted by the most unprejudiced reader that the bankruptcy of 
Grundy county was not imminent on the score of high salaries. Still, the 
grand jury did its work and in the following spring ground out eight in- 
dictments for playing and betting on cards, and in the fall turned out twelve- 
more,* seven who had sinned against the law of God and man by betting at 
cards, three more for not attending to their duties as road overseers and fail- 
ing to repair roads, and two for assault with intent to kill. This work was 
all at the usual rate of fifty cents per day and find yourself 

Mr. Jeremiah Snyder of the County Court resigned at this November 
term, 1852, and Mr. Giles Songer was appointed county judge in his place. 
The old county road to the upper feny, from the west limits of Trenton, 
was vacated, being seldom used. It took fifty days to take the census of 
Grundy county in 1853, seventy-five dollars was allowed for the job, 
and it was paid to W. C. Harvey. That same year Mr. J. T. Tindall was 
appointed to investigate and to settle the county affairs between Mercer 

and Cirmulv I'oiintii^. thorf I'lMiii;- due somo monevs t'roiu (Tnnuh- on ;ic- 

oount ot' taxes, oto. This was satisfactorily accomplished within a reasoji- 

■Me time. There was nxthiiiu- further of special interest occurred in the 

countv. Matters had become (jniet. the renirned Calitornians would now 

ami then rej^ort. ami manv winild leavo t'or that tar-ott' land every year. 

At the April term o\ the County l\>nrt. IS'io, the followinn; order was 

made in reterenet^ to swamp l:\nds: 

Oniirtii hi/ th,- Court. VhM .lohu 0. iJriffiu. of Gruiuiy ooinity. Missouri, bo allowod as 
full conipenssitioii for his services as scleotinir atjeiit the sum ot" tour cents per acre for each 
acre selected, desipuitt'd and reported l«v him as overtlowed laiul i^ranted to the State ot 
Missouri by an act of Coiijrress. entitled " aii act to enable the State of Arkansas ami other 
States to i-eehvim the swamp hnids within their liiuits." approved. September '2S, I80O, for 
all sueh hinds situated in the county of Grundy, which nmy be confirmed to the State and 
made subject to the nianasrement of the County Court of said Grundy county, as provided by 
lui act of the le.irislature. approved March :i, 1851, to be paid out of the tii-st proceeds of the 
<ales of such lauds: proiidid. he sliall not receive pay for more than oo.lK>0 acres. 

In .Vpril. 1854. the coun'ty ]nirchase.l the "Held notes" and "plats" of 
lands lyin^- in lirnmly county ot' 1>. V. Thomas and allowed him eighty -live 
dollars for the same. That year was the tirst that a temperance nu>ve was 
inauii'urated, by petition, and then John il. Shanklin presented a jietition 
siiTued bv a maioritv of the ta.\-navers ao-ainst ijrantino; licenses to dram 
:?hopt> t'or a year. Tiie petition was appro\ ed and no licenses were granted. 
That year Judge Gamble ot' the Supreme CVnirt resigned and an election was 
ordered in Cirundy connry to come oti" in Jainiary. 1S55, to vote for a suc- 
cessor. An v)rder had been nuide by the County Court against the occupation 
ot' the court-house by the ditfereut lodges in Trenton as their place of meet- 
ing. It seems rhey had takei\ ]H>ssession and had not given a (j aid pro quo 
and the court put a stop to it. The lodges felt the loss of their free room, 
and --0 lodo;e Mo. Ill of Freenu\sons rented the use of the j^rand iurv room, 
when not used as such, }is their lodije room at an annual rental of twentv- 
live dollars. 

In I cbrnary, l^^>t^ J as. Austin resigiu\l the position of county treasurer 
and Ceo. M. Cooper was aj^pointed. and Jolui C. Grithn was appointed 
county attorney in place of J. T. Tindall, resigned, in ]\Iarch, 1854. 

John M. "NTeOouald resigned the ]M-obate judgeshij> and Stephen Peery 
was appointed his successor. A court of appeals was held August 17. 
l>oth of these incidents transpiring in 1S57. 

The attempt in July. 1S5S, to divide Liberty and Marion townsliips into 
three townships failed. 

d. II. Cooper, Thos. J. Proctor and Wni. Collier were appointed a com- 
mittee to superintend the erection of the county jail and were also given the 
power to select the spot on the public square where it should be plaeeil. 

Under an arrangement for the assessment of the county it was, in Jan- 
narv. I80S, divided into fotir districts, and the followino' describes their 
boundaries as fixed: 

iiMrroKY OF oftvsur cxwjsty. 213 

// ijf hrihff.d hi) tlu Court, Thai Gmndy eoontf be dhrided into four dktricU for tbe por- 
poiMr of aJt«^)Min«rnt« ; to-wiL Dwtrki No. 1 conuneDciD^ at tbe nortfaeavt comer of Gnmdy 
«oaDt}', tb^ooe west to the rang*: Vine diri/Jiof; mug** 2!i and 24, tbtmec Mfith t> tb« north- 
<;aKt corner of towojibip 61, ranK« 24< on said xnDge luM*. tb«nc^ eaM on tbe toimsbtp Uik 
divid'mfi towiwbip 62, rang*' 2^}, and town»btp 62. range 22. from to«m«b>p 61. range 23. 
<tnd townsbip 61, range 22, tiieDO<r nortb to tbe line of beginning, 

Tlie court-booge iiqiiarc was orrlered enclosserl with a paling fence in the 
fall of 1859, and an oak plank walk orrJered laid down. Tlie purchaite of 
two large Vjox j»tove» wa« decided upon and they cost the »nni of $45,82, 
This closed the extra expenses for tliat year. 

Tlie year 1860 was a fruitful one a* regards the crops. Cereals and froit 
gave abundant returns, and at no period of onr country's hi»tor>' was it 
more prosj^erous*. But in the fall and winter of 1860-61 came the first 
muttering uf a storm which was to deiuge our land with hUtod^ and to bring 
grief to the homes and firesides of our glorious and prosperous land, 

THE r-OMTKftT OF 1861. 

The year 1861 will go down in hi.itory a* liie opening year in the dark 
drama where American freemen, instead of fin i ting to build up a fraternal 
brotherhood of States, caused the land Ut become a battle-field of contending 
hosts, and onr favored and prosperous country to be drenched with tbe life 
blood of her ])eople. The angel of peace had taken her flight and the demon 
of hate held high carnival over the death struggles of brave men. Once 
more was the "Land of the Free*^ to seal her devotion to lilj^rty in the blood 
of her martyred sons, Tlie bra%'e and heroic deeds of the sons of freedom 
were given an additional luster, but at enormous cost, while the wails of 
agony went up from the hearts of millions of people, and the lives of thous- 
ands were given freely, a sacrifice upon the altar of their country. The 
people of to-day can look more leniently upon the action and motives of 
those who, in the madness of the hour brought dire distress and sorrow to 
the land- yet no l>lush of shame mantles the cheek, for right or wrong, they 
fought as only brave men fight, and so far as in that fierce conflict man 
met man in hostile array, it was no crime. The crimes committed lay at 
the door of those at home, who, while brave men were defending the very 
portals of liberty, engendered hatred and malice, preached thegospelof hate, 
and committed those crimes of which history has but imperfect record, 
and whose appalling atrr.cities are branded deej>in the hearts and memories 
of the families and friends of the victims. 

Grundy county, at the outset of the war, was pretty evenly divided in 
sentiment, but as time passed, the ringing cry of the ''Union forever ~ soon 
placed the Federal power in a majority, and when the news came that 
Sumter had fallen, the time had also come for the upholders of the Union 
to express more openly their sentiments and determination. Among the 
rising men of the day, there came to the front one of those men of which 


heroes are made. Prompt in action, strono- of will, with tlie spirit of a 
patriot to di-aw others to liis belief, he promptly took the lead. This man 
was J. T. Tindall. Then others at once rallied to his standard, and the 
cause of the Union to(dv new life. Jewett Norris, Geo. H. Rubbell, J. T. 
Tindall, J. H. Shanklin, li. A. DeBolt and Andrew Shanklin took the 
stump and traveling over the surrounding counties they addressed the peo- 
ple, defending the Union with burning words and with matchless eloquence, 
calling on them to stand by it and prevent its severance. 


In May, 1861, two meetings were called, one to be addressed by those 
favoring the Confederate cause, the other for the Union. The latter showed 
by far the largest assembly, and from that day the Union advocates took 
courage. The formation of a regiment was at once determined upon, and 
the recruiting went briskly on and continued during the last of July and 
in jiugust, 1861. On August 25th seven companies had been raised and 
were in Trenton on that day, as was, also, a company of Merrill's Horse 
from Daviess and Harrison counties. Art election of officers took place and 
Jacob T. Tindall, of Trenton, (irrundy county, was elected colonel. Jacob 
Smith, of Linn county, was elected lieutenant-colonel, but was not commis- 
sioned as he was appointed judge of this judicial circuit, and Quin Morton 
was selected in his place. John McCuUough, of Sullivan county, who 
proved a brave man and an able officer, was elected major. R. A. DeBolt 
acting as recruiting officer. In the formation of company B, raised in 
(irundy county, and numl>ering ninety-six men and officers, R. A. DeBolt 
^yas elected captain; Stephen Peery, first lieutenant, who resigned on being 
promoted to adjutant; Samuel Rooks, second lieutenant, but promoted to 
first lieutenancy, taking the post vacated by the promotion of Peery. 
Benj. F. Harding became second lieutenant, and this is the way the com- 
pany stood at the battle of Shiloh, which so nearly destroyed it. . Captain 
DeBolt, First Lieut. Rooks and Second Lieut. Harding all resigned after 
being exchanged. June 7th, 1862, at the reorganization of the Twenty-third, 
Wm. P. Robinson, of Harrison county, became colonel; J. M. Nash, captain of 
company B, with Orville Moberly first lieutenant and Robt. A. Collier sec- 
ond lieutenant. August 26, 1861, these troops arrived at Chillicothe, where 
the election as above stated took place and the regiment named The 
Twenty-third Regiment of Volunteer Infantry of Missouri. From 
there they went into camp near Brookfield until ordered to St. Louis, where 
they received their arms and accouterments and were mustered into service 
September 1st, 1861. They left St. Louis for Macon City October 15th, 
and remained in the latter city until November 1st, and then were ordered 
to winter at Chillicothe. Recruiting continued, and in January, 1862, 
their full complement of ten companies and 1,000 men was secured and the 


officers received their commissions. In February, 1862, delegates were 
elected to the State convention to be held the following June, and Colonel 
Tindall was the choice of the people of Grundy county to represent them, 
but it was a position he was never destined to fill. In March Colonel 
Tindall received orders to report with his regiment at St. Louis, and he 
arrived there and reported to the commanding officer and took quarters at 
Benton Barracks. The men were re-clothed and new arn^s given them, and 
on April 1st, ])eing in tine condition, they were ordered to Pittsburg Land- 
ing and reported to (leneral Grant, who ordered them to the brigade of 
Gen'l B. M. Prentiss, to whom Col. Tindall rej^orted. They had reached 
PiTTSBURci Landing on the 4:th of April, unloaded and prepared to join 
Prentiss's brigade on the 5th. On the morning of the 6th they were ready for 
duty and met the enemy on the Field op Shiloh, one of the bloodiest of 
the war. The scene of carnage was fearful; the demon of war was in his 
glory, and when the sun set that day it cast its fitful rays of light through 
the trees upon the body of as brave a man and as noble heart as ever beat 
in the cause of the Union. Between four and five o'clock the gallant colo- 
nel of the Twenty-third Missouri, who had been in the heat of the struggle 
all day, his regiment still fairly surrounded by his foes and sadly decimated, 
the dead and wounded lying around him, like a stag at bay, was still mak- 
ing a heroic stand. Begrimed by the smoke of battle, he made one more 
desperate attempt to fight his way out, and cheering his men on, who 
stood unflinchingly by their lion-hearted colonel, he led the last charge and 
fell, pierced by the messenger of death upon the battle-field, and the going 
down of the sun on the evening of the 6th of April, 1862, upon the field of 
Sliiloh, set while the death- rattle sounded, and the noble spirit ceased its fiut- 
tering and was borne across the dark waters to a brighter and more glorious 
day. And thus went out the life of Grundy's noblest son. 

"Rest on! embalmed and sainted dead! 
Dear as the blood ye gave ; 
No impious footsteps here shall tread 
The herbage of your grave; 
Nor shall your glory be forgot 
While Fame her record keeps, 
Or honor points the hallowed spot 
Where Valor proudly sleeps." 

The gallant Twenty-third had made a glorious record upon that gory field, 
and when night came on, little was left to tell the tale of its dire destruc- 
tion. Of company B, what few who were not killed upon the field of bat- 
tle were prisoners in Confederate hands, and the Twenty-third was known 
no more until late in the fall of 1862, when it was reorganized. It went 
into the battle fully 1,000 strong on the morning of the 6th of April. It 
was attached to Prentiss's brigade, which stood the first shock of battle, the 


terrible onset of the Confederates, and when niglit came not three hundred 
men could be found to answer roll-call. 


The State convention which was held at Jefferson City, commencing 
June 2, 1862, paid a glowing and manlj tribute to the memory of the gal- 
lant Tindall, who was a member-elect of that body. Col. J. H. Shanklin, 
elected to take his place as a member of the convention, after his death with 
the gifted and elocpient Woolfolk, Breckinridge and Stewart, all spoke of 
him, who knowing his duty performed it so nobly and well. Below is given 
the resolutions passed by the convention, and the beautiful, glowing, but 
just tribute of the impassioned "Woolfolk to the memory of the lamented 


On the 3d day of June, 1862, at the afternoon session of the Missouri 
State convention, Mr. "Woolfolk, of Livingston county, presented the fol- 
lowing resolutions in reference to the death of Col. Tindall: 

Whereas, The calamities of war have deprived this convention and the 
country of the services on this floor of Col. Jacob T. Tindall, who fell at the 
head of his regiment on Sunday, the 6th day of April, 1862, on the battle- 
field of Shiloh ; therefore, be it 

Resolved, That in the death of Col. Tindall this convention has lost a 
valued member, whose intellect and energy, patriotism and conservative 
views rendered him an able and efficient member of this body. That by his 
untimely fall the nation has lost a devoted patriot in the hour of her peril, 
the army a prudent commander, the society in which he moved an ornament, 
and his family an affectionate husband and father. 

Resolved, That in testimony of our appreciation of the deceased and 
from due regard to his memory, this convention will now adjourn until to- 
morrow morning at 9 o'clock, and that the members wear the usual badge 
of mourning during the present session. 

Resolved, That we tender the condolence of the members of this body to 
the family and immediate friends of Colonel Tindall in their sad bereave- 
ment; that these resolutions be spread upon the journal of this convention, 
and that a copy thereof be prepared b^'- the secretary and forwarded to Mrs. 
Emeline Tindall, the wife of the deceased. 

MR. WOOLFOLk's remarks. 

"J/-/'. President — It has become my sad and unexpected duty to present 
these resolutions upon this floor. I deem them only a proper tribute to 
the memory of one of tliis body who has gone from our midst — who has 
fallen in the discharge of his duty as a patriot and soldier. 

"The deceased united in himself many of those qualities Avhich win our 
admiration and love. He was sincere, honest and generous, and full of that 
noble modesty which, united to a proper self-respect, lends such a charm to 


merit. Born in Kentucky, in 1825, his parents removed to Howard county, 
Missouri, during his early youth, and afterward removed to Grundy county 
when he reached the age of eighteen years. As a youth lie was much loved 
in the county in which he lived. He was quiet, unassuming and diligent 
in the prosecution of his studies. 

" When the Mexican War broke out he at once enlisted and served with 
honor in the position of sergeant-major and acting adjutant of his regiment. 
When the war was over he commenced the practice of law in his own 
■county of Grundy, and soon won for himself a proud name in his own and 
adjoining counties. His integrity, his close application to business, and his 
fine, discriminating intellect made him one of the most successful advocates 
in thfe Grand Kiver Valley. The masses possessed entire confidence in his 
honesty, and this fact gave him a power before juries which few others pos- 
sessed. He had f<»r several years prior to our national difficulties stood at 
the head of his profession in the Grand River Valley. At the very com- 
mencement of this revolution he took a bold stand in favor of the Unions 
and when the convention was called he M'as elected by an overw^helming 
majority to this body. When Sumter fell and the American nation was 
■called to arms, he was among the first to rally at the call of his country. 
I well rememljer an evening passed with him about this period. It was 
just after the Camp Jackson affair. The military bill had been passed and 
Union men were falling away by hundreds. Everywhere in the State con- 
fusion M^as reigning. False re])orts as to the policy of the government were 
flying over the country. No Union man felt secure. The iron hand of 
rebellion was upon us; and a rebel government had been erected in our 
midst. I was gloomy — almost despondent. In my own city of Chillicothe 
two-thirds of the citizens had suddenly become avowed secessionists, and 
the remaining one-third, with but few exceptions, occupied ambiguous posi- 
tions. Tindall came to our city just at this period, on his way to St. 
Joseph. He came to my office and announced that the time had come when 
we must fight on one side or the other. The Union men must abandon 
their principles and enlist under the military bill as passed by the legisla- 
ture, or they must organize to resist it. Brigadier-general Shick had just 
■offered him the position of brigade inspector, with the proviso that if he 
did not like the place he should have any other he desired. But Tindall, 
true to his principles, unhesitatingly refused his offers. ' I have made up 
my mind,' said he to me, ' to resist this military bill and battle on the side 
of my government, but I dislike to be alone in my opposition. I am going 
to St. Joseph for the purpose of seeing if the Union 4nen there and else- 
where will act with me in my resistance to treason.' I admired his bold, 
decisive conduct. I felt that nature had destined him for a leader, and I 
unhesitatingly pledged him my support, even if I should stand alone. 

" After raising his regiment, he was for several months stationed in the 


city of Cliillicothe, and his conservative conrse had a great influence to- 
ward restoring peace to that distracted section. The ultras who desired to 
use the strong arm of military ]>ower for the purpose of gratifying revenge- 
ful passions, found in him no friend, and he pursued unwaveringly the path 
of conservatism, regardless of the clamor of men who called for acts of 
violence and wrong. The ultras endeavored for a time to weaken his influ- 
ence by charges that he was courting favor with the secessionists, and I shall 
never forget his noble reply when he heard these charges. ' Tliey may call 
me what they please, but they shall not induce me to do what I believe to 
be wrong.' He was loved by all good men, regardless of party; all felt 
secure under his authoritj^as long as they respected the constitution and the 
laws. And when his bleeding remains were borne from the battle-field of 
Shiloh, good men of all parties followed him weeping to the grave. He 
was one of those noble men whom we often meet during these struggles, 
and whom I always admire. Born in the South, he was not a Union man 
from any hostility to slavery, or from any sympathy with Northern States 
in opposition to Southern States. He was a Union man from principle and 
patriotism. He abandoned his section for the sake of his country; but by 
his country he meant his whole country — not the northern half of it — and 
he loved it all, from ocean to ocean and from the lakes to the gulf. 

'' He has given the noblest proof of his patriotism, for he has made the 
last only sacrifice a patriot can make for his country. He led his gallant 
regiment upon the bloody field of Shiloh, and belonging to Prentiss' bri- 
gade, they stood the first shock of battle. During the entire day of the 6th 
of April, the gallant men of the Twenty-third Missouri were in the thickest 
of the fight and nobly stood their ground against superior numbers. About 
4 o'clock in the evenino^ Tindall fell, at the head of his reOTment. I mourm 
his loss but I could not ask for him a nobler fate. 

' Dulce et decorum, pro patria mori.' 

" If there was a spot upon the green earth where the patriot should desire 
to breathe out his spirit, that spot should be the battle-field of Shiloh. It 
will live in history as one of those fields 

' Where life is lost, or freedom won'; 

and around it will cluster those imperishable memories that gather about 
such names as Bunker Hill, Thermopyhie and Marathon. Life is nothing; 
it is the manner we spend that life. The patriot never dies too soon who 
falls in the defense of his country; but lives too long, if he survive to wan- 
der amid its ruins. No: I could ask no nobler fate for the lamented dead! 
He knew no feeble sunset; no slow wasting away of life; no emaciated form; 
no dismal chamber of disease; but he fell at once in the pride of his strength, 
like some green oak shivered by the lightning's touch. He sank upon the 
tented field, with the blue sky above him and the starry banner for his 


winding sheet; and liis gallant spirit mounted aloft from a death-bed of 
fame, as the free mountain bird soars to its eyrie. He lias gone, but gone 
in glory. With us remains the dirge — with him has ascended the paean of 
triuni])h. lie fell in the vigor of life, in the noon of liis fame just as he 
saw the star of his destiny dawning brightly from the sky of fate. His last 
words that were heard rinofini^: alonij the burnino: lines of battle, were words 
cheering on liis 7iien to the conflict, He fell as a patriot and a hero would 
desire to fall — at the head of his regiment, with the mighty liosts of free- 
dom battling around him, and the wild thunders of battle ringing upon his 
dying ear. 

"The remains of the lamented Tindall have been removed to his home 
near Trenton, in Grundy county, Missouri, and there he reposes amid the 
scenes of his early labors and triumphs. He sleeps in the quiet village 
churchyard, away from the busy hum of life — far away from the thunder of 
conflict, and no clarion note will ever more disturb his slumbers or call him 
forth to battle. Let us hope that, " after life's fitful fever, he sleeps well." 
No proud mausoleum marks his resting place, and he needs none. His 
noblest monument has already been erected in the hearts of his fellow citi- 
zens. His lonely grave will long be treasured in their memories, and will 
be a sacred shrine to which votaries will often wander. Peace to his ashes. 
May the undying laurel of glory grow green over his grave. 

" When I remember, sir, all the gallant dead that have fallen in this war, 1 
feel that this government should be preserved in justice to their sacrifices if 
from no other motive. We cannot abandon this struff^le — we cannot sub- 
mit to a division of the Union without a wrong, a deep and burning wrong, 
to the noble men who have sacrificed their lives to preserve the integrity of 
this government. Shall they fall in vain? Xo, sir: it must not be! Let 
us swear by our gallant dead that we will preserve this temple of liberty as 
our fathers made it; or, if all is vain, that we will clasp its crumbling col- 
umns and perish amid the wreck. 

" Mr. President, the traveler through the Grand River Valley is struck 
with its desolate appearance. The country looks dreary and deserted. The 
farm-houses are often empty; the villages are destitute of their teeming 
population, and that once beautiful and populous region is almost as lonely 
as the grave. Where, sir, have the gallant men of that region gone? Go 
to your armies of the Union and you will find them there. When Tindall 
raised his regiment, the gallant men of Grundy, Harrison, Linn, Sullivan, 
Putnam, Mercer, Daviess and Livingston, rallied at once to his standard. 
They flocked to the banner of their country, abandoning their farms in 
secession neighborhoods, and leaving their property at the mercy of jay- 
hawkers. When the Eighteenth and Twenty-fifth regiments were raised, the 
same counties poured out their loyal hundreds and soon filled them to the 
maximum. When the State militia were called for, the young men of 


these counties were almost all in the field, but true to their patriotic im- 
pulses, the old men turned out and at once filled the First and Third reg-i- 
ments of Missouri cavalry. 

"Sir, the gallant men of this section need no eulogy from me. The bones 
of their heroic dead are bleaching upon every battle-field of the West. Tin- 
dall, one of their colonels, sleeps in the village churchyard in Grundy 
county, Missouri. Peabody, the colonel of the Twenty-fifth regiment, 
reposes amid the green hills of his New England home. The colonel of 
the Eighteenth regiment, and McCullough, the gallant major ot the Twenty- 
third, together with many of their brave officers and men, are now incar- 
cerated in Southern prisons, because too fearless to turn their backs upon 
the foe when deserted by other regiments who should have stood with them 
in the hour of danger. But many, very many of these gallant men have 
left their bones to bleach upon the plains of Shiloh. While other States 
have recorded the valor of their slain, these noble men have gone down to 
the grave without au epitaph. No marble monuments are over them — no 
trump of fame breathed its elegiac tones over their graves, but they sleep 
amid the wild scenery of Tennessee, far from their loved ones, and in a foe- 
man's land, with no kindly hand to scatter the flowers of affection upon 
their tombs, and with only the whistling winds and the chirping wild birds 
to chant their mournful requiem. But let them sleep on. They could find 
no nobler bed than the field of their fame, for it will [be hallowed by a 
nation's gratitude and a nation's tears." 


Company B, from Grundy county was badly cut up — quite a number 
were killed and a larger number wounded. Below are the names of the 
gallant men who composed company B, and who shed such luster not only 
upon Grundy county, but to the noble regiment in which they served: 


E. A. DeBolt, captain. A. Keynolds. 
Samuel Rooks, first lieutenant. Ed. Gray. 
Stephen Peery, second lieuten- J. W. Babb. 

ant. Wm. Rooks. 

Rich. Smith, orderly sergeant. Jos. Rooks. 

Benj. C. Eddy. Silas Parres. 

F. W. Lowen. Jos. Moore. 
Martin Eagan. Sidney Moore. 
Benj. House. Clay McCoi-d. 
Thomas Torpey. T. L. Baiilser. 
R. A. Collier. B. F. Harding. 
W. T. Wisdom, Orvile Moberly. 



Jolin Phillips. 
Harvey Brazier. 
W. B. Scott. 
Bose Nichols. 
Benj. Nichols. 
Chas. Brown. 
Jonathan Knightly. 
John Channie. 
W. C. Kirk. 
Thos. Kirk. 
Press Kirk. 
Samnel Kirk. 
Francis Kirk. 
Rich. Fleshman. 
Wm. Parr. 
Owen Smith. 
Marion Sprout. 
W. T. Sprout. 
Marion Jones. 
Henry Jones. 
Jos. Jones. 
A. F. Slocuin. 
Edgar Funk. 
Carl Leach. 
Rich. T. Blew. 
Marvin Scott. 
ll. H. Shelton. 
Columbus Thompson. 
Thos. Farrell. 
Allen Smith. 
Samuel Smith. 
Levi Rinker. 
Frank Rook. 
Ped McThaney. 
John Fleshman. 
Samuel Fleshman. 
David Bravenstot. 



Harvey Braiser. 
Geo. Leslie. 
Benj. Leslie. 
Labor Rickets. 
John Pratt. 
Seth Hathaway. 
Michael Crisman. 
Hans Crisman. 
Solomon Johnson. 
Daniel Lomax. 
Jno. W. Lomax. 
Ed. Henderson. 
Alfred Gardener. 
James Scott. 
Hiram Johnson. 
Hiram Morris. 
Samuel Crisman. 
Jas. Tobbert. 
Sol. Skagg. 
W. C. Vorris. 
George Blew. 
Hiram Scott. 
Benj. Scott. 
Chas. Cash. 
Calvin Bridges. 
James Petree. 
Wm. Petree. 
James Davis. 
John Davis. 
Calvin Slover. 
Jas. Wheeler. 
Wm. Fleslier. 

The first man wounded in the company was W. I. Sprout, and the first 
killed was Owen Smith. 

The history of the Twenty-third regiment on its reorganization is con- 
nected with that of the Fourteenth army corps. It participates in the battle 
of Murfreesboro, Tenn., in the Atlanta campaigns and was with Sherman in 
his march to the sea. 



There were no companies formed in this county for the Contederate service 
and no record kept of those who joined the South. Capt. Coleman recruited 
a few men here in 1861, and witli the best information, after the most 
searching- inquiry, there seems to have been about two hundred men from 
this county to join the Confederate cause. They were not recruited, except 
those who joined Capt. Coleman's company, but generally left in small 
squads, from five to twenty, and made their way to the South. 

Capt. Jacob Bain, of Lincoln township, raised a company in Mercer 
county and came down to Lincoln, his old home, and recruited others from 
among his old acquaintances until his company numbered 183 men. They 
camped awhile at Edinburgh and then went to Chillicothe, where they were 
mustered in Col. Clark's regiment. 


The above battalion were six months' militia, and were mustered into ser- 
vice in October, 1861. They remained at their several camps, with an occa- 
sional drill, until November, 1861, when they were organized and found 
service in breaking up sundry secession encampments, and acting as scouts 
and skirmishers for the various regiments encamped in the neighborhood. 
They were sent to Chillicothe, where they remained until they were mus- 
tered out. They numbered 269 men, rank and file. There were in all five 
companies, and officered as follows: 

Walter King, lieutenant-colonel; , major; James Cooper, surgeon; 

W. W. Hubbell, adjutant; Jewett Morris, quartermaster. 

The companies were not lettered but had the following officers. There 
was no roll of the men : 

First company — Captain, Jas. H. Creighton; first lieutenant, Franklin 
Froman; second lieutenant. Perry Froman. 

Second company — Captain, Sam'l M. Haycroft; first lieutenant, Henry 
Y. Stutt; second lieutenant, Wm. Dunlap. 

Third company — Captain, E. L. Winters; first lientenant, Wm. Rucker; 
second lieutenant, Sam'l J. Warner. 

Fourth company — Captain, Martin B. Garvin; first lieutenant, P. H. 
Yakey; second lieutenant, W. W. Hubbell, 

Fifth company — Captain, E. A. Morton; first lieutenant, George Long- 
head; second lieutenant, James Martin. 

The Forty-fourth regiment of State militia was organized and enrolled 
for service in October, 1862, and W. B, Rogers w^as commanding colonel of 
the same November 5th, his commission dating from October 24, 1862. 
The regiment numbered 516 men, 46 officers, and was in service 25 days. 

It was not until August, 1862, that the members of the Twenty-third Mis- 
souri regiment were gotten together for reorganization. Those who were 


prisoners, and others that came back, in all about 250, were attain placed in 
rank and the regiment recruited up to a lair number and went at once into 
active service. There were but a few Grundy county men in tlie new 
organization outside of company B. The regiment was a fighting regiment 
from its first organization. Wni. and R. A. Collier, Moberly, Torpey, in fact all 
of the original company not killed or wounded were in the regiment, except- 
ing those who resigned. The regiment did duty in different parts of the 
State as provost-guard until July 3d, when it was ordered to Vicksburg, 
but as that post fell July 4th they did not go, but went to Rolla to guard 
and cut out timber for a fort. In November they were ordered to report to 
General Ilosseau and became a part of his bi-igade in the fight around Nash- 
ville, and from there took part in the siege of Atlanta, where the regiment 
was badlv cut up. Previous to the Atlanta siege the regiment had been trans- 
ferred to General Turchin's command, a part of the Fourteenth army corps. 
They were in North Alabama a while at Galeville, and marched from thence 
to Rome, Ga., on to Kingston, some fifty odd miles north of west of 
Atlanta. They remained there until Sherman was ready to start on hi 
memorable march to the sea and became a part of that army. The regi- 
ment was mustered out at Washington, D. C, June 10, 1865. Besides this 
regiment there were quite a number of Grundy county men connected with 
the Eighteenth and the Thirty-fifth regiments of volunteer infantry, and also 
the Seventh Missouri State militia. 


The Fort3'-fourth regiment was organized in August, 18(54, and it was the 
expectation they Avere to remain in Missouri and become a sort of liome- 
guard to protect the State from the raids of jayhawkers and organized bands 
of thieves, but they counted badly, for they were immediately ordered to 
the front. Even before fully recruited they were ordered to Rolla. In 
November the regiment was ordered to Paducah, Kentucky, where they 
arrived on the 16th, with nearly one-third of its members sick and unfit 
for duty. Those who were able were sent out to meet rebel cavalry. From 
Paducah they went to Columl)ia,Tenn., and were placed under General Sclio- 
tield in the Twenty-third army corps. They took part in the battle at 
Franklin, where they suffered heavy loss and fell back on Nashville, at 
which place they arrived Dec. 1st, 1864. They were joined to General A. J. 
Smith's corps from Sept. 3d until mustered out at St. Louis, August 15th. 
1865. They had been in several engagements in Mississippi and Alabama, 
and had been down the river to New Orleans and from there to Mont- 
gomer}', Alabama. From Tuskegee they were ordered to St. Louis. There 
is no roll of the Grundy county men who composed a pait of this regiment. 
Two of Trenton's prominent citizens were in it, Rezin A. DeBolt as major; 
W. B. Rogers, then of Princeton, Mercer coutity, captain of compau}' D, 


and M. A, Winters, captain company K; Jas. Overman, first lieutenant, 
and Sam'l Warner, who was killed at the battle near Columbia, Tenn., 
I^ovember 29, 1864. 

There was an enrollment of all able-bodied men subject to military duty 
in Januar}', 1865, and the foUowino- named persons were appointed as en- 
rolling officers. The number found was not reported, or if so the record 
has not been kept. They started on their duty January 4th: 

•' W. Dillon, T. J. Clawson and W. B. Dillon, Marion township; E. L. 
Winters, John Rolls and Wm. Tolle, Liberty township; C. II. Corn well, 
Wm. Wyatt and W. V. Denslow, Franklin township; C. Burgess, G. A. 
Spickard and John McHarque, Washington township; W. B. Grubb, W. 
W. Metcalf and A. R. Tate, Madison township; Joseph Lucas, W. H. Tur- 
ner and L. Chenowith, Jefferson township; A. Y. Shanklin, J. S. Ettes and 
J. B. Thomas, Trenton township." 

Such is the record of Grundy county in the late civil war, and is a con- 
cise history of all that can be found in reference thereto, and is carefully 
confined to the facts. Many personal incidents might be recorded, but 
would not be of s^eneral interest and are therefore left out. The record al- 
together is one to be proud of and Grundy county upon the battle-field for 
the preservation of the Union acted a noble part. 


Tlie war cloud had passed, but it had left a trail red with the blood of the 
sons of freedom; yet had peace come, and the land so lately rended by strife 
and raging hosts of armed men, now lay quiet, bathing in the soft sunlight 
of a spring day, and hope, the white winged messenger of despairing hearts, 
came in silent gladness to the people once more. The Blue and the Gray 
had met in mortal strife; they now meet as brothers. The country.has suf- 
fered and passed through a trying ordeal, but liberty remains unscathed. 
Let US hope that the future of our country may never again be in the 
throes of a fratricidal strife, and that peace and brotherly love may be upon 
the banner of those who shall now and in all future time guide the destin- 
ies of this great republic. Strong, solid and as enduring as the rock of 
ages, its principles founded upon the rights of the people for self-govern- 
ment, holding out its hands in welcome to the oppressed of all nations, the 
"• Blue and Gray" unite once more in bonds of fraternal union, and standing 
side by side will ever guard the portals of liberty from all foes. And thus 
standing side by side as brothers, there is nothing more appropriate to close 
the record of the past than the beautiful tribute of Francis Miles Finch, at 



By the flow of tho inland river, 

Whence the fleets of iron had fled, 
Where the blades of the grave-g^rass quiver. 
Asleep are the ranks of the dead; 
Under the sod and the dew, 

Waiting the judgment day; 
Under the one, the Blue; 
Under the other, the Gray. 

Those in the robing of glory. 

Those in the gloom of defeat, 
All with the battle blood gory. 
In the dusk of eternity meet; 
Under the sod and the dew, 

Waiting the judgment day; 
Under the laurel, the Blue; 
Under the willow, the Gray. 

From the silence of sorrowful hours, 

The desolate mourners go, 
Lovingly laden with flowers. 
Alike for the friend and the foe; 
Under the sod and the dew. 

Waiting the judgment day; 
Under the rose, the Blue; 
Under the lilies, the Gray. 

So with an equal splendor. 

The morning sun -rays fall; 
With a touch impatiently tender. 
On the blossoms blomingfor all; 
Under the sod and the dew, 

Waiting the judgment day; 
Broidered with gold, the Blue; 
Mellowed with gold, the Gray. 

So when the Summer calleth. 
On forest and field of grain. 
With an equal murmur falleth. 
The cooling drip of the rain ; 
Under the sod and the dew, 

Waiting the judgment day; 
Wet.with rain, the Blue, 
Wet with rain, the Gray. 

Sadly, but not with upbraiding. 
The generous deed was done ; 
In the storm of years now fading, 
No braver battle was won ; 

Under the sod and the dew. 

Waiting the judgment day; 
Under the blossoms, the Blue; 
Under the garlands, the Gray. 


No more shall the war-cry sever, 
Or the windino- river be red; 
' . They banish our anger forever. 

When they laurel the graves of our dead. 
Under the sod and the dew. 

Waiting the judgment day; 
Love and tears for the Blue; 
Tears and love for the Gray. 

FEOM 1862 TO 1865 — the dark days of the civir, wak. 

During the dark days of the civil strife which shook tlie pillars of freedom 
to their foundation, there was, outside of the arni}^, much of history which 
has not and never will be recorded. The records of local affairs, not men- 
tioned in army history, and much of the fierceness of that strife and its re- 
taliating spirit, is found in the home or local surroundings. Of this local 
liistory we give a chapter below from the graceful pen of Dr. Thos. Kimlin, 
M^ho depicts, as with a practiced hand, the home events of Grundy county, 
while the struggling combatants, in serried columns, fought for supremacy 
upon the battle-fields of the South. The following is from the Doctor's 
graphic pen: 


"In the month of June, 1862, the writer of this sketch, then a young man 
of twenty-four, walked from Chillicothe, in Livingston county, to Trenton, 
in Grundy. He had come from New York, and on arriving at Chillicothe 
found his means exhausted, consequently was obliged to resort to natural 
locomotion to reach his destination. The Harry House was the only hotel 
in Chillicothe, and as the tired traveler rested there for one night, thinking 
of his walk on the morrow, he was anything but delighted to hear that the 
bushwhackers were seen on the Trenton and Chillicothe road the day before, 
and were raiding around Springfield. 

" The next morning dawned bright and beautiful, and as our traveler struck 
north he thought he never saw a more lovely country. The prairie was of 
a gentle, undulating character, covered with a fine growth of grass and in- 
terspersed with belts of timber — hickory, oak, ash, elm, cottonwood and 
black walnut. Numerous streams crossed the country, along the banks of 
which the wild plum and crab-apple grew in the greatest luxuriance. The 
soil was a fine, deep, dark loam. Tlie woods and streams abounded in 
game. The chattering squirrel ran across the road or, perched on a stump, 
scolded like a fish-woman; the shy rabbit loped along under the shade of the 
bushes; coveys of quails from time to time rose whirring in the air; and 
on passing the creeks and water pools many a wild duck flew away on clam- 
orous wing. Only the road was deserted. In the entire distance he met 
not a single individual. No farmers were at work in the fields; no loaded 
teams wended their way to town ; no market wagons filled with noisy lads, 


rosy lasses, or a<i;ed parents, went clattering lioine with recently acquired 
stores of dry a-oods and "groceries. Even the few houses alonir tlie road 
looked deserted — in one or two the doors and windows were jealousJy closed, 
and in a few others the widely open door and broken windows revealed 
empty desolation within. 

"About half way between Trenton and Chillicothe stood two farm-houses 
a short distance from the road which were some months afterward the scene 
of a terrible tragedy that to-day invests the neighborhood with a strange 
horror. Again a few blackened beams, a pile of crumbling brick or stone, 
showed where a house had been. What had happened here? What had 
become of the inhabitants? Happily for the traveler's peace of mind he 
did not know then, nor until long afterward, for those who knew of these 
occurrences were very reluctant to speak about them. 

"Our traveler, however, arrived safely in Trenton, which he found to be a 
town of perhaps seventy or eighty houses, clustered irregularly around a 
square brick building, the county house. The appearance of the place was 
not such as to impress a stranger very favorably. Instead of being located 
on one of the fine prairies with which Grundy county abounds, the town 
was built on and between a number of scraggy bluffs adjacent to Grand 
River. These bluffs had been washed out of all shape by rains, and cut 
into gullies so deep that some of the streets were impassable. The 
streets were overgrown with a prodigous growth of "jimson" and dog- 
fennel, which, when in bloom, tilled the atmosphere with an odor that was 
more striking than pleasant. The population was rather heterogeneous. 
The war had swept off the best part of the people — the young men to join 
the Union armies; the feeble and weak-kneed in body and loyalty to the 
more bracing climate of Montana and Oregon. 

" In politics Trenton had been Democratic, so much so that in the election 
of 1860 but two or three votes were cast for Lincoln. Now it was all 
the other way. Trenton got so loyal it leaned backward ; or, rather, when 
the really patriotic men had joined the army, many rough characters came 
to the suface Avho, otherwise, would have remained hidden in their native 
i»bscurity, and these ruffians, assuming the garb of loyal men and Itej)ubli- 
cans, w'ere a disgrace, alike to the cause of the one and the name of the 

In no State in the Union did men, both Democrats and Republicans, turn 
out in defense of their country more enthusiastically than in north Mis- 
souri ; and no county in north Missouri exceeded " loyal old Grundy." 

" Rampant ruffianism made it almost as dangerous for a man to say he 
was a Democrat, as to say he was a rebel. Even the families of Democrats, 
whose sons perhaps were in the Union army, were not altogether safe. 

" The Rev. Mr. Starr, an infirm Methodist preacher whose only son was^ 
in the Union army, and who was on Grierson's staff in his famous raid to 


Xtnv Orleans, was subjeotiHl xo minierous petty persecutions. One was the 
nailing of a Union tiag over his tVont lioor. not as a sign ot loyalty, hut as a 
mark otMisgrace — pretty nuieh of tho same oharaoter as the red tiag nailed 
to houses suspected of eon tain in i^- sniall-]x^x. 

•'Street tights were eoniuion, and it was a ]x»or day that clid not atlbrd two 
vv three tights, perhaps coming o1^' at one and the same time. 

"The lnisinef> of tlie town had sulfered a severe shock by the war. Some 
ot' the best tirnis had succumbed; probably the largest amount of trading 
was done at * Moberly's Corner,' and carried on chietiy by "\Vm. C. Benson, 
who was at that time treasurer of the c^'unty. 

•' The ]u\>]>le were t'raiik aiul hospitable in their manners, and their tastes 
were simple. Thev had few amusements. Amonir the ladies, irood looks 
Avere then, as M-ell as now. the rule, especially among the girls up to the aire 
of twenty, and i^lain looks the exception. The writer don't remember of 
seeing a really ugly woman except once, and she hailed front an adjoinino; 
county. To join in their social recreations, one might easily fancy himself 
in some ]n'iniitive acadia. ^vhere the shepherds jnped to their lassies on 
wheaten straws; indeed, one favorite game was called 'Weevily wheat,' 
from an artless song of that name. This song was sung by the entire eom- 
pan^• while uiarcliina- two and tw^i around a circle. The refrain was: 

I won't have none of your woevily wheat. 

I wou't have none of your barley. 
For 1 must have the best of wheat 
To bake a cake for Charley — 

'• The song went on to tell who Charley was and what were his (jualitica- 
tions. thus: 

For Charley he is a nice young man, 

And Charley he's a dandy: 
And Charley loves to kiss the girls — 

As sweet a.s sugar candy. 

"But for the matter of that, each young lady mentally litted the name to 
her (.iwn particular admirer. 

"There was one piano in town, perhaps two. but for good downright ear- 
piercing music the life bore otl' the ]ialm. TTe may be mistaken, but we be- 
lieve that the lifer's stock of music consisted of two pieces, the one he was 
always playing, at least M-hen we could hear him— and that was daily — the 
either tune was never heard. 

" Pitching dollars into a hole in the irround was a favorite out-door i^ame. 
It was generally carried on in front of a groggery, and the playei-s were sure 
to be surrounded by a circle of highly interested spectators, their interest 
beinir partlv accounted fir bv the fact that, ^ith western o^nerositv. manv 
vf the games Mere played for 'drinks for the crowd.' 

"Correspondence with the outer world was carried on by means of a hack 


which made a tri-weekly trip to Cliillicothe. The arri val of tlie hack wa.s 
alwavs the signal for a crowd to gatlier around the jKjst-otHce, and listen 
while tiie address on eacli letter and paper was called out by the worthy 
postmistress, Mrs. Collier. When tlie papers were distributed, they ad- 
journed to some convenient fence corner to hear the news about the war. 
This was generally read aloud by Mr. A. K. Sykes, who has done more 
gratuitous work of this kind for the people, than any other iiian in the 

" At times the monotony of this life would be broken by a report of a raid 
of bushwhackers somewhere in the neighborhood, and the men and boys 
would he liastily gathered together, enrolled as militia, and either sta- 
tioned as guards on the roads leading to town, or sent off to protect .some 
more threatened or scared locality. 

" The writer has a distinct recollection of a certain hurried march to the 
neighboring town of Edinburgh, taking possession of the college there, and 
being quartered on the town for a day or two, very much to the disgust of 
the inhabitants, who appeared more relieved by our departure than over- 
joyed by our presence. 

'• Truth compels me tu say that the militia made no nice distinctions be- 
tween meurii et tuurn^ in the matter of c<jrii and chickens. These militia 
raids were sometimes more extended, even on occasion going as far as the 
Missouri River. On one memorable tour the Grundy county militia were 
gone two weeks, and scoured the counties of Livingston, Ray, Carroll and 
Caldwell. The militia from Mercer, Harrison, Daviess, Sullivan and Put- 
nam took part in this demonstration, as well as a few companies of Illinois 
cavalry. The writer, who had never lieen on horseback before, was mounted 
on a little scrub of a pony that had a vicious tendency of falling upon its 
nose everv few hundred vards. Two of the heaviest doctors in the countv 
accompanied the men, well ladened with lint and bandages. Several preach- 
ers also went along, presumably, to attend to the morals of their flock. The 
company was under the command of Capt. R. A. DeBolt. The first day's 
march brought them to Chillicothe, where muskets and ammunition were dis- 
tributed to the men, who were then slightly drilled and the new recruits ini- 
tiated into the duties of militia men, i. e., stealing fodder and trading horses. 
As Chillicothe was a friendlv town and near home, the first was srenerallv 
done by moonlight or starlight under the guidance of a more 'experienced 
comrade. The latter was performed on the authority of an order issued by 
our worthy colonel. J. II. Shanklin, directing his men if the inhabitants did 
not supply them with horses when when they nee<led them, to take 
them by force. 

"The recruits were all apt scholars. Indeed, how could they be otherwise 
with such teachers f To Ije sure, the preference was given to rebel corn- 
cribs and rebel horses, and a Union corn-crib, if empty, was not touched, 

230 HISTORY OF (;runi)Y county. 

and a TTnion Iiorse, if blind or lame, wa^s considerately left to its owner. 
The expedition was a grand success. All the more so, perhaps, because it 
fell in with no bushwhackers. Rebel chickens were plenty, and so were 
rebel horses, and the men of Grundy helped themselves as coolly to one as 
to the other, so that the fame of their exploits went through all that region 
round about. Indeed, it was maliciously said that when the women would 
hear the Grundy militia were coming they hastilj^ gathered up their children 
and valuables and hid themselves in the brush. It is hard to say what gave 
them this notoriety ; whether it was from their hungry looks (for by accident 
or design they had been assigned to the rear of the column where there was 
but scanty picking), or whether it was because they had so many preachers 
in their company, and a natural inference in regard to chickens was the conse- 
(juence — one divine had the bow of his saddle adorned with a defunct 
rooster, that caused considerable merriment — or whether it was, as the 
writer suspects to be tlie fact, because the militia from the neighboring 
counties when they stole anything and were caught at it invariably said they 
were from Grundy count3^ At any rate the Grundy militia got the blame 
for all the depredations committed, and for years afterward were hated by 
the people of the river counties even as the Jews hated the Philistines. 
The truth is, that except taking a little corn-fodder, occasionally borrowing 
a horse when their own gave out, leaving their name and address with the 
owner, the Grundy county militia paid their expenses out of their own 

" One beautiful morning down on the Missouri bottom the bugle sounded 
the companies to fall into line. The tired militia who had been reclining 
on the grass, or eating their scanty breakfasts, mounted their horses in haste 
and took their stations in their respective companies. The militia of 
Grundy, always among the iirst to obe}' an order, were soon in their places, 
wondering what was going to take place next. On their right and left were 
stationed the various other militia companies composing the expedition and 
on the extreme left the Illinois cavalry. Some important order was about 
to be given. Some said that the bushwhackers had escaped and that they 
would be followed over the river. That was good news, for there was not 
one there who would not willingly have gone over the Arkansas line if nec- 
essary. The officer commanding and his staff were posted some little dis- 
tance otf. Suddenly an adjutant left the group and rode to the place where 
DeBolt's company was stationed. Halting, he took out a paper and read 
the following: 

" 'Whereas, Continual complaints have reached the ears of the command- 
ing officer that the militia company under the command of Captain H. A. 
DeBolt have been guilty of numerous crimes and misdeeds whereby the 
morals of the command in general have been very much deteriorated, there- 
fore they are discharged from further participation in this campaign. They 
are ordered to report in Chillicothe and be discharged.' 

T*l Kii* '-^^'^ 



"And so tlie poor militia — victims of nnjust suspicion and lying accusa- 
tion — turned their horses' heads and sadly wended their way in silence over 
the hills to the right of the encampment and struck out for home. The 
same evening on halting for the night an examination was made of the 
entire company, at their own request, to ascertain if any had been guilty of 
stealing. The result was: One old horse blanket, one curry comb, three 
onions and twenty ears of corn. 

" The greater part of the company had too much respect for themselves to 
forget, for a single moment, that they were gentlemen and men of honor, 
and would have scorned to commit the petty crimes with which they were 

" Two days afterward the company reached Trenton, where, in the wel- 
come they received, they soon forgot their fatigue, disasters and mortifica- 
tion. In the foregoing sketch, when alluding to the Grundy county militia, 
DeBolt's company, composed of men living in and about Trenton, was more 
particularly meant, as that was the company that was so especially honored 
on the Missouri bottom. 

"Before the war closed, the disorderly spirits in Trenton, got so out- 
rageous in their conduct, that Col. Shanklin was ordered to take a company^ 
of militia from St. Joe, proceed to Trenton to arrest the violators of the peace, 
and take them to St. Joe for trial. This was done and Trenton had no more 
trouble. The war came to a close, and with the return of the heroes who 
went, happiness and peace settled down, though here and there a mournful 
face looked out on the silent night, and the gazer thought of her loved one 
lying dead beneath the stars that twinkled so tremulously in the Southern 

"Time passed on, the clouds of war faded away one by one, and instead of 
the roar of distant cannon, the roll of the emigrant's wagon was heard upon 
all the roads of Grundy and adjacent counties. Many passed on through,, 
crossing the Missouri River and seeking a home on the distant prairies of 
Kansas and Nebraska, but many remained and made their homes on the 
rich prairies that lay between Grand Kiver and Medicine Creek, and none 
ever regretted having done so. Law and order, peace and plenty, virtue and 
happiness have existed in old Grundy for many years, and that they may 
ever continue to do so is the sincere wish of one who came here a stranger 
and found friends; who came penniless and found a competence; who came 
a bachelor and found a companion to cheer him to his life's end." 




Miscellaneous— Eailroads, Look out for the Cars— Its First Officers— Description— County 
and Totvn Subscription — Economy — The Jail — The Most Accomplished Unfortunate — 
Iron Bridge — New Townships — Metes and 'Bounds — Township Registration —Election — 
Loiv Assessment on Railroad Property — Poorfarm — The Centennial Year — Hail, Rain 
and Wind Storm — New Judicial Districts — Wool-grower's Association — First Marriage 
License — The County Debt. 

" Come see what pleasures in our plains abound, 
Thelwoods, the fountains, and the flow'ry ground." 

The war had not yet come to a close when the people began to take an 
interest in home improvements. The dawn of peace began to light up the 
eastern horizon, and although it was not yet known just when it would come, 
yet it was certain not to be in a far distant future. Thus it was that the 
people at home came to study the problem of advanced progress, and what 
w^ould most add to advance the material interests of all, and it fell to rail- 
roads to become the open sesame of that prosperit3\ 

It was not alone that Grundy county did her duty in furnishing men for 
the army, but in the matter of taxes she paid her part. In 1862 forty-one 
counties paid nearly all the taxes and seventy-three paid none. Adair and 
Harrison were the only two counties in the State that paid the State tax in 
full. The tax of Grundy county was $3,725.47, and she paid $2,745.17, and 
that was above the average of the other thirty-eight counties which paid a 
portion of their State tax. 

The death of Colonel Tindall, at Shiloh, necessitated another election for 
a member of the State convention and J. H. Shanklin was elected to fill 
the important position, and proved a prominent and one of the ablest of its 

In the matter of shinplaster currency a few Trentonites furnished a por- 
tion, and found it necessary to get a bill of relief passed through the legis- 
lature, which was accomplished upon the ground that all was to be re. 

In 1864, at the fire of the probate judge's office, besides the records of 
the office, the volumes of decisions of the Supreme Court were also burned. 
After that the County Court invested $180 in purchasing a second-hand 
safe of W. H. Robinson. 

In 1865 R. P. Carnes was appointed military claim agent for the count}- ? 
and in 1866 B. Wyatt was elected supervisor of registration, but removed 
from the county in 1868, and David C. Pugh was appointed in his place 
and held the office until it was abolished. 



The first railroad projected, and in whicli the people ofGrnndy county, and 
more especial I3' Trenton township felt an interest, was the old Plannibal & 
St. Josej)]! Railroad. That road was building west and had surveyed two 
lines, or partially so, and subscriptions were asked all along the routes. 
Some of those connected with the road paid Grundy county a visit and the 
result was that a proposition to subscribe |25,000 was submitted to the 
people. The election was held and carried, and tlie $25,000 was to be sub- 
scribed on condition that the money so voted should be expended within the 
limits of Grundy county. As the road was farther south, through the next 
tier of counties below, it was never called for. The election cost the people 

The railroad fever again broke out as early as 1863, even before the close 
of the war. This time it assumed proportions that gave hope that before it 
abated the iron horse might come snorting over the prairies and woodland 
of the county in triumph. The Chillicothe & Des Moines City, which 
changed to Chicago & Southwestern, and still later to the Chicago, Rock 
Island & Pacitic, was tlie first road to take practical shape and to promise 
gratifying results. The history of this road forms a very interesting 
chapter in the progress of Grundy county, and a full account of its progress 
and final success will be found full of interest to future generations and to 
many even of this day. It requires energy and perseverance to accomplish 
any great work, and fortunately for Grundy county she was blessed with a 
good many of that kind of people. 


It was believed that the result of the war would bring about a new order 
of things in the State, and the people along the Grand River country were 
not slow to partake of this spirit, so that as early as 1864 they procured a 
charter for the Brunswick & Chillicothe Railroad, and in February, 1865 a 
charter was also secured for the Chillicothe & Des Moines City Railway 
Company. It was the design that the people of Iowa should cooperate 
in the movement to secure a railroad from the capital of Iowa, south 
through the Grand River country, via Brunswick to St. Louis. 

In the act creating the Chillicothe & Des Moines City Railroad Com- 
pany, Dr. James B. Bell, J. J. Clark, J. W. McMillan, J. H. Ellis, John A. 
Lowe and Robert L. Moore, of Livingston county, Daniel Berry, G. W. 
Moberly, A. Y. Shanklin, C. Ramage, E. L. AVinters, S. Wilson, William 
Metcalf, William Bennett and William Wyatt, of Grundy county, J. A. 
Kennedy, John Brown, T. J. Wyatt, A. Lowrey, J. Bradle}-, John Snyder, 
J. F. Stevens, I. Patton and F. M. Evans, of Mercer, were made the first 
board of directors. 


On the 6tli of Jime,1865, a new constitution was adopted which had a provis- 
ion allowin_^ the people of counties and towns throughout the State to vote 
aid to the construction of raih-oads, provided two-thirds of the voters voting 
at an election for that purpose would vote for such aid. Under this pro- 
vision in the constitution, the people of Chillicothe and Grundy and Mercer 
counties cooperating together, finally succeeded in voting a large subscrip- 
tion to the Chillicothe & Des Moines City Railroad Company; to-wit, 

The city of Chillicothe voted $40,000, Grundy county, $200,000, and 
Mercer $200,000 (altogether $440,000). 

So far as Grundy county was concerned, success in voting the $200,000 
came by the hardest work. No less than three elections were lield before a 
two-third vote for the subscription could be obtained. At the fall election 
in 1866 a proposition to subscribe $200,000 was defeated; afterward, on the 
8th day of January, 1867 the same proj^osition, at a- special election held for 
that purpose, was again defeated, but the people were determined to have 
railroad connection with the " outer world," and by their zeal and energy 
kept on jjressing the question and in March, 1868, a mass-meeting was held 
at which resolutions requesting the County Court to submit the question 
again were passed. Accordingly, on the 11th of April, 1868, a special elec- 
tion was held and the proposition to subscribe $200,000 to tlie Chillicothe 
& Des Moines City Company was carried by more than a two-third vote, 
and the people were happy. On the 19th of February, 1868, the very day 
when the right to meet and organize under the act creating the corporation, 
expired, fifteen of the charter members met in a called meeting at Chilli- 
cothe, and effected a temporary organization by electing Hon. Geo. W. 
Moberly, president; Hon. Robert S. Moore, secretary; and Wm. Wyatt, 
treasurer. At a meeting held at Trenton on the 22d of April, 1868, the fol- 
lowing named persons were elected directors to serve until the annual elec- 
tion in June following; to-wit, J. H. Shanklin, M. Y. Thompson, Wm. 
Dunlap, Stephen Peery, I. B. Bell, Smith Turner, S. H. Ferryman, Ira B. 
Hyde, Israel Patton, R. B. Ballew, Wm. B. Rogers, H. I. Ally and Feter 
Cain, who organized by electing Col. J. H. Shanklin, president; S. H. Fer- 
ryman, secretary; and R. B. Ballew, treasurer. The president's salary was 
fixed at $3,500 per annum and expenses, and "the secretary's salary, to in- 
clude services for canvassing for subscriptions of stock to the company, was 
fixed at $2,000. At the same meeting, Hon. Ira B. Hyde was ap])ointed 
attorney for the company, and the treasurer ordered to give a bond for 
$50,000. On the 1st day of June anew board was elected substantially the 
same and the same officers being continued, except that Ira B. Hyde was 
made secretary, vice Ferryman, resigned. The company being now perma- 
nently organized and ready for work, the president, secretary and others 
gave nearly their whole time to the project of building a railroad from Chil- 
licothe, where it would connect with the Brunswick & Chillicothe Road (now 


Wabasli) north through Griiiidy and Mercer counties in the direction of 
Des Moines and of cooperating^ with a company in Iowa, known as the 
Chillicothe, Leon & Des Moines lioad. Stock books were opened and dur- 
ing tlie year the total capital stock subscribed amounted to $451,500, as 
follows; to- wit, 

Grundy county, payable in l)onds at eiglit per cent interest, $200,000; 
Mercer county, payable in bonds at eight per cent interest, $200,000; city 
of Chillicothe, $40,000, payable in bonds at eight per cent interest. Pri- 
vate subscriptions— cash, $3,750, and lands in various conditions, $7,750. 

Steps were at once taken to employ a corps of engineers to locate the 
road, and early in June, 1868, a strong force was put to work to sur- 
vey and locate the road, with Peter Markey as chief, and H. N. Arm- 
strong as assistant engineers. This work was vigorously pressed, so that as 
early as the 10th of February 1869, the road was ready to be let for con- 
struction; and on the said 10th of February the contract for grading, 
bridging and tieing the road, from Cliillicothe to Princeton, a distance of 
forty-nine miles, was awarded to Messrs. Nolan & Moore, for $320,000, in 
bonds of the company, which proved not to be sufficient. The construc- 
tion of the road-bed was at once commenced and vigorously prosecuted till 
in July, wlien a rainy season set in and almost totally stopped the work, 
and as no contract for ii-oning, equipping and operating the road up to this 
time had been secured, the spirit of criticism was developed, and consider- 
able opposition manifested itself against the further issuing of county bonds 
in payment of its subscription, which at this time amounted to about 
$50,000. The county committee, composed of Hon. A. H. Burkeholder, 
president, and William V. Denslow and G. A. Spickard, withstood the oppo- 
sition, and the president of the committee continued to issue bonds as the 
work on the road progressed, as the committee had agreed to do, and not- 
withstanding " Black Friday " (27th of September, 1869), and its eifect upon 
the financial condition of the country, which strengthened local opposition, 
the board of directors and the members of the county courts of Grundy 
and Mercer counties, met at Trenton, October 19, 1869, and resolved to co- 
operate together, and go ahead with the construction of the road-bed, and 
between that time and the 1st of May, 1870, the president of the County 
Court continued to issue bonds, as the work in the construction of the road 
progressed, until the entire subscription of the county had been paid in 

About the middle of February, 1870, negotiations w^ere opened between 
the Chillicothe & Des Moines City Railroad Company and the Chicago <fc 
Southwestern Railroad Company, which, on the 20th day of April, 1870, 
resulted in an am'eement as follows: That the Chillicothe & Des Moines 
Company let and lease to the Chicago & Southwestern Company, all that 
portion of the road-bed between Princeton and Trenton, and such further 


portion south of Trenton as may be necessary to make a convenient cross- 
ing of East Fork of Grand Kiver, for the full term of nine hundred and 
ninety-nine years, on the condition that tlie lessees shoukl, witliin eighteen 
months from that time, iron and operate the road. This contract was in th^e 
main put into writing on the 3d of June, 1870. Prior to the opening of 
these negotiations, the people generally had become despondent — there did 
not seem any way out — no feasible plan in sight to get the road ironed, 
equipped and operated, because at that time the North Missouri and tlie 
Hannibal & St. Joseph roads were loaded down with mortgages, and were 
unable to undertake any new enterprise. So when the Chicago & South- 
western came in sight, and it became known that the foregoing lease was 
effected, the people felt that though there had been " groping in the dark,'' 
yet "there was light behind the clouds," and that the money that the 
county had furnished was well invested, as the management was better than 
had been expected, that it would place Grundy county on a great through 
line of railway, connecting with Chicago and the East on the one side, with 
the great grain and cattle producing regions of the Southwest, and the peo- 
ple were again happy. And the sequel shows that it was a wise movement, 
as the completion of the road soon followed, reaching Trenton from the 
north on the 24:tli day of June, 1871, and as early as September the road 
was completed clear through the county, and ready for through business to 
Leavenworth as early as October, 1871. 

In July and August the question of locating the railroad machine-shops 
agitated the people. The people of Trenton voted $10,000 and secured about 
$3,000 worth of land and offered it to the Chicago & Southwestern, if the 
company would establish a division round-house and machine-shops at 
Trenton permanently. The company accepted the proposition and the 
people were again well satisfied with tlieir investment, as it has made Tren- 
ton a first-class town and a splendid home market for the people of the 
county. In addition to the above, the Chicago & Southwestern Railway 
company also received $50,000 in eight per cent bonds, from tlie town of 
Trenton, in payment of a subscription voted to the company as early as 
July, 1869, on the condition that their road should pass through Trenton. 

In the contract made on the 20th of April, 1870, between the Chicago & 
Des Moines Railway Company and the Chicago & Southwestern Railway 
Compau}'', the latter company had the right, at their option, within eighteen 
months, to complete and operate that portion of the line between Muddy 
Creek and Chillicothe, belonging to the former, which was then nearly 
ready for the ii-on. The Chicago & Southwestern did not, however, elect to 
complete and operate the same, and after fruitless efforts to get some other 
corporation to do so, the board of directors sold the ties along that part of 
their line, and the same remains in an unfinished condition to-day. The 
board of directors elected in 1868 remained in the board, with very few 


changes, till June, 1877, when a new set of men were elected as directors 
of the Chillicothe <fe Des Moines City Kailroad Company, who at once 
worked up a feasible plan to iron and operate the road between Trenton and 
Chillicothe, but the great "railroad strike," that took place in July, 1877 
frustrated their plan, and the same was afterward abandoned, and this 
branch still remains uncompleted. The present management, headed by 
Judge George Hall as president and E. M. Harber as secretary, is sanguine 
that at no distant day the road will be completed and operated, and the 
railroads at Chillicothe and Trenton be connected. It may be added here 
that while it was originally contemplated to build a railroad from the city 
of Des Moines, Iowa, south, and down along the Grand River, via Bruns- 
Avick, to St. Louis, the friends of the project succeeded in building a road 
from Chillicothe to Brunswick, where connection was made with a St. 
Louis line, and from Trenton to Princeton, leaving a gap between Chilli- 
cothe and Trenton and between Princeton and Des Moines in the line as 
originally designed. 

It may here be I'emarked that the board, who had the management of 
building the Chillicothe & Des Moines City Railroad, had many difficulties 
to contend with; mud in the winter and spring of 1869, and a rainy season 
in the following summer, as well as local criticism and financial embarrass- 
ments. Nearly all the capital stock of the company consisted in county 
bonds, which went off stubbornly at seventy cents on the dollar, and had 
not the county courts of Grundy and Mercer counties sup]3lemented the 
efforts of the board, the project doubtless would not have been a success. 

In February, 1877, a few months before the old board retired, they pub- 
lished a financial statement concerning the entire labors from April, 1868, 
which, in substance, shows that the subscribed capital stock by the counties 
of Grundy and Mercer was all paid; to-wit, $400,000, which, in the main, 
was disposed of at seventy cents on the dollar, and realized to the company 
$280,000 in cash. That from subscriptions on private stock the company 
received $2,439. From the Omaha Railroad Company, on the right of way, 
the company received $989. From the (Chicago & Southwestern Railroad 
Company, $11,000, in aid of construction. From sale of Grundy county 
bonds in excess of seventy cents, $450. From sale of Mercer county bonds, 
in excess of seventy cents, $591, making a total of actual, available cash 
funds with which to build the road the sum of $295,469.50. And the rec- 
ords of the company show that the treasurer of the board paid out the 
following amounts: For engineering salaries, $48,226.93; to contractors 
Nolan and Moore, including work done after Messrs. Nolan and Moore had 
failed, in cash, $246,267.18, making a total of $294,494.11, and leaving a 
balance of $575.39 in the treasury, August 25, 1871, and which was after- 
ward paid out. 

A casual observation of the foregoing statement will show that the city 


of Chillicothe failed to pay her subscription of $40,000 and wliich the 
people of Grundy c ounty regarded, and at the time the city council refused 
to issue and deliver the bonds, charged as bad faith on the part of Chilli- 

It may be added that the Chicago & Southwestern Railroad was a mere 
construction company backed up and indorsed by the Chicago, Rock Island 
& Pacific which was the real party in interest and wliich was seeking an 
outlet to tlie Missouri River at Leavenworth and the connection the Rock 
Island has since made at Atchison and Kansas City has made the road 
through Grundy a grand trunk line, between the east and the west. 

Tlie foregoing is a concise and succinct des cription of the birth, growth 
and development of the first railroad built through the county, and is a 
sufUcient statement, for this volume, of the public spirit of her citizens in 
voting aid for the construction of the road, as well as the public services, 
the zeal and determination manifested by some of her citizens who took a 
government official grant in the first succes sful railroad enterprise of the 

The following bit of history will show the spirit of perseverance, which 
characterized the efforts of the citizens of Grundy county to secure railroad 
connections. In 1850 a proposition of $25,000 was voted to the aid of 
the construction of the Hannibal & St. Joe Railroad. $500 were expended 
by the County Court in 1866 in surveying routes through the county for 
the location of the Chillicothe & Des Moines Railroad. 

A proposition to subscribe $200,000 to the Chillicothe & Des Moines 
Railroad was voted down at the November election in 1866, and the same 
was again voted down on the 8th of January, 1867, but was carried at a 
special election on the 11th of April, 1868. At the July term of the County 
Court in 186j9, orders were made submitting the question to the people of 
subscribing $150,000 to the Chicago & Southwestern Railroad Company 
and $150,000 to the Quincy, Missouri & Pacific Railroad Company and 
$50,000 to the Brookfield & Trenton Railroad Company but these propo- 
sitions all failed. 


In May, 1870, the township of Madison voted down a proposition to vote 
$25,000 to the capital stock of the Chicago & Southwestern Railroad Com- 
pany. On the 20th of July, 1871, Marion township voted $50,000 to the 
capital stock of the Lexington & Utica Railroad Company. In the spring 
of 1873 Madison township voted down a proposition to subscribe $25,U00 
to the Quincy, Missouri & Pacific Railroad and Marion township carried 
a like proposition and Trenton township voted $50,000 to the Quincy, Mis- 
souri <k Pacific Railroad at the same time. On the 22d of October, 1875, 
Marion township voted $15,000 more to the Quincy, Missouri & Pacific 



The city of Trenton voted $50,000 to the capital stock of the Chicaf^o cV 
Southwestern Ilaih'oad Company in the month of July, 1809, ^50,000 to 
the Quincy, Missouri & Pacific Eoad in October, 1875, $50,000 to the Chil- 
licothe & Des Moines City llailroad Company in November, 1875, and 
$13,000 for the repair and machine-shops in 1871; all together out of the 
various proposition? $528,000 of county, town and township subscriptions 
were carried by a two-third vote as the law required, and bonds by the 
county and city of Trenton to the amount of $263,000 were issued. The 
respective railroads to which the remainder of the subscriptions were voted 
never complied with the conditions of the subscriptions and hence the same 
were never paid in bonds. The last effort of the people of Trenton and 
vicinity made to secure further railroad connection was in July, 1880, which 
resulted in raising $40,000 by private subscriptions to the Quincj^ Mis- 
souri & Pacific Road payable in one and two years on the condition that the 
road would be built through the corporate limits of Trenton by the first of 
July, 1881, so that the subscriptions, both public and private, amount to a lit- 
tle over $300,000 but in return for this the people of the county have secured 
railroad property of an assessed value of nearly $400,000. 


The county judges still continued to hold to the policy of economy, and 
while allowing the probate judge $10 per month in excess of fees, knocked 
off sixty dollars in a lump they iiad agreed to pay him. Judge Burke- 
holder made an application for a salary as probate judge, but the court was 
not in favor of any such extravagance and concluded that Judge Biirke- 
holder could live on glory and such occasional fees as he could pick up, and 
this closes the year 1867, for that refusal was dated December 31, 1867. 

The jail, however, is deserving of mention. It was ordered built in Jan- 
uary and completed June 4th. It was a building which for its beauty and 
strength particularly pleased the editor of the Trenton Rejpuljlican^ who 
took occasion to say: "The jail is completed. There are four cells below, 
and up stairs three rooms for the use of the sheriff and other officers. The 
plans were by Capt. Herrick; W. H. Smith was the builder." Of the cells 
the editor says that " they are well ventilated and strong enough to hold 
the most accomplished unfortunate." This was June 9th, and on June 
16th, the next issue, the editor felt constrained to remark, that " the jail 
was a good deal 'Fuller' the other day than it is now." The facts of the 
case were that a burglar by the name of Fuller was caught and locked up 
in one of those cells which were "strong enough to hold the »rost accom- 
plished unfortunate," and it didn't take but three days to get out, and 
he was resting about three-fourths of that time. The next week a couple 
of accused murderers were incarcerated, and they, too, left without bidding 


the sheriff good bje. The genial Eogers felt sick, and apologized to the 
"accomplished unfortunates" and admitted they knew more about jails 
than he did, and the next jail delivery he simply stated that another " ac- 
complished unfortunate" had left. The editor will confine his judgment 
to board fences in the future, if allowed to see the posts set. 

The iron bridge across the river by the woolen mills cost $9,000 and was 
built by the Suiith Truss Bridge Company. It was afterward decided to 
have iron piers and they were added at a cost of $1,800. The old railroad 
bridge across the Weldon fork, was rebuilt and this bridge cost $2,000. The 
railroad and the machine-shops brought a large number of families here and 
lumljer was in demand. 

Twenty saw-mills were in operation in the county in 1870, and then it 
took three lumber yards to fill the demand. The opening of the first rail- 
road, the Chicago Hock Island & Pacific, in the county, took place July 
29th, 1871, and an excursion train and party from Chicago came over the 
line September 25th. The first shipment from the county was from Trenton, 
and in three days there were sent out twelve cars of stock and six car loads 
of grain. It will thus be seen that the farmers took prompt advantage of 
their opportunity. 

In 1871 $150 w^hich were asked for by the Agricultural and Mechanical 
Association as a donation was disallowed, but 1^800 were voted as a yearly 
compensation to the man who held the office of treasurer. 

In the matter of taxation of the railroad, the city of Trenton being a sub- 
scriber to the stock, called upon the county for a fair divide. The city's 
representatives met the County Court, and the basis of the compromise 
was that the county subscription amounted to $200,000 and the city's $64,- 
200 and the taxation it was agreed to divide upon that basis. 


The new township organization law which passed, and which so far as 
this county was concerned, by nearly a unanimous vote in its favor, was put in 
force in Grundy county, by the prompt act of the County Court. "At the 
November term of the County Court, 1872, the following members of the 
court being present; viz., G. Williams, James McCane, G. W. Moberly; 
clerk, W. H. lioberts and N. A. Winters, sheriff, the court proceeded to 
organize the township into municipal districts as required by the township 
organization law, at adjourned session of the 26th General Assembly of the 
state of Missouri, and adopted by the qualified voters of Grundy county at 
the election held on the 5th day of November, 1872. The township organ- 
ization law was carried in Grundy county by a vote of 1,205 in its favor, to 33 
against it. The boundaries of the several townships were then made, and 
the county divided into thirteen municipal districts, in place of the original 
seven which had stood from 1845 to the date of the new districting. The names 


of the new metes and bounds of the several municipal divisions seemed ta 
meet with general favor, and no opposition of moment was made against 
them. The new townships were given the following names: 

Washington, Franklin, Mjres, Liberty, Marion, Wilson, Jackson, Jeffer- 
son, Madison, Harrison, Taylor, Lincohi, Trenton, The order for their 
several iurisdictions was made bv the Countv Court at the said November 
term and is of record as foUow^s: 


Wilson — It is ordered by the court that all of congressional township No» 

60, of range No. 22, lying in Grundj'' county, Missouri and all that part of 
township No. 60, of range No. 23, lying east of sections 8, 17, 20, 29 and 32 
be a municipal township and named and known as Wilson township. 

Marion — Ordered that all the part of township No. 61, of range No. 22, 
lying in Grundy count}'^, Missouri, and also all that part of township No- 

61, range No. 23, lying east of sections No. 5, 8, 17, 20, 29, and 32 be the 
municipal township of Marion. 

Liberty — Ordered that all that part of township No. 62, of range 22, in 
Grundy county and lying south of sections No. 4, 5 and 6, and all that part of 
township 62, of range 23, lying south of sections 1, 2, 3 and 4, and all that 
part lying east of sections 8, 17, 20, 29 and 32, be known as Liberty town- 

Myres — Ordered that all that part of township No. 63, of range No. 22, 
lying in Grundy county, Missouri, and sections No. 4, 5 and 6, of township 
No. 62, of range No. 22, and all of sections No. 1, 2, 3 and 4, of township 
No. 62, of range No. 23, and all that jjart of township No, 63, of range No. 

23, in Grundy county, Missouri, and east of sections No. 17, 20, 29 and 32, 
be known as Myres township. 

Fraiiklin — Ordered that all of township No. 63, of range No. 24, lying 
in Grundy county, Missouri, sections No. 17, 18, 19, 20. 29, 30 and 32, of 
township No. 63, of range No. 23, be the municipal township of Franklin. 

Lincoln — Ordered that all of township No. 62, of range No. 24, and sec- 
tions No. 5, 6, 7, 8, 17, 18, 19, 20, 29, 30, 31, 32, of township 61, of range 
No. 23, be named and known as Lincoln township. 

Trenton — Ordered that all of township No. 61, of range No. 24, and 
sections No. 5, 6, 7, 8, 17, 18, 19, 20, 29, 30, 31 and 32 of township 61, of 
range 23, be known and named as Trenton township. 

Jackson — Ordered by the court that all of township No. 60, of range No. 

24, lying east of Grand Kiver, and sections 7, 8, 17, 18, 19, 20, 29, 31 and 
32, of township No. 60, of range No. 23, be named and known as Jackson 

Jefferson — Ordered by the court that all of township No. 60, of range- 


No. 24, lying west of Grand Kiver, and all of townshij:) Xo. 60, of range No. 
25, be known as Jeiferson township. 

Madison — Ordered that all of township No. 61, of range No. 25, lying 
west of Grand River be known as Madison township. 

Harrison — Ordered that all of township No. 61, of range No. 25, lying 
east of Grand River, and all of township No. 62, of range No. 25, lying east 
of Grand River be known as Harrison township. 

Washington — Ordered that all that part of township No. 63, of range 
No. 25, lying east of Grand River, and lying in Grundy county be known 
as Washington township. 

Taylor — Ordered by the court that all that part of township No. 62, of 
range No. 25, lying west of Grand River, and all that part of township No. 
63, of range No. 25, lying west of Grand River, and in Grundy county, 
Missouri, be known as Taylor township. 

These townships with their present metes and bounds constitute the 
municipal divisions of Grundy county and are correctly represented by a 
map made b}' B. F. Thomas, with the exception of the northeast corner of 
Madison township, which is north and east of Thompson River. This cor- 
ner, next to the Trenton township line, is a part of Harrison township, the 
Thompson Fork being the township line between Taylor and Madison, and 
Harrison. It has been thought by some that the County Coui't erred in not 
making the Grand River and East Fork the township line of both Madison 
and Harrison townships, as was and is that of Jefferson. 

The two constitutional amendments M'ere carried at the same time of the 
township organization — the first by 1,821 to 182, and the second 1,943 to 
122 votes against. As the registration law was in force the county court 
appointed registers for the several townships, and the following gentlemen 
were appointed: Wikson, F. M. Lawhead; Marion, Geo. W. Fa3^ton; Lib- 
erty, S. J. Atkinson ; Myres, Lewis Meyers; Franklin, T. J.Wyatt; Lincoln, 
Edward Chambers; Trenton, J. M. Leedy: Jackson, Nathan Arnold; Jef- 
ferson, Robt. Laird; Madison, And. McClure; Taylor, Sparks McClure; 
Harrison, Isaac Yeach; Washington, Wysom Fox. 

Under this new township organization law five judges were to be elected 
instead of three — one to be elected at large, and the other four b}^ districts. 
The election took place in May, 1873, and the question of Jicense or no 
license was voted V on at the same election. The judges elected were: at 
large, Judge Valentine Briegel of Lincoln township, and in the districts as 
follows: first district, Clement A. Conrad; second district, Felix Wild; 
third district, Casy Tate; fourth district, Marshall Humphreys; Judge 
Briegel being president of the court, or presiding justice. There was to be 
a new county judge elected every year, and, therefore, the district judges 
drew for their respective terms: Judge Tate, one year; Judge Wild, two 


years; Judge Hnmplireys, three years, and Judge Conrad, four years; the 
fudge aflarge holding for the fjill term of four years. 

The liquor question was decided in favor of license by a vote of 714 in 
favor to 431 against. The spirit of the old pioneer still held sway, and a 
little for the stomach's sake was not voted a crime. 

At the June term the County Court took up the question of license, as the 
same had been carried by a majority of 283 votes in a poll of alxjut 1,150, 
and at the above term of the court license was put at the moderate sum of 
$600 to sell liquor. This was not relished by the saloon men, and they 
fought against the price vigorously, and viciously in some respects. They 
claimed that the vote was a majority sufficient to convince the court not 
only that the people favored license, but no extortionate rates should be de- 
manded. The six months' license having expired in November, that being 
the time for which licenses were granted, the County Court revised its charge 
and reduced it to $400, with $50 to the State. 

The business of settlement with the collector was decided by the County 
Court at the October term, 1873, for a monthly settlement, and to further 
the honesty of both collector and treasurer it was ordered that all county 
warrants received for taxes, or redeemed at the treasury, should have in- 
dorsed on the back of each the amount of principal and interest paid, and 
the date of such payment. 

The belief that the new township organization law would be a boon to the 
county was more than verified by a much closer collection of taxes, and 
with far less cost to the county. This was proven very gratifying to the 
people, and the ground-work of their faith was in the promptness of F. W. 
Bain, of Lincoln township, who was collector, the first under the new law. 

From the Rejmhlican we find this compliment to not only a trustworthy 
officer, but an accommodating and genial gentleman. It says: 

" Collector Bain made complete settlement of collections on 1873 tax-book 
with the court last week. He filed the smallest delinquent list that any 
collector has ever returned. On the personal list there were five hundred 
and ten names. The tax summed up as follows: State, $230.24; State in- 
terest, $397.28 ; county revenue, $460.40. 

" On the land list he returned one thousand, four hundred and seventy 
tracts with tax as follows: State tax, $454.81; State interest, $568.51; 
county revenue, $909.62. 

"There was due on settlement, after making all due credits: county rev- 
enue, $5,603.33; road fund, $1,492.04; railroad, $3,447.61; poor fund, 
$1,563.98; bridge fund, $1,625.37; asylum, $693.99; dram shop license, 



About this time a note of dissatisfaction was heard in regard to the 
assessed vahiation of the raih-oad property in Grnnd}^ county. The vice- 
president of the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific Road had returned the val- 
uation of the road-bed and other property of the corporation in the county 
at the sum of $125,639, and divided the same as follows: Franklin township, 
$15,280; Lincoln township, $21,710; Trenton township, $54,505 (this in- 
cluded city of Trenton); Jackson township, $6,381, and Jefferson township 
at $27,763; which made the above total of $125,639. This was a deprecia- 
tion in value so unprecedented as to rather astonish the people and they gave 
expression to their views through the County Court, which appointed ap- 
praisers to appraise this property at a fair vahiation for assessment. 
Orundy county had invested $200,000 in the road, Trenton $64,200, the 
railroad claimed they had invested in round-house, machine-shops, depots, 
reservoir, tools, etc., over $200,000 more, and this sum of actual expendi- 
ture of about $500,000 had got down to one-fourth its original value, when 
the general supposition was that the property could not be purchased with- 
out a considerable advance made on its original cost. The appraisers or 
committee appointed set to work, and at the next session of the County 
Court returned the following figures as the total assessed valuation within 
the county, $354,376. This seemed to be a fair assessment, being about 
half of the real value of the property. The next year, 1874, it was assessed 
at $354,572. The vice-president was somewhat astounded at this tremendu- 
ous valuation and there was for a time a disposition to kick, but better 
counsel prevailed and a full compromise was agreed upon. The road has 
cost the people of Grund}^ county a good deal of mone}', but no one would 
be willing to give up the property and wealth the railroad has brought to 
the county for what it cost. And then, again, it is not so much of the 
wealth and prosperity brought in that made the Rock Island Road so popu- 
lar with the people. It has giv^en the people an outlet north and south, and 
has proven, as all railroads are known to be, the pioneer of progressive civil- 
ization. It does away with the slow travel of the wagon, it enlarges the 
crops of the agriculturist and makes transportation light, it causes the 
stock-raiser to increase tlie size of his ranch and the number of his cattle, it 
brings population, for there is an outlet, and when population increases 
we find schools and churches growing in number and in attendance. The 
railroads and the press may well be stamped as the true pioneers of progres- 
sive civilization. Without them the wilderness would not blossom like the 
rose in a century. 



The necessity of making provision for the poor of the county becoming 
apparent, the County Court at its March term, which opened on the 7th, 
1871, ordered that twenty cents on the one hundred dollars be levied on all 
taxable property in the county, to be known as the poor-fund, to be used for 
the purchase and improvement of a poor farm. The court examined a 
piece of land, containing eighty-four acres, three miles north of Trenton, 
purchased the same, and ordered suitable buildings to be erected. At the 
January term, 1872, Geo. AY. Gibson was appointed by the court superin- 
tendent of the poor-farm for one year, commencing March 1st, 1872. One 
half acre of this farm was fenced off, in the southeast corner, as a burial- 
place for the pauper dead. The cost of a pauper burial outfit was fixed at 
ten dollars for a burial suit and five dollars for a CDftin. This price was fixed 
in 1873. In 1874 bids to furnish cofiins for the poor were received and 
opened by the court, and that of Yerian & McMullen was accepted, it 
beino- at the price of one dollar per lineal foot, and all over three feet in 
leno-th to have raised lids. There was no record kept the first three years 
of those who had been received at the county house, but at the suggestion 
of the county physician, the County Court ordered a book of record, and 
all inmates have their full name entered and such facts as are of value for 
the identification of all who may be compelled by misfortune to accept a 
pauper living and fill a pauper's grave. Mr. David Wigle succeeded Mr. 
Gibson as superintendent of the poor-farm March 1st, 1873, and has con- 
tinued in oflice ever since, having proven himself to be the right man in the 
management of the farm and the poor intrusted to his care. As high as 
one dollar and fifty cents per week has been allowed for board of those 
unable to work. 


A sad accident occurred just beyond the city, on the Rock Island Road on 
August 5th, 1873, when a cow getting on the track was run over, which • 
threw the train from the track, killing a young man named Morgan, fireman, 
and wounding severely four others. 

The County Court, in 1874, took, temporarily, a new departure, and felt 
■disposed to relax that economy which had been chronic in its application to 
county afiairs. They placed licenses for the State at ten dollars, and county, 
sixty dollars. They even went so far as to appropriate $150 to the agricul- 
tural and mechanical association, to be given as premiums at the fall fair of 
that year. The swamp land imbroglio, with the Hannibal & St. Joseph 
Railroad was also brought out that year, and an attempt to settle the dift'er- 
ence resulted at first in a failure. The court got its blood up, and gave the 
company ninety days to consider whether they would pay $2,000 for a quit- 
claim deed from the county, or the latter would take jDossession. This was 


in l^overaber, 1874. This had the desired effect of fovcing a negotiation, 
and the raih'oad company offered $1,500* for the said deed. This was at last 
accepted, in April, 1875, and the great swamp land suit, in prospective, was 
summarily disposed of for all time. 

Not much histor}^ has been made tlie past few years. In fact, the decade 
from 1870 to 1880 was barren of stirring incidents. Peace and prosperity 
hovered over the land. The crops of all kinds were good, advancing steadily 
in wealth and population, and a general state of good health pervaded the 
Grand River country. The wool crop of 1875 amounted to 64,270 pounds, 
and in 1879 this was increased to 105,500 pounds. The iron bridge was 
completed across Muddy Creek, on the Lindley road, at a cost of $500, in 
1875, the old wooden structure having been carried aw^ay by a freshet. This 
year (1875) was also known as the grasshopper year. There were millions 
of them, and their stay was in the neighborhood of ten days in Grundy 
county. They came late, their stay was short, and the damage done so 
sliffht as not to be M'orth recording. The vote on the new State constitution 
was a feature of the political part of the year 1875, and it was carried by the 
handsome majority of 249. Or there was in its favor 373 votes, and against 
it 124. 


The centennial year, 1876, opened witli the same outlook of peace, pros- 
perity, and additional happiness over the promised centennial exhibit, at 
Philadelphia, Many citizens of Grundy county visited that famed exhibition, 
where was told, in deeds as well as words, the astounding progress in all that 
makes a country great and j^rosperous. The woi-ld itself stood with won- 
dering eyes, looking at the work a free people had wrought in one century 
of existence, which the effete monarchies of the old world had taken many 
centuries to perform. That year was a renew'al of the patriotic lires which 
burned with such intense fierceness in the glorious days of 1776, and which 
culminated in the eloquence of a Henry, and that glorious and noble dec- 
laration which proclaimed a nation of freemen and a spirit to maintain that 
freedom with their life's blood. The fourth of July, 1876, was duly cele- 
brated by the people of Grundy, and in Trenton, on that day, gathered the 
sons and daughters of freedom to rejoice at the nation's prosperity and 
their own hapjHuess. Hon. George H. Hubbell read a short but compre- 
hensive history of Grundy county, and Dr. Coles read a poem well worthy 
of the author's reputation, and the day was celebrated as no other fourth of 
July had been for years, because not only was it the fourth of July, but it 
was the centennial year of our national existence. 

On July 6, 1876, the people were surprised and shocked in learning 
of the death of Wm. H. Mason, resulting from an over dose of opium. He 
was a young man, highly respected, in the twentj^-eighth year of his age, 


5111(1 tlie son of John and Aineli.a Mason. He had been snffering threat 
agony from an attack of neuralgia, and to relieve himself from the torture 
whicli he was not able to bear longer, took a dose of opium, but it was be- 
jieved more than he was aware of, and under its influence died, it being 
impossible to awaken him from his sleej) until death claimed him for its 
own. lie had taken it before for the same com})laint, and it had relieved 
him; but in this last he had evidently made a mistake in the dose, and died 
from its effects. 

In August a conti-act was entered into with the Missouri Valley Bridge 
Company for repairing Trenton bridge across Grand River, and to maintain 
the same for four years in good repair. It was to have a span of 192 feet, 
double intersections and Pratt truss. The price agreed upon was $4,876.80. 
The county, in the January term, 1877, ordered the treasurer a salary of 
$200 per annum, from January 1, 1877. The treasurer's bond at that time 
was $35,000, with approved sureties. The completion of the new bridge 
across Grand River having been finished, the court ordered a neio flooring 
should be put in the Rainbow bridge across or over the Weldon River, and 
the old flooring of the Trenton bridge was magnanimously donated by the 
County Court to Lincoln township for that important work, and at the same 
time that the court evoked this liberality of spirit, ordered the balance of 
the old timber of said Trenton bridge to be sold to the highest and best bidder 
by the sheriff". 

The assessed valuation of land and stock for different years had varied 
somewhat, and in the year 1877 the assessment was far more carefully con- 
sidered than usual. A fair valuation was at last agreed upon, and this 
agreement on value has been the basis of future years. The assessment was 
as follows: Land average for the county, $5.77 per acre, of whicli Trenton 
township was the highest, at $7.63 per acre, and Taylor township, at $3.81 
per acre, the lowest. Horses were assessed at $31; mules $32.25; cat- 
tle $10.75. The same year the National Bank of Trenton Avas assessed on 
a capital of $60,000. 


On Sunday, April 20, 1880, a violent rain and hail-storm passed over the 
north part of the county, and did considerable damage by the breaking of 
window-glass in Taylor, Harrison and Washington townships. The hail- 
stones were reported of various sizes, some smooth ones measuring five and 
a half inches in circumference, while rough ones measured more. The build- 
ing known as Half Rock Church, in Washington township, was moved 
from its foundation by the violence of the wind. Judge Spickard, and 
many of his neighbors in "Washington, and Henry Lewis, in Taylor town- 
ship, suffered the entire destruction of the window-glass in their residences 
facing the hail, while cattle exposed to the storm were severely injured. 
' 16 




The session of the County Court, on March 4, 1878, made the new judicial 
districts, as provided for under the new constitution, and in accordance with 
the law. The first district was composed of the townships of Wilson, Jack- 
son, Jefferson, Madison and Trenton. The second district of Marion, Liber- 
ty, Myres, Franklin, Washington, Taylor, Harrison and Lincoln. 

The temperance craze struck Grundy county in 1878, and while it proba- 
bly did little harm, no very lasting good seemed to have resulted. Still 
there are some pretty strong temperance advocates in the county, and these 
have exercised a powerful influence for good. Drunken men are the excep- 
tion and not the rule among the people. 


The Wool-growers' Association is still one of the institutions of Grundy 
and has done much to advance the sheep industry of the county. 
The care of sheep and improved breeds has caused some pretty heavy fleeces 
of wool to be produced, and the sheep raisers are taking a just pride in 
their work. The organization is energetically pursuing its work of im- 
provement. Its president is S. Aslier, and secretary, L. Gass. At a com- 
petitive shearing in May, 1881, fourteen sheep were sheared, and the fleeces 
and sheep weighed as follows: 






Haynes . . 
Haynes. . 
Haynes . . 


Aslier. . . . 
Asher. . . . 
Asher. . . . 
Asher. . . . 
Limes - . . . 
Evans. . . . 











































51 lbs 

50 " 
120 " 

44 " 

91 " 

107 " 

77 " 

51 " 

76 " 
89 " 

115 " 

96 " 

77 " 
80 " 

The average was just seventeen pounds. Afterward four other fine rep- 
resentatives were sheared; one buck, two years old, twenty-four and three- 
fourths; said to be the heaviest fleece ever sheared in Grundy county. The 
other three weighed respectively, twenty and one-half, ram; and sixteen 
and one-half, and flfteen, ewes. Four bucks sheared eighty-four and three- 
fourths pounds. 



Tlie first marriacye license issued from the recorder's office of Grundy 
county, was to Wm. A. Brock and Sarah F. Atkinson. It was issued on 
Sunday, June 26th, 1881, tlie first day that the law went into effect; a second 
license was issued on the same day, to "Wra. C. Urton and Maggie A. 

This is the first license law of the State and is likely to bring in quite a 

The Circuit Court docket at the April term, 1881, showed an even one 
hundred cases to be disposed of. 



About the time the philosophers of the city of Trenton were delving in 
the burial mounds of a pre-historic race, the home people put in some prac- 
tical work in the shape of voting to cancel the present indebtedness of the 
county by issuing a new series of bonds, drawing six per cent interest to 
take up the present bonded debt upon which they were paying eight per 
cent. The vote was taken June 14tli and carried by 103 majority, but only 
a, light vote was polled. The city debt was, also, carried by a large major- 
ity for the same purpose. 


The county debt at this writing amounts to $155,000 and the city debt 
S46,000. The new series of 5-20 bonds are now being engraved for both. 
When received they will be exchanged for the old bonds, or sold at not less 
than par, and the old bonds purchased with the proceeds. The old bonds 
are now legally subject to redemption and being at a higher rate of interest, 
eight per cent, quite a saving is made in issuing the new bonds and taking 
up the old. Mr. D. C. Pugh, the efficient county clerk, was offered a pre- 
jnium of two per cent, August 29th, 1881, for $1,000 bonds. The credit of 
Grundy county stands high. 



Central Location— Surface— Coal — Building Stone— Timber and Prairie— Climate— Soil — 
Cereals— Tobacco— Average Crop— Fruits and Vegetables— Vintage— Grasses— Stock — 
Number of Head of Live Stock. 

" The fatter earth by handling we may find, 
With ease dietingulBhed from the meager kind; 
Poor soil will crumble into dust; the rich 
Will to the fingers cleave like clammy pitch ." 

Grundy county has a commanding and central location, in central north 
Missoui-i, and in the heart of tlie rich and prosperous valley of the Grand 
River. It is bounded on the north by Mercer county; on the east, by Sulli- 
van and Linn ; south by Livingston, and on the west by Daviess and Har- 
rison. Its northern border is about twenty-two miles south of the Iowa 
State line, on the fortieth parallel of latitude, and at an altitude of 900 feet 
above the water level. 

In climate, soil, production and in the face of the country, it has no su- 
perior and few equals in the State of Missouri, and at this time presents to 
the eye a magnificent field of what can be accomplished by the earnest hearts 
and willing hands of an active, enterprising and educated people. The value of 
its location is further enhanced by the fact that the counties surrounding-^ 
are alike rich in the productiveness of their soil, the energy and culture 
of their people, and that this surrounding is tributary in a large degree to 
the prosperity of Grundy county and her chief city, Trenton. 


The face of the country is gently undulating and is beautifully diversified by 
rolling prairie, timbered hills and valleys, with intervals of groves, giving the 
whole country the appearance of a grand park, especially adapted not only 
to the wants of man, but to his pleasures. Hills, and vales, and open prai- 
ries, here and there patches of woodland, running streams of pure water, 
springs bubbling up, cool and refreshing their liquid light, building sites 
with grand views, and mill sites with good water-power, all these tend not 
only to please the eye, but show ])lainly to the close observer, the fanner 
and the manufacturer, the fact that solid wealth, as well as pleasure, can be 
found within the borders of Grundy county. About two-thirds of the county 
is prairie, and the remainder woodland. Her prairies, as remarked before^ 
are high and rolling, while her timbered upland and the banks of her run- 
ning streams are covered with groves of white, burr, red, spotted, pin, black 
and water oaks, hard and soft maple, white and black shell-bark hickory 
grey ash, walnut, elm, hackberry, sycamore, linden, mulberry and cotton- 


wood, and a largo variety of small orrowth. The Grand Kiver, the principal 
stream in the county, is formed by the junction of the Thompson River, 
coming in from the northwest section of the county until it meets the Wel- 
don or east fork of the river which comes in from the north, about one and 
a half miles north of Trenton, the county seat, flowing southward, next 
westward, then curving and winding around the south of the city; thence 
southerly as far as Chillicothe. From that city it takes a southeasterly 
course through Livingston county, forming the dividing line between Car- 
roll and Chariton counties, and empties into the waters of the Missouri 
near Brunswick. Among lesser streams are Big Muddy, Honey Creek and 
their numerous branches, No Creek and Medicine River, east of the Grand, 
with Gees, Hickory,Wolf, Coon, Sugar and Middle creeks,west, giving abund- 
ant water. This grand water supply is, and can be, supplemented by wells, 
where excellent water is reached at a depth of from fifteen to fifty feet. 
In Grand River and Thompson's Fork can be found an abundance of water- 
power for milling purposes, and it is already utilized to a considerable ex- 
tent by flouring and saw mills. Other streams have, also, power for mill- 
ing purposes, and for the present and in the prospective wants of the future, 
the water-power of Grundy county is complete.' 

Of other native resources of the county which are likely to have great 
bearing upon her future prosperity, and which will add largely to the wealth 
and population are the 


which cover a largo area, and are found in considerable quantities. Sand- 
stone rock, a good building and macadamizing stone, is found in nearly 
every section of the county, and in quantity to meet all practical demands. 
Limestone is also found in large quantities; in fact Grundy county is under- 
laid with limestone, and the famous blue-grass, which has given Kentucky 
a world-wide fame, is indigenous to her soil, and has already given her the 
name of the blue-grass region of Missouri. She will, ere long, become the 
home of the race-horse and the blooded cattle of the State. 

Coal underlies at least two-thirds of the county. Up to the present, little 
attention has been paid to coal mining. With the exception of the mines 
worked at the county seat this inexhaustible supply of wealth is yet to be 

We have thus placed on record that Grundy county is rich in timber, 
rich in her prairie lands, while the wealth of a State lies under her soil in 
limestone, in sandstone and her coal strata. Her water power can be util- 
ized to add to this aggregate of productiveness, and yet not half has been 
told. We have spoken of her forests and streams, of the glorious beauty of 
her prairies and woodland, and the wealth of her mineral resources, but of 
her soil and its wonderful richness, of her health-giving climate, of her peo- 


pie, noted for their energy, enterprise and culture, we have yet to speak. 
There is beauty and life-giving health enough in her broad fields and bound- 
less prairies to charm even the heart of an anchorite, and draw him from 
his life of solitude to the bright and charming light of a happier and more 
glorious day. 

Perhaps one of the greatest attractions, and wliich, when generally known, 
will make this region of country more sought after, is its 


caused in a great measure by its splendid drainage system. You find no 
marshes or stagnant pools to breed malaria, but a climate that gives a spirit 
and a healthful tone to all forms of life, without- the bitter extremes of a 
northern temperature, and with that mildness wliich avoids the heat and hu- 
midity of the more southern latitudes. It has thus become well known 
that the valley of the Grand River has no superior in health-giving proper- 
ties, and that nowhere in the Western States can be found a better or more 
salubrious climate. 


The soil of Grundy county can be divided into two parts. That is, the 
top soil and the subsoil. The quality ^of the soil, its depth; and the ques- 
tion of tillage are the primary questions which arise to those who make 
farming their profession. The soil of Grundy county is a rich, black loam, 
a vegetable mold, varying in depth from six to thirty-six inches on the 
upland prairies, and in the valleys of the rivers and creeks is an aggrega- 
tion and deposit of earth, sand and other transported matter forming a rich 
alluvium, from three to five feet deep, and in its generating and life-giving 
properties, inexlmustible. 

This soil, which has been chemically analyzed, is found to be composed 
of carbonate of lime, phosphate of lime, magnesia, and silicious matter, 
is easily worked, the plow and the harrow giving it the softness of an ash 
bed. This salubriousness of climate and richness of soil give a wide range 
of production, and all the cereals, vegetables and fruits of the temperate 
zone are easily and successfully raised. All seem to be indigenous to the 
soil. With care and cultivation ample crops are raised, and the husbandman 
finds no cause to complain. Wheat, rye, oats, barley, buckwheat, corn, 
hemp, tobacco, millet, sorghimi, broom-corn, etc., all of the vegetables, and 
grasses of which there are several hundred varieties, white and red top clo- 
ver, all yield abundantly. 


The principal crops grown in the county are wheat, corn, oats, rye and 
buckwheat, the latter but little sown, the crop of 18S0 being but 271 bushels. 
Corn, from the large quantity raised, is the leading crop, wheat in value 


comes next, yet oats exceed wheat in bushels by at least one hundred per 
cent. Tobacco is grown to the extent of from ten to twelve thousand 
pounds, the bottom and the uplands producing a good grade. 


Corn may be considered the leading crop, both in value as well as pro- 
duction. The crop is enormous and taking the size of Grundy it leads in 
that staple over surrounding counti(?S, excepting Harrison. The crop 
of Indian corn for 1880 amounted to 1,963,523 bushels. The crop will 
be increased from year to year as the county becomes more thickly set- 
tled, as it is sure and always brings a fair price. Stock raising demands 
it, cheap corn makes stock raising profitable. There were 53,677 acres of 
corn planted yielding the above crop. 


Wheat follows corn as a valuable and important crop. The yield in 1880 
was 138,440 bushels, and the number of acres sown, 10,329. It is not 
likely that the area devote'd to wheat will be very rapidly increased in this 
county. Stock raising, grass growing, and pasture and hay lands, will prob- 
ably prevent any more than the natural increase which would be seeded for 
the usuals urplus over the home supply. The wheat crop is generally a 
pretty sure one, and the result is a steady showing from year to year, but not 
an increase that would prove it to have any particular run over other crops. 
It will always lead, next to corn, as a grain raising crop. 


Oats are a staple crop and they return a handsome yield of from twenty- 
five to thirty bushels per acre. The crop of 1880 amounted to 302,806 bushels, 
an average, that year, of about twenty-nine bushels per acre. There were 
sown, for the year, 10,375 acres. 


There is not much attention paid to these crops. There seems to be but 
little demand for them. There is no question but what the people could do 
as well by raising a small patch of buckwheat as to buy it. The number 
of bushels raised in the county last year was only 271, and undoubtedly ten 
times that amount was used. It yields prolifically and one acre of buck- 
wheat would supply a family, and, perhaps, as far as it goes it is the equal 
in value of any other cereal. Rye is also lightly invested in. It is not 
much used for bread, and the demand has therefore been light. The manu- 
facturer of whisky is not making a very great demand for it in these parts. 
The crop of 1880 amounted to 11,434 bushels. 



This is also a light crop in this county. Livingston, the count}' south, 
raised a crop last year of 305,073 pounds, while the yield of Grundy county 
was only 11,755 pounds. There is no question but what tobacco is easy of 
production, a most profitable plant, and why it should be a leading crop in 
Livingston and adjoining counties, and so little raised in Grundy, the writer 
has failed to learn. The crop of 1860 averaged 481-^ pounds of tobacco to 
the acre, which being a light yield may be the cause of so little being 
planted. It was also but a little over half the yield per acre of the crop in 
Livingston for the same year. 

There is no barley raised in Grundy countv, but this is because there is 
no demand for it. 


The average crop of the several products grown in Grundy county is a 
good and just criterion of her value as an agricultural county. There is 
no evidence that the average production of this county has fallen below the 
average crop of the State, since the report here printed, but enough is 
known to assert, without fear of successful contradiction, that the great av- 
erage over that of the State, as published in the agricultural report of 1871, 
is still held by this county. The average of the four leading products in 
the State of Missouri for the year 1871 was: wheat, 13 4-100 b\ishels; rye, 
17 1-100 bushels; oats, 26 17-100 bushels, and corn, 38 bushels per acre. 
Grundy county's average for the same year, taken from the same report, 
gave wheat at twenty bushels; rye, twenty-five; oats, twenty-nine, and corn, 
forty-five bushels, per acre. This gives wheat and rye an average over that 
of the State of nearly fifty per cent, while oats and corn were about twenty 
per cent better. This is sufficient evidence of the good quality and strength 
of the soil, and places Grundy in the front rank of agricultural counties in 
the State. In fact, the great excess over the average here shown was not 
excelled by a half dozen counties in the State. Agriculturally speaking, 
Grundy county ranks A 1, and this fact should be remembered. 


Of course it is to be supposed that a county so rich in soil, with a cli- 
mate unsurpassed and producing such bountiful crops, would be equally 
fruitful in the yield of the numerous roots which compose the vegetable 
kingdom, and the supposition is correct. They are, one and all, you might 
say, natives of the soil, and their growth as prolific as desired. The mel- 
lowness of the ground makes cultivation easy, and while the farmer raises 
large crops of cereals the garden is not neglected. Still the crops of pota- 
toes, turnips, beets, etc., are not confined to the garden, but are largely 


grown for use and profit, by sale. These all do well, give immense yields, 
and prove to be a first-class auxiliary for stock food. Peas, l)eans, carrots, 
parsnips, all find a natural home in the soil of this county. IIo])S do well, 
but the demand being light are not much planted. It is thus shown that 
there is nothing in the vegetable line but what, if planted, will yield an 
abundant return. 


Fruits are •• natives and to the manor born"; the correct quotation 
should be "to the manner born," but it does not suit the writer, and it ex- 
presses what is meant as first written. The orchard product of Grundy 
county forms no mean part of her wealth. Nearly, or quite, every farmer 
has his orchard, and, besides being a paying investment it gives a great 
deal of pleasure and is very conducive to health. The hot summer season 
is gone through with a far greater degree of health by the use of fruits in 
season, and discarding meats, than if not used. The apple, in the State of 
Missouri, is the king of fruit, and it can be grown in no greater perfection 
than within the borders of this county. The varieties are numerous. There 
is the summer apple, the fall apple and the winter apple, and of each, es- 
pecially the two last, there are a wonderful number of diflferent kinds, all 
having some special claim to the attention of the farmer. As a result of 
the examination into the merits of north central Missouri as a fruit-grow- 
ing country, the remarks of a distinguished pomologist, in regard to the 
apple, are given. He said: "Tiie counties of north central Missouri, and 
in the valley of the Grand River, can show apples in as great a variety and 
excellence as any ten States outside of Missouri." This, coming from one 
who had made fruit-culture a study, is sufficient evidence of the value of 
this section in that line. 

The orchard product is not confined, by any means, to the apple. Peaches, 
pears, plums, apricots, quinces, nectarines, etc., all grow well, and are 
equally at home with the apple in this soil and climate. Both peaches and 
pears have their seasons of failure, but there are always enough for home 
consumption, except in unprecedented bad years. A very fine peach is 
grown, and there are several kinds which are very palatable, being of a most 
delicious flavor. The pear grows io a large size, is very rich and luscious, 
and resembles the California pear in size and appearance. Neither the 
peach nor pear crop is as certain as the apple, still the peach is largely 
grown throughout the county. A good year for peaches is a good year for 
the farmer who has them for sale. Very few plums are raised, and why is 
an enigma. Wild plums, about the size of the common blue plum, grow 
abundantly in the woods and are brought to town for sale, but no other. 
There are a few trees in towns, grown in gardens, which yield largely, but 
as yet, like the apricot, nectarine and quince, cannot be called a product of 


the county. These fruits would all grow and give handsome returns for 
their cultivation. 


Cherries are indigenous to the soil and climate, and grow spontaneously. 
The county, and the town of Trenton, are full of cherry trees, and in an 
abundant season they are an absolute drug in the market. As nearly everybody 
raises them the demand is limited. They are " put up " by the housewife 
in quantities, and cherry wine might be made so as to fill an aching void 
in the list of temperance drinks. 


Like chen-ies, are as plentiful as flies in summer. They can all be found 
in this section. Blackberries, raspberries, gooseberries, strawberries, cur- 
rants, etc., etc., are to be found in all the gardens, and, with the exception 
of the currant, in the woods and the corners of the fences. While the 
market supply, in some years, exceeds the demand, there is no question 
but what the Grundy county people are a berry-loving and a berry-eating 
people. Farmers have been seen on the streets of Trenton eating- cherries 
which they had purchased, because they couldn't wait until they returned 
home, where they had plenty. They were simply hungry, and as every 
store in town held a supply they didn't propose to starve. They eat all 
kinds of fruit in season, morning, noon and night, before breakfast, after 
supper and between meals, and carry more sound health about with them, 
from one year's end to another, than any other people of any other State 
can boast. They live way up into the eighties and nineties, and many to a 
hundred years of age, and if they lived five centuries the people of Grundy 
would eat fruit and berries to their dying day. 


Grape culture is in its infancy in the State of Missouri ; it is in still greater 
infancy in northern Missouri and in Grundy county. Yet the State is 
noted for its climate, soil and production as a grape growing State. When 
its vast resources in the growing of vineyards and in the making of wine 
shall become fully developed, Missouri, will become no more noted in any 
other branch of industry, nor receive a greater reward or profit from the 
investment, than in lier graperies.. The grape flourishes in this county, 
and a large number of farmers are giving attention to its culture. Both 
in town and country grape arbors are common, and very many raise 
enough for home use. The grape has proven so prolific in this county 
that there are few if any counties in the State that can be found its superior. 
The leading grape grown is the Concord variety, but the Elvira, Martha, 
Norton's Virginia Seedling, Cynthiana, Isabella, Clinton, etc., are all 


grown, and it is believed that tlie time cannot be far distant wlien the vine- 
yards and the production of wine will become an important element in the 
productive wealth of the county. There are at present but few vinevards 
of a size that warrant the manufacture of wine, yet it is as evident to all 
observers as it is well known to all farmers, that grapes will fiourish here, 
and that there are few crops raised on any land planted which will show a 
better net yield to the acre than that set out in a vineyard, and it has aston- 
ished the writer somewhat to find a crop so certain, so prolific in its yield 
and so sure of remuneration, that has been so little cultivated for wine 
making and exportation. Take the Concord variety; the farmers of Grundy 
county have given it a preference because of its hardy nature, its great 
yield and the quality of the wine and quantity produced, yet there are other 
varieties which are as hardy and equal to the Concord in their rapid growth 
and which will yield more pounds of grapes to the acre and make a far su- 
perior wine. These are the Elvira, Martha, and Norton's Virginia Seed- 
ling. The largest vineyard in the county is that of Judge Valentine 
Breigel, of Lincoln townsiiip, to whom the writer is under obligations for 
much valuable information in regard to the grape crop, and which will be 
of great value to all those who propose making grape culture a part of their 
agricultural work. Judge Breigle has a vineyard of three acres in Con- 
cord, and one of two and a half acres in Elvira and Martha, about equally 

As it is the intention to make this work not only a history of Grundy 
county to date, but a valuable book of information and reference, the writer 
will give a short history of the grape, from the source spoken of above. 

Judge Breigel has given several years of his time and a large amount of 
money in experimenting with no less than twenty-five different varieties of 
grapes. He has tested them by the light of experience, in regard to soil, 
climate, quality of grape, quality and quantity of wine, and the hardy na- 
ture of those kinds best adapted to the soil of Grundy county. His first 
choice for fine wines is the Elvira, next the Martha, then the Virginia Seed- 
ling and the Concord. Out of the twenty-five varieties, only five proved of 
value on the soil of this county. These five varieties the judge grows and 
has discarded all others. For common table wine the Concord leads, and 
yields on an average 7,500 pounds of grapes to the acre. The Elvira is 
his favorite, with the Martha a very close second, then comes the Seedling. 
The Elvira and Martha are the hardiest and the most prolific. They are 
planted in rows eight feet apart with a space of six feet separating the vines, 
but it has been found that equal intervals is preferable between rows and 
vines, and that eight feet is the proper distance, as it gives the vines more 
room and a freer circulation of air through them. This is what prevents 
mold or rot. Nine thousand pounds of this grape can be grown to the acre, 
and they make the best white wine of good body and splendid flavor. A 


trial of eiirlit years with tlie Clinton v^ariet}-- proved them a failure. Twelve 
to Hfteen pounds of these grapes will make a gallon of wine, Norton's 
Virginia Seedling, while making a rich wine, is not so profitable. It takes 
fifteen pounds or more to the gallon and requires more care. The Cyn- 
thiana will take the place of the Seedling, being both more hardy and pro- 
lific, and making a wine fully as marketable as the other. 

The vineyard of Judge Breigel has a capacity of 5,000 gallons, and 2,000 
gallons were manufactured last year. Miller Lewis, Jacob Mullen, Otto 
Gehlback and Jacob Breigel all make some wine, but not in large quanti- 

We then have the Concord for a good common wine and a hardy grape, 
and the Elvira, Martha, Cynthiana and Norton's Virginia Seedling for a 
finer wine. The second and third varieties named are the best, being as 
hardy and more prolific than the Concord, and produce much richer wine 
than the two last. There is no trouble to raise these varieties and the profit 
of wine culture is enormous. Grundy county farmers have had the exper- 
iment tried and they now know the kinds best adapted to this climate. 
The United States is yet to furnish the wines for the world. 


The meadow-lands of Grundy county are found wherever the bottom- 
lands are, and the rest of the county will grow red and white top clover to 
perfection. Blue-grass, timothy, alfalfa, or orchard grass are all indigenous to 
the State and the lands of the county. Quite a large number of farmers 
have splendid pastures of blue-grass, and orchard, both the most nourishing 
grasses grown. Cattle not only improve but grow fat on it, and require 
little more grain than enough to harden the flesh to give it solidity, and 
make them fit for the market. 

The hay crop of Grundy, county is a valuable one. Good meadow land 
will give from one and a half to three tons of hay per acre, and it brings 
good prices. Of course a country so rich in grasses is the one for stock, and 
that is why this county has already become noted as a splendid one for stock- 
raisers. It has no superior in the State. 


As we have just said, this county is already noted for its tine stock. 
Horses, cattle, sheep, hogs and mules are not only numerous already, but are 
rapidly increasing. The stock men are taking especial pains to secure the 
best breeds to be found, and where purchased to give them every care and 
attention. The farmers have ffiven greater attention to draught horses 
and roadsters than to racing and trotting stock, but the latter is now being 
sought after, and it will not be long before the native blooded stock will be 
added to the record of fine horses. The high prices which good trotters 


always command in the market, should be an incentive to the farmers to 
look well afier their breed of horses, as well as of cattle, sheep and hogs. 
Of late the success upon the grounds of the agricultural and mechanical 
expositions, have brought more prominently before the farmers the value of 
blooded horses, and if tliey are wise they will give close attention to this 
branch of the farm business. It is as easy to raise a thorough-bred colt as a 
scrub, and when grown it is worth half a dozen of them. 

The same grasses grow here and are as nourishing as the famed bine- 
grass region of Kentucky, and it only requires some of the skill, judg- 
ment and care here to compete with that celebrated land of noble women, 
brave men and splended blooded stock. However, it will not be long be- 
fore breeders of fine horses in this county will try the mettle of the racers 
and trotters of other States with the native trotters and racers, products of 
their own raising. 


Cattle raising has been the pride of the farmers of Grundy county, and 
they have given a good deal of care and spent considerable money to secure 
the best stock. It has paid them well, and even at this day they are em- 
barking in it largely. The Short-Horn leads up to date; they have proven very 
profitable so that other breeds have found but little favor. The great supe- 
riority of the Short-Horn over the native strains, and the very excellent 
results in crossing shown, by the decided improvement exhibited in the 
latter, had satisfied the farmer that the heights of excellence had been ob- 
tained in securing the possession of the Short-Horn. This has caused very 
little desire to examine into the merits of other breeds which are now com- 
ing forward, such as the Hereford and the Jerseys. 

These latter are quietly and gradually gaining a foothold. Whether the 
former of the two last mentioned will outstrip the Short-Horn is doubtful, 
but there is little question but that they will gain, and gain rapidly in the fa- 
vor and good graces of the stock-raisers of Grundy. It is well known that at 
not a few of the best fairs and stock sales ever held in this country, the 
Short-Horn and the Hereford stand side by side competing, and none, pos- 
sibly excepting the connoisseur of fine stock, could tell which possessed the 

greater excellence. 


is what is astonishing the natives, and what she is capable of doing on the 
soil of Grundy, this extract from, and comment of, the Trenton Repiihlicany 
fitting!}' decribes: 

"Mr. P. H. Yakey informs us that his Jersey cattle, mention of which 
was made in these columns some time ago, are coming fully up to his ex- 
pectations. In fact, he is more than pleased with his investment. He has 


furnished ns the following facts concerning his Jersey heifer, Amy Lang- 
don, H. R., No. 10,656: She dropped calf May 23d, was 21 months and 3 
days old. Milk weighed, first day it was saved, 27^ pounds. Again the 7th 
day it weighed 28 pounds, 5 ounces. She ran on pretty good pasture and 
was fed three quarts of ground feed night and morning, and was kept in 
the barn lot during the night. She made, during the seven days her milk 
was kept and churned by itself, 9 pounds and one ounce of butter. She 
will be two years old on the 20th of August next, having been dropped 
August 20th, 1879. 

'•If she does that well before she is two years old, what will she do when 
she is five? Very few, if any cows of any other stock, when at their prime, 
can be found to do as well as she does now, and it is reasonable that she 
will double that amount before three years. There is no question but that the 
Jersey is the best stock for butter, and there is big money in butter-making. 
Why sliould not others imitate his example?" 

The introduction of this strain of cattle will undoubtedly do much to 
turn the attention of the farmers to the dairy business, which can be made 
as profitable as any other business connected with the farm. 

In this connection, it may be stated that a lot of fat cattle, purchased in 
Grundy county, for the Chicago market, by one of the local dealers, Oapt. 
H. F, Peery, were shipped to Chicago the last week in January, 1877, 
and numbered 110 head, and the entire lot averaged 2,000 pounds each. 
One car-load of the above averaged a little over 2,400 pounds each, one 
weighing 2,500 pounds and another 2,600. The question was very natu- 
rally asked, "who could beat it?" The response, if any, was not audible 
to the farmers of Grundy or the cattle-buyers. This item is sufiicient 
to convince the most skeptical that as a stock raising county Grundy has no 
superior and but few equals. 


Grundy county is preeminently a sheep county. "Water, grasses and 
corn are abundant, and farmers are paying a good deal of attention to 
sheep raising. In the last ten years sheep have wonderfully increased, both 
as regards number and quality. The Merino takes the lead, but the South- 
Downs and Cotswold are increasing in number. Grundy county is ahead 
of many counties in the State in regard to her sheep and wool production, 
and this branch of farming industry is likely to increase. One of her 
greatest resources in the future will prove to be sheep raising, and its pro- 
ductiveness will be found the equal of any of her many wondei-ful agricul- 
tural resources. The Merinos so far have proved profitable both for wool 
and mutton, but there is a belief that the South-Down and Cotswold are 
both hardier breeds. The Merinos need shelter and protection in winter, 
in fact so do all, but the Merinos, if too much exposed, are more apt to 


lose their lambs than the other breeds mentioned. In the early raising of 
sheep it was supposed they could take care of themselves, and little atten- 
tion was paid them, but like all other domestic animals the sheep well re- 
pays good care, while a want of it is likely to be as costly to the farmer as 
any other stock. The South-Downs are a good mutton sheep, so, also, are 
the Cotswold, and their hardier nature will be likely to greatly increase their 
number in the near future. The Merino's wool is short and holds more dirt 
than the others; in fact, it makes the fleece quite heavy and the clipping is 
very often sold for less by the pound than the Cotswold or South-Down. The 
Cotswold, from what can be gathered from the farmer, is likely to become a 
prime favorite. The wool is long, of fine thread, and in size larger. They 
are, therefore, for mutton, superior to the Merino. Their clip will average 
from ten to ten and a half pounds. Some of this breed, oh account of size, 
have sold as high as eight dollars and the pelt was reserved, this too, at 
eiohteen months old. This gives the judgment of the farmer at this day as 
preferring the Cotswold and Merinos, and next to these the South-Down. 
As this judgment is founded upon actual tests of their value, the new set- 
tler in this county need try no experiments. 


are a staple product, both for home consumption and for foreign export, 
and they form no inconsiderable revenue to the Rock Island Railroad in 
their transportation. The hog crop ranks among the best in the county, 
and its productiveness is sure and its profits for the last few years have 
been fair. There is nothing to prevent this stock from advancing rapidly, 
for the climate, soil and products are peculiarly fitted to make it a splendid 
and remunerating success. The manner in which the people have taken 
advantage of the rich and peculiar resources of the county has shown not 
only their hard practical sense and education, but that they, seeing the 
course which would lead to its greatest production, promptly and success- 
fully adapted themselves to the work in hand. Swine breeding forms an 
interesting chapter in the farming interest of Grundy county. The com- 
mon hog of the early day was known or called the '" Hazel Splitter." He 
was a long, lank animal, long in the legs as well as in body, and in early 
spring when the mast in the woods had become scarce he well represented 
his name. Putting up and feeding was not the fortune of the hog of the 
early settlers. A good year for mast was the hog's glory and he got fat, 
and man profited by killing him, but a failure of this wild crop of swine 
food changed all this, and man and hog both suffered in those early days 
accordingly. The race-horse style of hog, and they were almost as fleet, 
of the "Hazel Splitter," gave way at last to the breed known as the 
"Irish Granger," a hog imported from Illinois. This improved the orig- 
inal strain, giving more body, but not decreasing the legs or running gear 


much. The Grass breed or Suffolk, came next, a short stubby animal of 
early maturity, and nearly all fat. They failed to meet expectation, and 
so the "Chester White" was tried by a few, then came the Berkshire. 
These latter have proven good, but in the early days when allowed to roam 
in the woods in droves, got a little too wild; outside of this the farmers took 
to the Berkshire. The Poland-China came last, and of all the breeds in- 
troduced into Grundy county it probably stands the highest. It is a do- 
mestic animal and failed to catch any of the wild notions of the favorite 
Berkshire. It grows rapidly, gains flesh easily, and, in fact, is a hog all 
over. For the past few years the Poland and Berkshire have become the 
favorite and the standard breeds. 


It has been only a few years back since attention has been given to rais- 
ing mules for a market. Some very fine animals have been raised in this 
county, and the trafiic in these useful animals has largely increased the 
past few years. Why it has ,not been of large growth is hard to tell. 
Mule raising can be successfully prosecuted in Grundy county, and the only 
reason it has not been is probably' owing to the fact that there is nothing, in 
the agricultural or stock raising line that cannot be successfully carried on, 
and the farmer has not reached the mule department. 


Not only is Grundy county well supplied with coal, and has fine quarries 
of building stone, and a plentiful supply of timber, but it has, also, pot- 
ter's clay of a good quality, and probably it is known to but few that a 
pottery was in actual operation in this county in 1858, 1859 and 1860. The 
pottery was on Beckner's Creek in Marion township. The clay near the 
works on the creek was good and more was found on the farm of John 
Strickers, in Wilson township. This pottery was conducted by Mr. Couch, 
father of Fininan C. Couch, now of Deadwood, Dakota. There is con- 
siderable of this ware now in use in Grundy and adjoining counties. 
Whether a silver mine is one of the resources of Grundy county is yet to 
be solved, but in the settlement of Taylor township a furnace was found 
where mineral had been smelted, and from which Furnace Creek takes it 
name. Small particles of silver were found, but no further development 
has taken place. 

In closing the chapter on Grundy county and its resources, and having 
given its crops of cereals, the number of its live stock is here added. 
This number is for the year 1880, "or ending April 1, 1881, having been 
taken in the spring assessment of the latter year. There were: hogs in 
Grundy count}', 24,761; sheep, 19,948; cattle, 16,874; horses, 5,716; mules, 
746; asses and jennets, 29. 


T«tf NiV Y^f^K 



Organization — Incorporators — First Officers — Neiv Organization — Board of Directors — 
Constitution and Bg-hncs — Grounds, 

As early as 1859 the farmers of Grundy county began to think of organ- 
izing for a county fair. In fact tlie matter liad been talked of for a year or 
two previous, but did not take definite shape until the fall of 1859, the year 
above mentioned. It was decided that fall to organize and form an Agri- 
cultural and Mechanical Association, and a petition was drawn up and the 
county canvassed for the required number of signatures to be presented to 
the County Court for its sanction as a body politic under the corporate name 
of the " Grundy County Agricultural and Mechanical Society." The order 
of the court granting the prayer of the petitioners reads: 

"R. A. DeBolt presents the petition of fifty citizens, freeholders of the 
county of Grundy, praying to be organized into a body politic and corporate 
by the name and style of the Grundy County Agricultural and Mechanical 
Society, and the court being satisfied that such petition is signed by at least 
fifty freeholders of said county, do hereby declare and order that John W. 
Coleman, Thos. B. Head, John T. Witten, J. R. Merrill, X. M. Holton, W. 
W. Brooks, Alf. Bleu, S. F. Ellis, G. W. Moberly, J. T. Tindall, C. G. 
Chandler, R. A. DeBolt, H. W. Lyday, G. W. Parker, A. Evans, W. Water- 
land, S. Dunham, S. Peery, W. C. Benson, C. S. Iloman, Jas. Kennedy, J. 
F. Thomas, A. Beckner, L. E. Monby, J. H. Shanklin, L. Field, Jas. G. 
Benson, H. Renfro, M. Arbogast, T. P. Wynn, J. R. Coleman, John Baxter, 
J. W. Rice, Jas. A, Goodwin, Wm. T. Sherman, W. P. Walhouse, Jas. 
Lawnut, Geo. H. Hubbeil, Jas. E. Estes, Wm. D. McGuire, Jas. 
Kackley, Jas. Oliver, B. W. W. Elam, J. W. Bagley, Wm. Collier, Jr., 
Richard Baxter, Geo. Baxter, C. A. Evans, G. M. Evans, J. Field, J. F. 
Downing, G. W. Hendrix, C. H. Cornwell, J. L. Ragland, D. S. Ilendrix, 
A. J. Spites, C. L. Reynolds, T. J. Coleman, C. S. Stall, G. Songer, J. S. 
Herbert, C. Evans, S. A. Gaines, A. Y. Shanklin, G. W. Gaines, J. M. Eng- 
land, S. M. Haycraft, Chas. Skinner, Tlios. Martin, O. Shinn, R. P. Meuz- 
man, J. A. Lowe, James Wynn, B. F. Fulkerson, B. F. Croome, E. Jones, 
W. P. Cornwell,W. T. Crawford, be and they are hereby incorporated into 
a body politic and corporate, by the name and style of the Grundy County 
Agricultural and Mechanical Society." 

The above order was made of record at the October term of the County 
Court, 1859. Not much was done, and owing to the civil war of 1861 little 
was to have been expected. After the war two fairs were held on the high 


ground just back of the Presbyterian church on Prospect Street, and suc- 
ceeded beyond the expectations of those who had given their time and 
money to make them successfuL This was the first step toward the present 
association which has been so successfully maintained, and its history, its 
trials, failure and success are here given under a new name. 


The history of all successful agricultural, horticultural and mechanical 
associations are due to the intelligence, enterprise and social qualities of the 
people. If they are wanting in these tliey cannot thrive. A unity of inter- 
ests, directness of purpose and ambitious resolves, is the ground-M'ork of 
success. We believe in county fairs. Strong, vigorous competition, a de- 
sire to become the successful competitor, the honest pride which shows it. 
self when the ribbon is gained, is worthy of all praise. There is nothing 
sordid in these efforts to win, only a desire on the part of the exhibitor to 
be known as a successful and skillful worker in the chosen field of his occu- 
pation. These associations have become numerous in every section of the 
country. They bring prominently before the country the advancement 
made in developing the rich resources of our agricultural bonanza, they add 
to and shows the quickening pulse of the hands of genius, sharpen the 
intellect and give hope and encouragement to those who work and delve in 
the labyrinthian depths of the field of science and of art. By becoming 
known to all it encourages all, and thus the agricultural association becomes 
in its field of competiton the starting point of many new discoveries which 
have proven valuable to all classes of citizens. They are in fact the main- 
springs which develop the richness of our soil, the skill of the husbandman, 
the magic hand of the artisan and the mechanic, and last, but not least, the 
intuition, the grace and culture of the glorious womanhood of America. 


This association was first organized March 9, 1868. After several meet- 
ings previous, the assembly of that day was of sufficient character, both in 
number and influence, to form an association, which has proven of incalcu- 
lable benefit to the farmers and stock-raisers of the county. After a full 
consultation and study of the situation the following gentlemen were named 
as the first board of directors of the North Missouri Central Agricultural 
and Mechanical Association: Edwin Ryder, Chas. Skinner, II. J. Herrick, 
G. W. Gibson, Josiah Barnes, G. W. Moberly, C. R. Webster, J. H. Shank- 
lin, J. M. Leedy, Benj. Lockhart and P. H. Yakey. The capital stock was 
placed at $5,000 divided into shares of $10 each. The board of directors 
proceeded to business by purchasing a beautiful piece of ground, twenty- 
two and one-half acres, and fenced it with a board fence nine feet high. 


The grounds have a natural growth of forest trees, are well set in blue-grass, 
water plenty, and the face of the grounds somewhat rolling. 

The first fair was held in tiie fall of 1868, commencing September 30th, 
and lasting three days. The association continued along with varying suc- 
cess for several years. In 1873 an effort was made, it being the sixth an- 
nual fair of the association, to organize a grand district fair, to be com- 
posed of the counties of Livingston, Daviess, Harrison, Mercer, Sullivan, 
Linn and Grundy, but failed. The counties favored a district organization, 
provided each county could have it. but as that could not be, the matter 
was dropped. Gruudy county was central, communication easy, and the 
grounds in good shape, and an association could have been formed by such 
a combination that would not only have been a splendid success, but resulted 
in o-reat and la>tino: benefit to the whole oountry around. It would have 
attracted the farmers and stock-raisers of other States, and they, seeing the 
raao-nificent country here, would have tended largely to an increase of that 
class of population. It was unfortunate and an exhibition of short-sighted- 
ness on the part of the farmers of adjoining counties, not at all to their 
credit. One fair with the combined energies of the farmers in all these 
counties would be worth a dozen smaller ones, and while the latter has but 
a local name and only local eftect, the former would have aroused a spirit 
of emulation reaching far and wide, and north central Missouri would 
long ere this have become noted, as she is yet destined to be, as the garden 
of the State. 

The ambition of the farmers of Grundy county has, however, exceeded 
their financial resources in the advancement of this important association, 
and the stockholders were obliged to succumb to the inevitable. The orio-. 
inal company threw up their charter and another organization was formed, 
takino- raauv of the old members into the new, who had contributed monev. 
time and labor to its varying fortunes. This was in 1876, 


The new organization at once proceeded to business, took possession of the 
grounds, assumed the debts and placed the association on a firm financial 
basis. The following are Jhe names of the stockholders of the new associa- 
. tion: Charles Skinner, Richard Burke, John W. Smith, Peter H. Yakev, 
"Warren Harris, James B. Carnes, John W. Cherry, M. L. Boyles, R. X. 
Belshe, Jacob Goldenburg. Joseph L. Nichols. Judson Davis, John G. Hen- 
ley, G. D. Smith, George H. Ilubbell, William Holt. Elkano Payne, J. A. 
Webster, C. A. Evans, William W. Hubbell, John H. Shanklin, George W. 
]y[oberly. D. P. Miller. A. J. Spitler. I. Brainerd, William M. Pond. Alonzo 
Walker, A. Y. Shanklin, James Austin. George W. Smith. Jacob W. Morris. 
Emory Wild. M. T. Thompson. F. A. Dinsmoor, Henry J. Herrick, Valen- 
tine Briegel, A. JX. Sate, Jacob R. Custard, Daniel Welch, H. M. Anderson, 


William Anderson, E. D. Haley, D. C. Tngh, K A. DeBolt, B. F. Thomas, 
Pleasant W. Bain, W. C. Swayze, K. O. Carscadin, J. 11. Kerfoot, Arthur 
Ilubbell, George Tindall, George Hall, and M. A. Low, 

A board of directors was elected as follows: Charles Skinner, George W. 
Moberly, John W. Smith, James B. Carnes, William Pond, P, H. Yakey, 
A. Y. Shanklin, Elkano Payne, George W. Smith, Daniel Welch, Isaiah 
Brainerd, C. A. Evans, Emory Wild. 

Ojjicers — Charles Skinner,* president; P. H, Yakey,t vice-president; John 
W. Smith, secretary; James B. Carnes, treasurer. 

First executive comniittee — Charles Skinner, P. W. Yakey, J. W. Smith 
A. Y. Shanklin, and G. W. Smith. 


The following constitution was adopted unanimously: 

Article 1. The board of directors of this society shall consist of thirteen 
members, who shall be elected annually. The officers shall consist of a 
president, vice-president, secretary and treasurer, all of whom shall be 
elected annually, at the first meeting of the board of directors. 

Art. 2. The election of the board shall be by ballot, on the second day 
of the annual fair of each year, at 10 o'clock a. m. of that day and the 
directors elected shall enter upon the discharge of their duties the first day 
of January following, and shall hold their offices until their successors are 
elected and qualified. 

Art, 3. The treasurer shall, before entering upon the duties of his office, 
execute his bond to the society in the sum of three thousand dollars for the 
faithful discharge of his -duties and the paying over of all money that shall 
come into his hands, in sums that the board of directors shall from time to 
time order. 

Art. 4. No person shall be an ofii.cer wdio is not a member of the society. 

Art. 5. The annual exhibition of the societv shall be in the months of 
September or October of each year. 

Art, 6. All articles ofifered for premiums must be owned by the persons 
oftering the same, or by the members of his or her family. 

Art, 7. Awarding committees of three persons each shall be annuall}' 
appointed by the board of directors of the society, for judging the difl:erent 
classes of articles oft'ered in competition, and awarding premiums for the 
same. If not present when called, a committee will be appointed by the 
superintendent of that class. 

Art, 8. A list of articles on which premiums are t() be awarded by the 

*Charles Skinner, elected president, was the first president of the old association and the only 
one, and is its president to this day, having been elected annually since its last, as well as its 
first organization. He has proved a competent and faithful otficer. 

tGeorge W. Moberly was elected vice-president, but declined. 


eociet}', shall be published at least a month previous to the day of the exhi- 

Akt. 9. Com})etitors for premiums on crops shall be required to have the 
grounds accurately measured by some competent person, whose statements 
shall be verified by affidavit. 

Art. 10. Premiums on grain and grass crops shall not be awarded for 
less than one acre, and root crops not less than one-fourth of an acre. The 
whole quantity produced on the ground specified shall be measured or 
weighed — root cro])s to be estiuiated by weight (divested of the tops), sixty 
pounds to the bushel, and grain crops to be measured or weighed by the 
usual standards. The rules in relation to other crops are to be agreed on by 
the board of directors. 

Art. 11. When articles or animals are deemed unworthy of a premium, 
the judges must refuse to award one. 

Art. 12. A report shall annually be made by the president and secretary 
to the State Agricultural Society, embracing, first, a copy of the printed list 
of premiums offered and awarded by the society, together with an abstract 
of the treasurer's report; second, the statement of the competitors for pre- 
miums on crops and improvements; third, a report giving a general account 
of the proceedings of the society, the number of members and the prospect 
of its progress, usefulness, etc., a statement of the principal kinds of agri- 
cultural products in the county, and, so far as practical, the aggregate 
amount of the same, the value, amount, price of products in market, and 
such information as may aid the State board in keeping a statistical state- 
ment of the products of our county. 

Art. 13. The constitution may be altered or amended at any meeting 
of the board of directors by a vote of two-thirds of the members present. 


Article 1. All entries must be made by noon of the second day of the 
fair and not afterward, unless by order of the executive committee. 

Art. 2. Competitors for premiums on stock will be required to furnish 
the secretary with a statement of the ages of stock on exhibition, and in 
case false statements are made, the premium will be forfeited. 

Art. 3. No member of a committee shall sit as judge in the class in 
which he may be a competitor, but his place shall be filled by the superin- 
tendent, as in other vacancies, and no competitor shall interfere, or in any 
manner attempt to influence the opinions of the judges under penalty of 
forfeiting any award made him. 

Art. 4. Persons exhibiting contempt for this society, by tearing off the 
ribbon placed upon a premium article or animal by the judges, shall be 
■debarred from competing in this society hereaftei-. 


Art. 5. Awarding committees shall make their reports in writing to the 
secretary, signed by a majority of the same, immediately after their decision. 

Art. 6. Persons having stock or manufactured articles to sell may have 
admission to the ground by paying one dollar for entry of articles for that 
purpose, provided they do not in any way interfere with the operations of 
the society. 

Art. T. All premiums which may be awarded, if not called for within 
thirty days next after the fair, will be considered as donated to the society. 

Art. 8. No animal or article shall be entered except hy or in the name 
of the actual owner, and if done otherwise the premium will be forfeited, 
if awarded. 

Art. 9. No eating-houses shall be allowed on the ground without per- 
mission of the executive committee. 

Art. 10. There must be two or more entries to constitute a ring, and if 
not more than one entry be made, entrance-money will be refunded. 

Art. 11. No fast driving will be permitted on the grounds, and the 
marshal will see that this rule is strictly enforced. 

Art. 12. No person shall have access to the secretary's books, nor shall 
the secretary give information as to entries made in any ring. 

Art. 13. All horses and teams admitted at the gates will be assigned to a 
place within the fair grounds by the marshal. 

Art. 14. The blue ribbon shall designate the lirst premium, and the red 
the second. 

Art. 15. No animal will be allowed to run at large, and to hitch to the 
trees is positively forbidden. A violation of this rule subjects stock to exclu- 
sion from the grounds. 

Art. 16. Evidence will be required of animals as breedei"S that they are 
not barren, and that they have produced offspring within the past two years. 

Art. 17. The marshal shall announce, in the ring, the decision of the 
awarding committee, which shall be final. He shall be chief of police 
with power to appoint assistants and make arrests. 

Art. 18. All keepers of eating-houses, etc., will be required to lay in 
their supplies before 8 o'clock each day. 

Art. 19. The gates will be open at 7 o'clock a. m. of each day, and at 
that time every officer is required to be at his post. 

Art. 20. The exhibition in the amphitheater will commence on the first 
day at noon, and on all subsequent days precisely at 10 o'clock a. m,, and 
continue until the programme of the day is through. 

Art. 21. Until the award has been made, marks of any kind, or other 
indications of ownership, will not be allowed. 

Art. 22. Every article or animal upon the grounds shall, during the 
fair, be under the control of the board of directors, and whilst every possible 
precaution will be taken for the safe keeping of the same, the association 
will, in no case, be responsible for any loss or damage that may occur. 


Art. 23. No person, cxee]>t tlie awarding coinmittc on duty and officers 
of tlie association, will be allowed inside the area whilst the exhibition is 
going on. 

Art. 24. Exhibitors in the amphitheatre must be careful to have the 
entry card in a conspicuous place on the animal, that the committee may 
be facilitated thereby in making awards. 

Art. 25. If it be ascertained that an exhibitor has made, or caused to 
be made, any false statement in regard to animal or article exhibited, or if 
any exhibitor shall attempt to interfere with the judges in the performance 
of their duties, by letter or otherwise, he shall be excluded from competi- 

Art. 26. The exhibition of the stock in the amphitheatre will commence 
at the time and proceed in the order specified in the programme. Animals 
not ready at the proper time and place will be ruled out of competition. 

Art. 27. Committees are particularly requested not tQ give encourage- 
ment to over-fed animals in the breeding classes. 

Art. 28. In judging of blooded stock, regard will be had to the purity 
of blood, as established by size, form and action, and general characteristics 
of the various breeds, making proper allowance for age, feed and general 

Art. 29. Stalls for horses and cattle, and pens for sheep and hogs, will 
be furnished, as far as practicable, to such as are exhibited. Grain and hay 
will be furnished on the ground at prime cost. The stalls and pens are 
numbered and will be assigned in regular rotation. 

Art. 30. The president of the association will wear a white, each mem- 
ber of the board of directors a blue, the secretary a red, and the superinten- 
dent of the fair ground a yellow rosette, and the marshal and his assistants 
red scarfs. 

Art. 31. Any member of the board of directors failing; to attend three 
consecutive meetings, without a good excuse, shall cease to be a member of 
said board, and a majority present at any regular meeting shall have power 
to appoint a successor. 

Art. 32. No spirituous, malt or vinous liquors shall be permitted upon 
the ground or in the neighborhood of the fair. 

Art. 33. No gaming of any kind will be permitted within the enclosure 
or vicinity of the fair ground. 

Art. 34. All officers of agricultural societies and members of the press 
are invited to attend the fair, and will be admitted free. 

Art. 35. An auctioneer will be upon the ground each day of the fair 
to make sales of stock and articles offered, and will charge but a reasonable 
commission for his services. 

Art. 36. The gates to the ground will be opened at 7 o'clock each morn- 
ing of the fair, and the exhibition will commence at 10 o'clock. 


Art. 37. The gate fee will be: Footmen, 25 cents; team and wagon, 
25 cents; horse and buggy, 25 cents; saddle-horse, 15 cents. 

Art. 38. Persons taking premiums in all classes where no entrance fee 
is required will receive two-thirds and stockholders three-fourths of pre- 
miums offered, except in classes A, B, C, Gr and H, where full amount will 
be paid. 

Art. 39. Any horse or mare having taken a premium during the fair 
will not be permitted to compete again for another prize, except in the fol- 
lowing rings; viz., For all purposes, speed, roadsters, brood-mare, "\\dth colts 
by her side, and they can take but two premiums at the same fair, after which 
such animal will be barred from further competition, except as one of a 
matched pair, sweepstakes and speed. 

The by-laws were revised in 1880 by a committee appointed for that pur- 
pose composed of the following named gentlemen : Jno. H. Shanklin, W. 
W. HubbelljK. A. DeBolt, E.Payne and C. A. Evans, and the above is the 
late revision and now in force. 

The officers of the association for the present year (1881) are: President, 
Chas. Skinner; vice-president, Geo. W. Smith; secretary, G. D. Smith; 
corresponding secretary, Geo. Tindall; treasurer, James Austin; marshal, 
W. W. Hubbell. The grounds are about one mile from the center of the 
city, just outside of the limits and within about one square of the Quincy, 
Missouri and. Pacific division depot of the Wabash Railroad. Considerable 
improvements have been made the present season, including a fine, new 
judges' stand, a large and commodious floral hall. A racing meeting was 
held in June, continuing for three days, and the coming fall meeting of the 
association promises to be the best the society has ever held. 


When Organized — First Officers — LAst of Granges — Declaration of Purposes — 200 Waqons 
and 10,000 Bushels of Wheat. 

The success of the order was very great in the county and it was at its 
best in 1874. The order had flourished greatly throughout the State, and 
Grundy county was no exception to the general result. It was, no doubt, 
of great benefit to the people, especially to the farming community, and so 
long as the interests of the farmer and the mechanic were the chief end and 
object of the organization, just so long it flourished, and rapidly added to 
the material interests of the agricultural element of the State and county 
where located. 


The first organization and adoption of a constitution and by-laws for Grundy 
county was on August 30, 1873, and the constitu tion was accepted by a meeting 
of the order in the city of Trenton. A great many granges had been formed in 
the county and the central or county organization became an important fac- 
tor in extending the order until the whole county was a network of granges. 
The constitution and by-laws were perhaps best expressed in the "dec- 
laration of purposes," the minor details relating simply to the rules of the 
local granges. In 1873 twenty-five granges liad been established, and 
reached their highest number in 1874, when there were thirty-four granges es- 
tablished and in full fellowship. 

The first officers of the county grange were as follows: Chairman, E. 
Ryder; overseer, George Spickard; steward, H.Gregg; A. S. steward, C. 
S. Mace; chaplain, J. B. Gass; lecturer, Geo. li. Hubbell; treasurer, J. H. 
Grofi"; secretary, A. Haynes; gatekeeper, IS". "W. King; L. A. S. steward, 
Mrs. E. Ryder. 

The groundwork of their faith was a unity of spirit and of action in all 
things essential, that which was only of personal interest, full liberty in indi- 
vidual action, and charity exercised when wisdom taught that it would do 
good. As these granges flourished and grew within the count}'- a strong 
feeling of friendship between all connected with the farming interest sprang 
up, and to this day there is among the agriculturalists of Grundy county a 
strong, brotherly afi'ection for one another that has grown stronger as it has 
grown older. 

The following are the correct names of the different orders in this 


Oak Bulge, No. 204 — J. Washburne, master; Y. M. Cantwell, secretary; 
Trenton, Missouri. 

Hickory Grove, No. 363— James Weigel, master; John Eagle, secretary; 
Trenton, Missouri. 

Rural Dale, No. 22 — E. Ryder, master; Robert Eveland, secretary; 
Rural Dale post-office. 

Blooming Grove, No. 97 — H. Gregg, master; W. C. Fenner, secretary; 
Rural Dale, Missouri. 

Goodwill, No. 340 — Samuel Wilson, master; Alfred Chapman, secretary; 
Alpha, Missouri. 

Independence — G. G. Jewett, master; J. A. Hall, secretary; Lindley, 

Defiance, No. 1846 — At Winter's school-house, in Liberty township, 
William Bevans, master; S. J. Adkinson, secretary; post-office Lindley, 

Pleasant Grove, No. 1848 — At Pleasant Grove school-house, in Jackson 


Township, Francis Sproull, master; Jas. M. Sproull, secretary; post-office, 
Farmersville, Missouri. 

Lebanon^ No. 1819 — Fulkerson school-liouse, in Taylor township, Josiah 
Cloar, master; J. W. Mackley, secretary; post-office Edinbnrg, Missouri. 

Lincoln^ JN"o. 115 — Aaron Haynes, master; R. K. Carpenter, secretary; 
Trenton, Missouri. 

Eureka, No. 339 — J. B. Gass, master; J. L. Lafferty, secretary; Trenton 

Tlndall, No. 165— James Proctor, master; V. Briegel, secretary; Tren- 
ton, Missouri. 

Prairie Vieio, No. 202 — P. Z. Delano, master; Lelievv, secretarj^; 

Trenton post-office. 

Liberty, No. 164 — D. W. Haley, master; J. W. Root, secretary; Tren- 
ton, Missouri. 

Friendsliip, No. 342 — Wm. Downing, master; J. H. Willis, secretary; 
Lindley, Missouri. 

Bethel, No. 161 — J. H. Merryman, master; C. A. Conrads, secretary; 
Alpha post-office. 

Madison, No. 543 — Joshua Casebeer, master; A. R. Tate, secretary; 
Trenton, Missouri. 

Fair View, No. 471 — S. M. Williams, master; J. M. Merrill, secretary; 
Spickardsville, Missouri. 

Grand River, No. 1573 — H. S. Lewis, master; J. H. Walker, secretary; 

Oriental, No. 163 — Geo. Spickard, master; Wm. Spickard, secretary; 
Spickardsville, Missouri. 

Franklin, No. 162 — N. W. King, master; J. T. Wyatt, secretary; Spick- 
ardsville, Missouri. 

Friendship, No. 2 — Felix Wild, master; P. W. Thompson, secretary; 
Buttsville, Missouri. 

Commerce — Henry Wharton, master; Daniel Wright, secretary; Trenton, 

^\Zmit^/'^—S. K. Witten, master; W. W. Barnes, secretary; Edinburg, 

Jefferson — Wm. Collins, master; J. S. Collins, secretary; Jamesport, 

Muirton, No. 309 — C. S. Mace, master; B. F. Snodgrass, secretary; 
Muirton, Missouri. 

Industry, No. 987 — James Mack, master; Y. J. Janes, secretary; Farm- 
ersville, Missouri. 

Perseverenee, No. 952 — 0. H. Longfellow, master; Hiram Smith, secre- 
tary; Jamesport, Missouri. 

Jeferson, No. 554 master; . '■ secretary; 

Trenton, Missouri. 


Confidence — Nathan Cravens, master; J. J]. lieid, secretary; Trenton, 

North Union — C. Hoffman, master; W. J. Jackson, secretary; Rural 
Dale, Missouri. 

Fidelity — A. Y. Slianklin, master; 13. M. Ford, secretary; Trenton^ 

Harrison — Henry Mason, master; B. C. Oiler, secretary; Trenton, Mis- 

Trenton^ No. 108 — G. H. Ilubbell, master; Warran Harris, secretary; 
Trenton post-office. 

The declaration and purposes of the Patrons of Husbandry, that which 
caused the order to spread so rapidly over the country were of that spirit of 
brotherly love, and opposition to all manner of oppression, which has gained 
the heart of a people reared in the cradle of liberty, and staunch defenders 
of a republican form of government. Could the order have prevented the 
])olitician from becoming a feature in its organization, and the efforts of a 
few aspirants for jjower and pelf to make it a stepping-stone to their polit- 
ical ambition, it would have flourished to-day as it did a few years ago. As 
a political party, its successes were of a transitory nature and local effect, 
yet what reforms they did succeed in carrying out were of essential benefit 
to the great agricultural interests of the country, and it is to be regretted 
that the order to this day is not enlarged and united for the work of reform, 
as declared in its public profession of faith. Believing that these expres- 
sions should not die, and that they are the groundwork of a people's inter- 
ests and prosperity, those principles and purposes for which and under 
which the noble order flourished are given a place in this history. Future 
generations can look back with pride to their ancestors who made these 
declarations the groundwork of their civil and political actions. It will 
show them that the true spirit of brotherly love and noble manhood inspired 
their forefathers of this day and generation. The following is the " declara- 
tion of purposes" as given forth by the order of the Patrons of Husbandry in 
convention assembled: 


" 1. United by the strong and faithful tie of agriculture, we mutually 
resolve to labor for the good of our order, our country and mankind. 

"2. We heartily indorse the motto: ' In essentials, unity; in non-essen- 
tials, libert}^; in all things, charity.' 

" 3. We shall endeavor to advance our cause by laboring to accomplish 
the following objects: To develop a better and higher manhood and woman- 
hood among ourselves; to enhance the comforts and attractions of our homes 
and strengthen our attachments to our pursuits; to foster mutual under- 
standing and cooperation; to maintain inviolate our laws, and to emulate 


each other in the labor to hasten the good time coming; to reduce our 
expenses, botli individual and corporate; to buy less and produce more in 
order to make our farms self-sustaining; to diversify our crops, and crop no 
more than Ave can cultivate; to condense the weight of our exports, selling 
less in the bushel and more on the hoof and in the fleece; to systematize 
our work and calculate intelligently on the probabilities: to discountenance 
the credit system^ the mortgage system, the fashion system and every other 
system, tending to prodigality and bankruptcy. "We propose meeting to- 
gether, talking together, selling together, buying together, and, in general, 
acting together for our mutual protection and advancement as occasion may 
require. We shall avoid litigation as much as possible by arbitration in the 
grange. We shall continually strive to secure entire harmony, good will, 
vital brotherhood among ourselves, and to make our order perpetual. We 
shall earnestly endeavor to suppress personal, local, sectional and national 
prejudices; all unhealthy rivalry; all selfish ambition. A faithful adher- 
ence to these principles will insure our mental, moral and social advance- 

"4. For onr business interests, we desire to bring producers and con- 
sumers, farmers and manufacturers into the most direct and friendly rela- 
tions, hence we must dispose with a surplus of middle men; not that we 
are unfriendly to them, but we do not need them; their surplus and their 
exactions diminish our profits. We wage no aggressive warfare against any 
other interest whatever; on the contrary, all our acts, so far as business is 
concerned, are not only for the benefit of the producer and consumer, but 
also for all other interests, and tend to bring these two parties into a speedy 
and economical contract. Hence, we hold that transportation companies of 
every kind are necessary to our success; that their interests are intimately 
connected with our interests and that harmonious action is mutually advan- 
tageous, keeping in view the first sentence of our declaration of principles 
of action, ' that individual happiness depends oh general prosperity.' We 
shall, therefore, advocate for every State the increase in every practical way 
of all facilities for transporting cheaply to the sea-board, or between home 
producers and consumers, all productions of our country. We adopt it as 
our fixed purpose to open out the channels in nature's great arteries that the 
life-blood of commerce may flow freely. We are not enemies of railroads, 
navigable and irrigating canals, nor of any corporations that will advance 
our industrial interests, nor of any of the laboring classes. In our noble 
order there is no communism, no agrarianism; we are opposed to such a 
spirit and management of any corporation or enterprise as tends to oppress 
the people and rob them of their just profits. We are not enemies to cap- 
ital, but we oppose the tyranny of monopolies; we long to see the antago- 
nism between capital and labor removed by common consent and by an en- 
lightened statesmanship worthy of the nineteenth century. We are opposed 


to excessive salaries, high rates of interest and the exorbitant per cent of 
profit in trade. They o;reatly increase our burdens and do not bear a proper 
proportion to the profits of the producers. We desire only self-protection 
and the protection of every true interest of our land by legitimate transac- 
tions, legitimate trade and legitimate profits. We shall advance the cause 
of education among ourselves and for our cliildren by all just means within 
our power. We especially advocate for our agricultural and industrial col- 
leges that practical agriculture, domestic science, and all the arts which 
adorn the home be taught in their courses of study. 

" 5. We emphatically and sincerely assert the oft re])eated truth taught 
in our organic law that tlie grange, national, State or subordinate, 
is not a political or party organization. No grange, if true to its obliga- 
tions, can discuss political or religious questions, nor call political conven- 
tions, nor nominate candidates, nor even discuss their merits in their meet- 
ings, yet the principles we teach underlie all true politics, all true states- 
manship, and, if properly carried out, will tend to purify the whole political 
atmosphere of our country, for we seek the 'greatest good to the greatest 
number,' but always bear it in mind that no one by becoming a grange 
member gives up that inalienable right or duty which belongs to every 
American citizen, to take a proper interest in the politics of this country^ 
on the contrary, it is right for every member to do all in his power, legiti- 
mately, to influence for good the action of any political party to which he 
belongs. It is his duty to do all he can in his own party to put down 
bribery, corruption and trickery ; to see that none but faithful, competent 
and honest men who will stand unflinchingly by our own industrial inter- 
ests are nominated for all positions of trust, and to have carried out the 
principles which should always characterize every grange member, that the 
office should seek the man and not the man the office. We acknowledgre the 
broad principle that difference of opinion is no crime, and hold that jDrog- 
ress toward truth is made by difference of opinion, w^hile the fault lies in 
the bitterness of controversy. We desire a proper equality and fairness; 
protection of the weak; restraint upon the strong; in short, justly distrib- 
uted burdens and justly distributed power. These are the American ideas, 
the very essence of American independence, and to advocate contrary is un- 
worthy of the sons and daughters of au American republic. We cherish 
the belief that sectionalism is, and of right should be, dead and buried with 
the past. Our work is for the present and the future of our agricultural 
brotherhood and its purposes. We shall recognize no I^orth, no South, no 
East, no West. It is reserved by every patron, as the right of a free man, 
to affiliate with any party that will but carry out his principles. 

"6. Ours being peculiarly a farmer's institution we cannot admit all to our 
ranks. Many are excluded by the nature of our organization; not because 
they are professional men, or laborers, but because they have not a suffi- 


cient direct interest in toiling, or pasturing the soil, or they may have some 
interest to conflict with our purposes; but we appeal to all g ood citizens 
for their cordial cooperation and to assist in our efforts toward reform, so 
that we ma}^ eventually remove from our midst every vestige of tyranny 
and corruption. We hail the general desire for fraternal harmony, equita- 
ble compromise, and earnest cooperation as an omen of our future suc- 

"7. It shall be an abiding principle with us to relieve any of our op- 
pressed and suflering brotherhood by any means at our command. 

'•Last, but not least, we proclaim it among our purposes to inculcate a 
proper appreciation of the abilities and sphere of woman as indicated by 
admitting her to membership and position in our order. Imploring the 
con-tinued assistance of our Divine Master to guide us in our work, we here 
pledge ourselves to faithfully and harmoniously labor for all future time to 
return by our united efforts to the wisdom, justice, fraternity and purity of 
our forefathers." 

A memorial to the patrons in the cotton States was also adopted. It is 
a strong argument in favor of a mixed husbandry in the Southern States 
instead of expending all the energies of the people of that section in raising 
a single staple, and gives several strong reasons why the planters of the 
South should and how the}^ can become self-sustaining. 

It was the grand and noble declaration of principles and purposes which 
gave such strength to the order and caused it in a few short months to be- 
come a power for good in the land; to cause monopolists to tremble and 
extortionists to shake with an apprehension of coming doom. That it 
should so 'soon lose its power is raucli to be regretted, but that its good 
work lives after it, is seen even to this day. The farmers, the mechanics 
and the laboring men have found that they are strong enough to rule when 
joined together in the cause of right, and the same organization will again 
come to the front when monopolists become tyrants and would oppress and 
rob those who are their real benefactors. That it checked the railroad cor- 
morants in their insatiable greed is certain, that the money power felt that 
the Patrons of Husbandry had rights that money kings were bound to re- 
spect was more than once illustrated by the lack of that defiant tone so 
common to those who have secured wealth and usurped power. One of the 
incidents of the organization of the order in Grundy county is worthy of 
record and took place in the early fall of 1874. The grange agent at Tren- 
ton could not make rates with the Ohicasfo & Rock Island Railroad for the 
shipment of wheat. Rates were oflFered by the Hannibal & St. Joe at Ohil- 
licothe which were acceptable. A meeting was called and the result was 
that 200 wagons with an aggregate of 10,000 bushels of wheat tiled in j)ro- 
cession and delivered that wheat to the Hannibal & St. Joe depot at Ohilli- 




Educathiial — E.rpJorinf/ tJie Records — School Orf/cniizadon — Enumpmtion in 1'^47 — Xiiinher 
of Children, ]S53 and 1854 — School Moneijs — Progress from 18G'> — ScJiool Conimission- 
ers — Netv Era — Superintendent's Report— School Fund, 1874 — Steadi/ Growth — Letter 
from State Superintendent — School Fund hif Toirnships, 1875-1876 — County Superin- 
tendent's Report, 1879-1880— Value of School Propcrti/ and Report for 1881—'' The Men 
Who Ilare Guided." 

" Bid him besides his daily pains employ 
To form the tender manners of the boy, 
And work him Uke a w*cen babe, with art. 
To perfect symmetry in every part." 

Schools have been the beacon-h'ghts which liave ilhimined the pathway of 
civilization from the earliest ages up to the present era of progress and en- 
lightenment. Edncation has stood the keystone in the arch of all social 
and intellectual advancement, and as with broad and far-reaching sweep it 
has spread over the world, the arts and sciences of peace have " smoothed 
the wrinkles from the brow of grini-visaged war," and relegated to the 
depths of darkest oblivion the days when conquering armies tread the civil- 
ization of the ancients underfoot, leaving a country devastated by pillage 
and plunder to mark the line of march. Learning stepped in, and the 
physical force of the sword gave way to the intellectual sway of the pen 
raising man to a higher plane and a nobler aim than the mere acquirement 
of athletic accomplishment. Mental power began to be looked up to, and 
from that early day to this, with steady stride the pi-ogress of education has 
been a tour of triumphs " onward and upward" toward the goal of universal 

When the early pioneer first set foot upon the fertile soil and invaded 
the leafy forests of Grundy county, the first thing to engage his attention, 
after the erection of his rude cabin home in western wilds away from the 
bustle of the world, was the thought of a school for his children, and the 
deed followed the thought with immediate action. Then the log school- 
house assumed a prominent place in every settlement, a substantial token of 
the admiration of the citizens for learnino:. 

From these early evidences of a desire for culture sprang the present com- 
prehensive system which has given to every district in every township good 
school-houses and a thorough course of study in the various branches of 
knowledge, and to this infiuence may be traced the industry and pros- 
perit}^ which permeates every nook and corner of Grundy county, aiding in 
its growth and development, until to-day she stands in the front rank 
among counties in the grand old Commonwealth of Missouri, 



In going over and exploring the musty records of tlie past, the first evi- 
dence found relating to schools was in the month of June, 1840, at which 
date the organization of township 61, range 24, into a school-district took 
place, the first section organized for school purposes in Grundy county cov- 
ering what is now known as Trenton township, the most populous portion 
of the county. From this time on schools became frequent, and each town- 
ship boasted of from one to two school-houses. These institutions of learn- 
ing were under charge of the township, each was numbered and was con- 
trolled by a board of trustees, and the chairman of the several boards of 
the township constituted the township school-board to which all questions 
connected with the schools were referred. This system continued in force 
until the year 1875, when the law was changed, giving to each district full 
charge of its own school affairs, since which time the schools have made 
considerable progress. The working of this law, which is still in force, has 
aided not a little in attainment of the present high standard and perfection 
of the schools of Grundy county. 

On the 4th of August, 1846, the County Court ordered congressional 
township 62, range 24, to be organized for school purposes, and on the 10th 
of February of the following year the citizens of said township met at the 
home of Mr. Samuel Kelso, where the necessary arrangements were made. 
Mr. Kelso's residence was near the center of what is now known as Lin- 
coln township, but which at that time was embraced in the limits of Tren- 
ton township. At the same term of court Mr. Wm. H. Robinson was 
appointed school-commissioner for Trenton township, and consequently was 
the first school-commissioner in the county. 


In 1847 a general sentiment seemed to prevail throughout the county in 
favor of a more thorough organization of the school system, and to that 
much desired end, at the June terra of the County Court, enumerators were 
appointed to take a census of the children of school age in the various 
townships in the county, and the following gentlemen were named to per- 
form the duty: James R. Devaul, Franklin township; Samuel Rook, 
Marion; J. L. Henderson, Trenton; Zela Conkling, Jefferson; Jacob Rob- 
bins, Washington; John Priest, Liberty; William Metcalf, Madison. This 
was the first combined effort on the part of the citizens of the county 
toward their one cherished object — a uniform school system, affording ad- 
vantages alike to all portions of the county. 

The following year, 1848, the petitions for the organization of townships 
began to flow in upon the County Court and in March, township 63, range 
24, in Washington township, and township 62, range 22, in Liberty, were 


organized for school purposes, with Elijah Burgess, Wm. Kent and Royal 
Williams as commissioners. About this time the first experience of trouble 
with the finances in Trenton township came up before the May term of the 
County Court, when the directors of school township 61, range 24, filed a 
motion to investigate the schools of said township, stating that a deficiency 
of some hundreds of dollars existed. Tlie investigation was ordered, but 
as nothing further concerning the matter is to be found upon the record it 
is supposed everything was made, or found to be, satisfactory. 

In May, 1850, the citizens of township 62, range 22, petitioned for an 
organization for school purposes. This was the same school-district in 
Liberty township organized in 1848. The petition was granted and Giles 
Songer was appointed commissioner, and A. Beckner, Wm. Ruckee and 
George Smith w^ere appointed directors. In April, 1851, Wm. Linney and 
others presented a petition to organize a school-district in Liberty town- 
ship 62, range 23, which was duly granted. On November 28th, of the 
same year, a petition to organize a school-district of township 60, range 22, 
in Marion township, was also granted, and a meeting for that purpose was 
held at the home of Washington R. Young, near Dyke's Mill, on Medi- 
cine Creek, January 1st, 1852. The next school organization was of town- 
ship 60, range 24 in Trenton township, and in June, 1853, the first meet- 
ing in reo-ard to the matter was held at the house of J. D. Parkins. 


The commissioner's record shows a total of 1,781 children in Grundy 
county in 1853. Of that number the four school-distripts of the municipal 
township of Trenton contained 294; Madison township, with two districts, 
furnished 314; Jefiferson's one district numbered 176; Franklin, with four 
districts, came forward with 244; Marion's four districts gave a total of 246; 
Liberty, with five districts, the largest number in the county, footed up 
259; Washington, with four districts, completed the list with 240. 


The State school money for 1854 amounted to $748.02, which sum was 
divided among the townships as follows; Trenton, $123.48; Madison, 
$131.88; Jefferson, $77.28; Franklin, $102.48; Marion, $103.32; Liberty, 
$108.78; Washington, $100.80; amounting to 42 cents per capita on the 
enumeration of 1853. The township money for the same year amounted 
in the aggregate to $633.86, which was apportioned among the twenty-four 
schools in the county. 


The number of children entitled to the benefits and privileges of the 
public schools in 1854 showed a perceptible increase over the enumeration 
of the previous year, 2,010 names appearing upon the rolls. The State fund 


for 1855, under tlie above enumeration for that year, reached the sura of 
$763.80, an average of thirtj'-eight cents per head. There were $^49.64 of 
township money for the same year. The growth of the schools continued, 
showing gratifying gains in the number in attendance, and also in the ad- 
ditional increase in the State appropriations. The school census of 1855 
gave to the county 2,352 children, and the appropriations for the year 1856, 
which were based upon the above enumeration, amounted to $1,881.60, or 
eighty cents per head, from the State, and $1,260.44 from the townships. 
In 1856 the number of children of school age showed a total of 2,852, 
which formed the basis of the school moneys for 1857, the State fund being 
$2,224.56, while from the townships were received $2,623.84. The children 
numbered 3,226 in 1857, and the appropriations for 1858 showed a corres- 
ponding increase, the county adding, for the first time, its quota to the 
school fund, in the sum of $533.80; the same year the State furnished 
$2,258.20, and the townships $1,963.58. The enumeration of 1858 con- 
tained the names of 3,645 school children, and on the basis of that number 
$2,515.05 was the portion of Grundy county from the State fund, the county 
money amounting to $187.28, and the townships increasing the sum by $1,- 
518.16, for the year 1859. The next information we can find is for the year 

1862. That year the number of children returned was only 2,380, and the 
amount of money received from all sources was $952. The exact manner 
in which this was divided is, unfortunately, not of record. Some districts 
which failed to report got nothing. For instance, in 1856 district Nos. 1 
and 4, township 62, range 22, failed to call for their apportionment for two 
years, and it was given to other districts in the same township; and in 1858 
township 60, range 23, with four schools-districts, only No. 1 reported, with 
thirty-three children, and it got the entire money of the districts, amount- 
ing to $336.37. Here closed the official record, as far as can be ascertained, 
up to the breaking out and during the civil war. In the fall of 1859 a 
school meeting was called for the election of trustees in Union School No. 
1, but in what township or range was not of record. The election was to 
have been held October 8, 1859, but whether it was or not cannot be told. 
November 12, 1859, William P. Warmouth and Elijah Burgess were ap- 
pointed trustees of some school-district. This ends all school reports up to 

1863, when Joseph L. Bush, of district 5, township 61, range 22, was ap- 
pointed, October 6, 1863, trustee for that district. Alexander S. Hughes, 
October 18, 1863, was appointed for district 4, township 61, range 22. E. 
L. Webb, Hiram Richardson and Isaac H. Brown were appointed trustees, 
October 29, 1863, for district No. 1, township No. 63, of range 22; James 
Dunlap was appointed, December 1, 1863, trustee for district No. 3, town- 
ship 61, range 24; H. H. Turner, William F. Brown and Thomas Williams 
were appointed trustees, April 8, 1865, of district No. 1, township No. 60, 
of range 25, and M. S. Pond, Eobert Stephens and John Davis wore, on 


August 7, 1865, appointed trustees of district No. 4, township No. 60, of 
range 25. In some of the townships schools continued regularly, as the 
record of 1862 gives evidence, but there seemed to be but little school 
funds received from any source for that purpose. 


No record of a school-commissioner for Grundy county can be found earlier 
than 1859, when, in September of that year. Judge R. A, DeBolt was ap- 
pointed to the position which he held by election until November, 1863, 
when Mr. Geo. H. Hubbell was appointed, holding the office until 1865. 
Both of these gentlemen labored earnestly in behalf of the educational inter- 
ests of the county, and must be credited with much that is enduring of the 
present excellent school system. 

In 1864 the County Court, at the February term, made an order in regard 
to the payment of principal and interest due on the school fund. The war, 
which had been in progress for nearly three years at that time, had caused 
a rather unsettled state of affairs to exist regarding school matters, and a 
custom had prevailed during the time mentioned of receiving Union mili- 
tary bonds as either principal or interest on the common school fund or the 
township school fund, and the order in question prevented a further receipt 
of these bonds, except from soldiers who had served in the army for them. 
Another order was issued by the same court in June, 1865, instructing the 
treasurer of Grundy county, Missouri, to be authorized to loan the principal 
and interest on hand of Missouri military bonds belonging to the common 
school fund of said count}^, for the term of twelve months, and if not paid at 
the end of that time, to draw ten per cent interest per annum, payable in 
United States treasury notes. 


After the rude shocks and alarms of war had passed away, and Missouri 
had once more settled down to the enjoyment of peace; when once more the 
industries of the State sprang into active life and the busy hum and whirr 
of machinery were heard in cities and towns; when the early whistles called 
the workmen to their labor, and morning light brought bustle and activity 
to the farm, then it was that the never flagging interest in the public schools 
manifested itself, and with undiminished zeal the citizens of Grundy county 
bended their energies to the work of building up the schools which had 
languished during the four years of strife. The schools were put upon an 
enduring basis and the good work progressed rapidly and well. In October 
of 1867 an enumeration was ordered and the result showed a total of 3,584 
children enrolled who were entitled to the benefits of the common school 
and State school funds, and 4,402 w^ho were entitled to the advantages ot 
the township school money. 


The schools, under the nourishing care of an efficient management, con- 
tinued to grow and flourish until, in 1870, seventy-five school-houses lifted 
their chimneys toward the blue vault above, and their walls within echoed 
and reechoed with childish shouts and childish laughter. The schools were 
beginning to form a valuable portion of the county's property, and in this 
same year the round sum of $62,960 was their total valuation. It was in 
1870 that the Trenton high school building was erected, W. H. Smith, con- 
tractor, at a cost of $15,000, $7,500 in cash, and the same amount in school 
bonds. The building is of brick, square and substantial, the exact propor- 
tions being seventy by seventy feet and two stories in height, situated 
on a gentle knoll in the resident portion of the city, well located and con- 
venient in all its appliances. The liistory of its educational management 
will be found embodied in the history of the city of Trenton. ■ 

supekintendent's report. 

The condition of the schools was one of constant improvement. Prof. 
E. C. Norton, one of the best teachers the county ever had, and also super- 
intendent, reported in 1872 eighty primary schools in the county. There 
was one high school (at Trenton), also three select schools and one college, 
the latter Grand River College. One colored school in Trenton, with an 
attendance of twenty-four pupils, completes the school statistics of 1872. 
The total number of children of school age in Grundy county in 1872 num- 
bered 4,549, of which 3,806 attended school. The colored children num- 
bered but 36 in aU. The daily average attendance, 2,617, and the number 
of schools 82, and the number of school-houses 75. There were 97 teachers 
employed, 71 of whom were males and 26 females. The average salary 
paid, $38 per month for the males, and $26 for female teachers. The reg- 
ular income arising from the difterent funds was reported as follows : 

State school fund $ 2,322.00 

County school fund 1,948.00 

Township school fund 1,492.00 

School tax, 1872 8,335.35 

Total $14,097.35 

The total amount of wages paid to teachers was $7,329, and there were 
expended in new school buildings and repairs $3,919. 

The total amount of school fund reported for the year 1872 was $33,- 
288.48. There was little diiference in 1873 from the above yearly record, 
and (5n January 1, 1874, a full statement of the school fund was made. 


While the schools seemed to have flourished and the fund to grow, it was 
evident that for several years there had been a looseness in the management 


of the fund arising out of tiie sales of the sixteenth section. To show first 
how the matter stood, tlie County Court ordered a statement giving the 
school fund as it stood January 1st, 1874. The statement was as follows of 
the amount of township school fund due each township: 

Township 60, range 22 $ 724.40 

Township 61, range 22 987.17 

Township 62, range 22 535.00 

Township 63, range 22 814.04 

Township 60, range 23 818.00 

Township 61, range 23 1,137.85 

Township 62, range 23 895.55 

Township 63, range 2^ , . . 569.98 

Township 60, range 24 1,000.89 

Township 61, range 24 1,564.86 

Township 62, range 24 1,482.57 

Township 63, range 24 820.50 

Township 60, range 25 1,150.87 

Township 61, range 25 884.17 

Township 62, range 25 1,015.51 

Township 63, range 25 653.46 

Total township fund $15,054.85 

Total common school fund 17,339.32 

Total principal $32,394.17 

The county clerk makes the following remarks on the above statement: 
"This is the fund from which interest is derived to support the public 
schools of the county, other than that received from the State and known as 
State school money, and that arising from taxation. Of course more or less 
of this $32,394.17 is worthless, arising from insufficient security and negli- 
gence on the part of the County Court of former years. The County 
Courts since 1866 have taken every ]3recaution to make this fund as secure 
as possible, the present court having just ordered citations for additional 
security on all bonds where either of the securities have removed from the 
county or deceased, and have ordered collections in many cases. They pro- 
pose, also, to engage a competent person to examine into the solvency of all 
the bonds, and report to them at a succeeding term." 

Grundy county had sold up to January 1st, 1873, eight thousand one 
hundred and twenty (8,120) acres of school lands, from the sixteenth sec- 
tion and received for the same $12,560. Of this sum by improper security 
$1,307.71 were lost up to that time. The swamp land which was a part of 
the school fund amounted to 33,255 acres. It is all sold and realized the 
sum of $15,434.23 and of this amount by insufficient security and otherwise 
^1,864.04 were also lost to the county and the school fund. There has not, 
perhaps, been all that care necessary in taking charge of the school fund 


of Grundy county that should have been, yet the County Court has exer- 
cised a judgment worthy of all praise from the fact that nearly all the losses 
have been by failures caused by misfortune in business and removal of secu- 
rities, of which no information was given, rather than by any rascality on 
the part of those who purchased, or their securities. Still a more watchful 
care will not fail to prove of value to tlie school fund of Grundy county and 
of greater credit to the County Court. 


There has been steady progress in the schools of the county, and they have 
continued to increase in number and efficiency. Thg yearly apportionment 
has been more regiilarl}^ called for and the result has proven very satisfactory. 
Some few districts in the county need to elect more thorough men to their 
boards of trustees. No man should accept the position who would not only 
take an interest in education but work for the success of the school. 


The year 1874 opened well for the schools of Grundy county, and not- 
withstanding there are many older counties in the State, very few, if any, 
stand higher in the educational department of the State than this 
county. Exceptionally good teachers, combined with earnest work, have 
given Grundy county a proud prominence in educational matters. Her ad- 
advanced progress brought her into notice, and the state superintendent of 
schools, the Hon. John Monteith, paid Prof. Norton, who was then county 
superintendent of Grundy county schools, the following high compliment in 
the year above mentioned. Referring to tlie change in the county su}>er- 
intendent's office, he says: 

The main defects in the new law are, the assessment of teachers to defray 
the expense of examination for certificates, and the curtailment of the 
duties and pay of the county school officer. The first named defect will 
perhaps be oflset by a very material reduction in the contingent expenses 
of the district, such as the amount thereto paid for blanks and for commis- 
sions to township treasurers, a fact which will create a strong tendency in 
the direction of higher wages. The second named defect is the striking off 
the visitation of schools from the duties of the county school officer. 

This is an unfortunate restriction, and if our citizens are desirous of 
knowing why it was made, let them ask their late representatives. Nearly 
every member and every senator, without distinction of party or section, 
advocated or supported this change. This defect is partially, but forcibly 
offset by a few considerations and facts. 

Experience proves that the most effective influence exerted by the county 
officer upon the schools of his county is the character and quality of the 
teachers he selects, examines and approves. 



Take, for example, tlie condition of the scliools in the county of Grundy, 
wliich will compare favorably with the educational conditions 
of any other county in the State. Tlie superintendent (now commis- 
sioner) of that county has held the office for nine years, and yet, during all 
that time, has drawn almost as small an amount for visitation as has been 
received for this purpose by any superintendent in the State. The secret 
of success in this county lies in the fact that Prof Norton has worked up 
his schools through his teachers. A thorough, practical teacher at the head 
of such an educational force, vnthout visitation, will effect more than can 
possibly be accomplished by an officer selected for political and not educa- 
tional qualifications with visitation. 

The new school law will have a tendency to retain just such men as Prof 
Norton at the head of the schools in each county, far more effectually than 
did the old law. Under the present regulations the county officer is to be 
elected at the annual school-district meetings, when the people are gathered 
together for purely educational purposes. 


The schools for 1875 continued in a flourishing condition, and the total 
number was 84, not counting Grand Eiver College. The school fund for 
1875 and 1876 was apportioned among the several townships as follows: 









City of Trenton 








No. Schools in T'p. 



School Fund. 



































$4,809.30 $4,963.86 

The school population of the county was, in 1875, 6,154. Of this num- 
ber there was an attendance of 5,008; not attending, 1,046. The above we 
find upon the county records, but in the state superintendent's report it is 
given at 4,714, and an attendance of 3,842. Just who is to blame for this 
difference is. not mentioned, and doubtless until this book was published 
the discrepancy was not known to exist. However, this year 1875 was a 
new school law, and the changes and errors are probably due to the new or- 
der of things. While we have given the public school fund for 1876 by 


townships, making a gross sum of $4,963.86, the state superintendent 
makes $3,319.92. The vahie of the school property in the county in 1876 
was placed at $54,750, and the unexpended balance of school money at the 
close of the yeai', $3,522.13. The year 1878 had increased the number of 
school-houses to seventy-eight. There had been some ten thousand dollars 
added in new buildings and repairs, and about two thousand more for the 
necessary apparatus in the different schools. This had been expended from 
1876 to 1878, inclusive. This brought up the value of the school property 
of the county to $86,579. The public school fund for 1877 and 1878 
amounted to $7,110.43, and there were on hand at the close of the school 
year $5,522.60 of school funds. One hundred and sixteen teachers had been 
employed during the year, and the amount paid them was $15,504.55, the 
average salaries of male teachers being $33.02, and of females $23.87 per 
month. There were thirty-eight colored children attended school. 


There was no halt in the educational department for 1879-80. The 
schools increased in number and more teachers were needed to impart in- 
struction, and every effort was to still further advance the popular desire 
and wishes of the people on the part of those who had the schools under 
their charge. The following will show the principal features of the schools 
for the year ending July 1, 1880: 

Number white children between six and twenty years of age 5,149 

" colored children between six and twenty years of age 58 

Total 5,207 

Number attending school, white 4,872 

" attending school, colored 23 

Total 4,895 

Number teachers employed 122 

" of school-houses 83 

" of school-houses rented 1 

" of schools taught 84 

Amount paid teachers $16,314.00 

Amount township fund ■ $14,369.38 

" Co. fund, including $1,235.48, for fines, etc. 24,812.24 

Total $39,181.62 

Amount total receipts for the j-ear $27,177.10 

" total expenditures of the year 22,519.15 

Amount of balance carried to next school year $ 4,657.95 



There is but little to be observed that shows a change for the school year 
ending July 1, 1881, over that of the same date of 1880. The number of 
school children gives a small increase, being a total of 5,393, of which 5,155 
attended school. There were ninety-six white schools and one colored school 
in operation during -the school year, and $18,071 were paid for teachers' 
wages, an increase of $1,754 over the year previous. The eighty-three 
school-houses are paid for, and two houses had to be rented for school pur- 
poses for the year. Other school-houses will be erected soon, as it is not 
the intention to pay rent longer than to get a sufficiency of scholars to war- 
rant the erection of a permanent school-building. The cost of fuel for the 
year amounted to $814.25, and there were paid for repairs and rent $1,235.50. 
Besides the regular school funds (State, county a,nd township), there were 
raised by taxation for the school year just closed, $12,087.77, the school tax 
for the year being forty-two cents on the dollar valuation. The value of the 
school property of Grundy county is $87,231. The average of the counties 
throughout the State is $64,503.52. This shows that Grundy county far 
exceeds this, her excess being $22,727.48, an excess that is over one-third 
the general average. This is a showing that any. people may be proud of, 
and of which few counties can boast. 


the schools of Grundy county to their present ennobling and prosperous 
condition since Messrs. DeBolt and Hubbell closed their duties as school- 
commissioners have each and all been trained, educated gentlemen, who took 
pride in their work, and who by energetic labor and faith in the cause of 
progressive education and a higher order of scholarship have reared a monu- 
ment to their memory that time will not crumble or decay. 

The first who was elected county superintendent after the late war was 
Prof. R. C. Norton, in 1866, and his successors were: 

Prof. John E. Vertrees, elected in 1868 

Prof. Geo. P. Beard, elected in 1870 

Prof R. C. Norton, elected in 1872 

Prof R. C. jN orton, reelected in 1874 

, Prof B. F. Thomas, elected in 1876 

Prof. T. B. Pratt, elected in 1878 

Prof Pratt was reelected in 1880 and is now superintendent, serving in 
his second term and giving untiring: attention to his duties. The interest 
•in the schools of Grundy county is still unflagging, and the desire is to in- 
crease their usefulness by constant endeavor and securing every faculty for 
their progress. And, in closing, would say that the entire educational in- 
terests of Grundy county are grounded upon popular sentiment, enlight- 
ened law and liberal and comprehensive management. 



County Map — Cydone, 1880 — Political — Population and ifb- Increase — Census of 1880 — Com- 
parison—Official Vote of Grundy County, 1880— Tenth District for 1880 — Valuation of 
Property — Assessment by Totrnships, 1874 — Assessment, 1879 — Valuation, 1881 — Immi- 
gration — Grundy County's Advantages. 


The first attempt at a map of Grundy county was one giving the route of 
the proposed Hannibal & St. Joseph Raih-oad, which was sometime in 
the year 1858, and several lines had been run, but not then located. In 
1875 Messrs. John C. Moore & Co., of Quincy, Illinois, proposed to publish 
a map of Grundy county complete, but they failed to perform their self-al- 
lotted task. On their failure Mr. B. F. Thomas took the work in hand and 
finished the same, giving, with the exception of a slight error in Madison 
township, a very complete and correct map of Grundy county, giving dis- 
tricts, townships and town lines, and locating the farms and residences of 
the county as occupied at that time. 


" What at first was called a ' gust,' the same 
Hath now a storm's, anon, a tempest's*name." 

Saturday, April 2'1, 1880, will be a day somewhat memorable in the his- 
tory of Grundy- county. It was a day of sunshine and storm, of gladness, 
of fear and trembling. The storm king had risen in his wrath and swept 
the earth with vengeful hand and a giant's strength. The gnarled and rugged 
oak of centuries bowed before his majesty, the lightning shed its baleful 
ray and lighted up his pathway, and the thunder rolled in unison, making 
hearts leap with terror. 

The morning had been clear and bright, but along about ten o'clock the 
wind began to rise and its moaning voice gave token of an approaching 
storm. The dark clouds began to gather in the southwestern sky, and as 
they arose they grew dark, and black, and more dense. All at once the 
wind died away, the air was stifling in its closeness, the lightning grew 
more vivid and appalling in its intensity and brilliancy, the deep tone of 
the distant thunder came nearer and nearer, seeming to shake the very earth 
in its onward way. Then again arose that moaning sound — the storm king 
was coming, and death and destruction marked his pathway. The clouds 
suddenly became agitated, then began to assume a rotary motion and a funnel 
shape, and the awe-stricken citizens saw that ominous cloud move swiftly 


forward, gathering within its folds, by its whirling motion, all things in its 
destructive path. It was mid-day, but the darkness began to gather, the 
gloom to deepen, and the people of Trenton stood spell-bound. The city 
was directly in the course of the cyclone and nothing but a merciful prov- 
idence saved a large portion of the town from instant destruction. The 
faces of the people assumed a ghastly whiteness, and they stood in a stupor 
as the whirling clouds came rapidly toward the doomed city. They saw no 
way of escape. Thus standing awe-stricken, the people gazed at the won- 
derful sight as though fascinated. They could not turn their gaze away, and 
they seemed powerless to move. All at once the circular mass careened 
and broke, that part nearest the earth rising as if being drawn to the larger 
and blacker clouds above, and passed over the northeast corner of the city, 
deluging it with a heavy fall of rain. The city escaped, but the clouds again 
united, taking a northeasterly course, and destruction marked its pathway 
wherever in its ricochettino; motion it touched the earth. 

It first struck the farm of John B. Gass, who lived about four miles 
northeast of town, and he became the first victim of its terrible power. His 
orchard was nearly destroyed, the trees, being either torn up by the roots or 
twisted oft', went flying through the air. Two of his children and a farm 
hand were caught and wounded by flying missies before they could reach a 
place of safety. The outbuildings were blown away and his residence lifted 
from its foundation and turned partly around, but fortunately without being 
broken. It was a narrow escape for the family. His brother, Lycurgus, 
had his house partially unroofed and met with some other damage, but 
nothing very serious. 

The storm-cloud again arose and was heard of at other places. It struck 
near Edinburg, destroying orchards and fences, carrying away farm imple- 
ments and wagons, nobody knew where, making a pathway bare of every 
semblance of living things, ]^o lives were lost, but the escapes were some- 
times marvelous. 

There was a feeling of relief, and a prayer of thankfulness went up from 
all hearts when the storm swept by and the bright noonday sun appeared, 
and was welcomed with joy. Some damage was done at Jamesport, Daviess 
county, just over the county line. Quite a number of buildings were blown 
down, the fair grounds seriously damaged, and one man severely wounded. 
This closes the record of the only cyclone which ever visited Grundy county. 
Other wind-storms have come and gone, have done some damage, but the 
storm of April 24, 1880, will be known as the only original cyclone ever 
seen and felt in this section of country, and there is a unanimous hope that 
it may be the last. 



There is but little to be said of the politics of Grundy county. Previous 
to the war it was very close as between Whigs and Democrats. The "VVhigs 
"Claimed a very small majority, but popular Democrats like Geo. H. liubbell 
and John C. Gi-iffin were generally elected. The first election which was of 
general interest was in 1860, and in that memorable triangular contest the 
divided Democracy and the "Whigs generally avoided the Eepublican can- 
didate, Lincoln, and voted for Douglas, Breckenridge and Bell. Lincoln re- 
ceived but eighteen votes in the county. This all changed in the presiden- 
tial election of 1864. November of that year began to show serious signs 
of the downfall of the Confederate States, and the votes of that year were as 
decidedly in favor of President Lincoln's second term as they had solidly 
oj^posed his first. The vote stood as follows: For Lincoln, 817, for 
McClellan, seventeen. 

From that day until the present, Grundy county, according to her popula- 
tion, has been the banner Republican county of the State. Now and then a 
Democrat would succeed in getting some unimportant county office, but it 
■wasn't often enough to cause any material change in the general result. 

Sometimes this great majority would be cut down in congressional elec- 
tions. When a citizen of Grundy county got the nomination, local pride 
had something of a force in the vote. 

The elections for 1876 and 1880 tell of a Eepublican majority which 
may be said to stand. The excitement and animosities of the civil war had, 
in a great measure, subsided, and thus is shown its true political proclivities. 
The vote of 1876 was 1,810 for Hayes and 1,113 for Tilden. Li 1880, for 
Garfield 1,917, and for Hancock 1,102. 

From this vote it is clear that Grundy county is likely, for several years 
at least, to remain a strong Republican county, or whatever name the party 
may take. There are but few counties in the State which have been so 
steadfast in their political faith as Grundy, and the outlook is that that 
faith will abide with her people during the present generation. 


The county of Grundy having been organized in 1841, the census of 1850 
gives the first record of her population as a county. This was put down at 
3,006. Daring the next decade the gain in population became more rapid, 
and in 1860 footed up 7,887, a gain of over 150 per cent. This had proven 
satisfactory, but the dark cloud of civil war now began to spread over the 
country, and chaos reigned supreme. Grundy county, like all others, had 
met with demoralization among her people and stagnation in business. At 
the end of the M^ar, in the spring of 1865, the county could hardly boast of 
the population of the census of five years before, that of 1860. Peace had, 



however, thrown the mantle of her wing over tlie country. Grundy county 
took new life, and the car of progress moved more rapidlj' within her bor- 
ders. The winter of 1865-66 brought quite a large influx of new settlers, 
and the remaining four years of the decade, ending 1870, were years of 
prosperity, and the increase of poj^ulation over 1860 proved to have been 
2,680 — the census of 1870 being 10,567. This increase had nearly all been 
received within the four 3'ears mentioned. The following are the census 
returns of 1870, by townships: 

Washington 1,01'x Trenton 2,934 

Franklin 1,029 Jefferson 874 

Liberty 1,036 Madison 1,396 

Marion 2,284 

Total 10,567 

Trenton (town) had a population in 1870 of 920. It was not until the 
Kovember term of the County Court of 1872 that the county was re-districted 
into thirteen municipal districts in place of the seven above named. The 
law known as the township organization law had been passed at the ad- 
journed session of the Twenty-sixth General Assembly of the State of Mis- 
souri, adopted by the people at the following general election, held Novem- 
ber 5, 1872. By order of the (bounty Court at the February term of 1876, 
the township assessors were required to take the population of their several 
townships in addition to their duties as assessors. They did so, and in 
March, 1876, returned to the County Court the following: 


Washington 487 Jefferson 1,022 

Franklin 1,025 Madison 769 

Myres 671 Harrison 581 

Liberty 866 Taylor 382 

Marion 1,139 Lincoln 1,158 

Wilson 900 Trenton 3,442 

Jackson 596 



Total population of the county 13,108 

From the census returns of 1880 the jwpulation of Grundy county, towns 
and townships, has been returned to the United States Census Bureau at 
Washington, and the following received is the official report of the United 
States census for 1880: 


Franklin township including Spickardsville 1,261 

Spickardsville 330 

Harrison township 55T 

Jackson township 540' 


Jefferson township 1,189 

Liberty township ^0 ' 

Lincohi township 1,170 

Myres township ^ ^*^ 

Madison township indnding the town of Edinburg 1,091 

Edinbnrg 1T4: 

Taylor townshi]) ^"^^ 

Marion township, including the town of Lindley 1,307 

Lindley 269 

Trenton township, including the town of Trenton 4,493 

Trenton , 3,326 

Washington township 518 

Wilson township, including the town of Alpha 941 

Alpha 128 

Total : . . 15,201 


Increase of the population of the State as compared with Grundy county 
from 1850 to 1880, by decades: 

The population of the State of Missouri in 1850 was 682,044 

In 1860 1,182,612 

Increase 73 per cent. 

Grundy county, 1850 3,006 

Grundy county, 1860 7,887 

Increase 160 per cent. 

County over State for the decade ending 1860, 87 per cent. 

JState of Missouri, 1860 1,182,012 

State of Missouri, 1870 ^ 1,721,295 

Increase nearly 46 per cent. 

Grundy county, 1860 7,887 

xGrundy county 1870 1,567 

Increase 34 per cent. 


The official figures give nearly forty-six per cent as the gain the past 
decade; Grundy county, thirty-four per cent. Taking the gain then for the 
last thirty years, and Grundy county has far more than kept up her average 
in comparison with the State. Or, in other words the State has gained in 
population in the past thirty years over the population of 1850 about 318 
-per cent. Grundy county for the same time has increased her population 
506 per cent. 


The true population of the United States in 1870 was 38,925,598 

The population of Missouri 1,721,295 

The population of the United States in 1880 50,152,866 

The population of Missouri in 1880 2,168,804 

Missouri is the fifth State in the Union as regards population, only being 
exceeded by New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio and Illinois. In 1850 Missouri 
was the thirteenth, and in 1860 the eighth. In 1870 the fifth, and she still 
retains her position of fifth in 1880. 


The number of ballots cast in Grundy county at the November election, 
1880, taking the vote for governor, showed a total of 3,147; to-wit, Grit-" 
tenden, Democrat, 1,108; Dyer, Kepublican, 1,915; Brown, Greenbacker, 
124. At the same election the following gentlemen were elected to the 
offices named: "Wesley A. Jacobs, State senator; Thos. J. Taylor, represent- 
ative; Gavan D. Burgess, circuit judge; Wm. 11. Wilson, sheriff"; county 
attorney, Melvin Bingham; John E. Carter, treasurer; Isaiah Brainerd, 
Freeman Dunlap, Isaac Washburn, county judges. 

The vote for Congress was between Mansur, Democrat, and Burrows, 
Greenbacker. The Republicans declined to make a nomination, giving 
their support solid for Burrows. The vote was as follows: 


Chas. H. Jos. H. Scatter- 
Mansur. Burrows. ing. 

Randolph 2,963 1,662 .... 

Chariton 2,945 2,077 

Linn 2,040 2,126 .... 

Sullivan 1,737 1,775 1 

Mercer 999 1,055 

Grundy 1,096 1,975 

Livington 1,878 2,354 

Daviess 1,997 2,064 1 

Harrison 1,564 2,196 4 


Total 17,219 17,284 6 

Majority over Mansur, 65. 


At the close of the civil strife all values were deranged, and it was not 
until 1867 that the State Board of Equalization accomplished the work of 
securing, as far as was practical, a uniform system of valuation. Grundy 
county was growing quite rapidly, the influx of settlers in the fall, and the 
winter of 1866 and 1867, was the greatest of any one year. There was evi- 
dence that peace would continue and that the development of the rich soil, 
and the wealth of the coal and mining interests of Missouri would occupy 


the people for years at least. The State was in debt, and there was need of 
mone}' to pay the interest of the bonded debt, the redemption of the float- 
ing debt, and such uniformities in value of real and personal property of 
the State as would in a measure assure to the State a certain sum to meet 
accrued and accruing debts. This was effec ted in 1867, and the rate of taxa- 
tion for the State and State interest tax arranged. 


The assessed valuation of real estate and personal property in Grundy 
county for the year 1867, was as follows: 

Real estate $ 1,601,984 

Horses 174,680 

Cattle. 108,120 

Hogs 39,982 

Sheep 21,079 

Total $ 1,945,845 

The assessment of 1870 shows a very fair, and we might almost say a 
rapid increase for the three preceding years, the total being for real and 
personal property $2,396,127, an increase of $450,282. In 1872 the assess- 
ment of real estate was $1,737,960, and of personal property $844,536; 
total $2,582,496. 

The assessment so far had been uniform, the railroad property forming 
no inconsiderable part of the amount. From January 1, 1871, to May 1, 
1873, the railroad tax had amounted to $46,800. The railroad company 
paid during the same time a tax of $2,545.04. Total railroad tax collected 
$49,345.04; of which, after paying accrued interest and warrants, there were 
left in the treasury to the credit of the railroad fund $5,345.04. 

The valuation of real and personal property in 1874, the only year 
that the assessment was made by municipal townships, as returned, 
is given below so that the assessed wealth of each township may be 
known. The assessment was returned on the 23d of April, and entered 

of record. 


Real and personal property, Trenton township $600,183 

Real and personal property, Lincoln township 255,777 

Real and personal property, Marion township 245,474 

Real and personal property, Wilson township 226,991 

Real and personal property, Madison township 213,271 

Real and personal property, Liberty township 195,578 

Real and personal property, Jackson township 188,991 

Real and personal property, Jefferson township 185,195 

Real and personal property, Myres township . 174,930 

Real and personal property, Franklin township 119,801 * 

Real and personal property, Harrison township 124,035 

Real and personal property, Washington township 112,480 

Real and personal property, Taylor township 71,373 

Total $2,764,07d 


From 1874 there has been s ome considerable variation in the assessment 
of property in the county. Undoubtedly much of the valuation was high, 
but Grundy county was in debt, yet she was prospering and while crops 
were good and prices fair, it was sound economy to lessen the debt and 
save the drain of interest, which is ever a clog to the financial advancement 
of any business, let it be of a person or a municipal corporation. There is 
no disputing the point that a public debt is a curse, and the sooner the 
books can be brought to a final balance-sheet the better for the people in 
the agffreffate. The assessment of 1875 fell short of that of 1874, being 
put down at the sura of ^2,728,649, and the same year the assessed valua- 
tion of railroad property within the county was $321,393.59. The railroad 
company could not see the exact justice of that assessment, claiming that 
it was at least one hundred per cent too high, in fact, they had previously 
returned a valuation of the same property at about $125,000, yet it was 
clear to all that they had erred far more than the assessor in giving in that 
sum. They strove for a reduction of this valuation, and were in a measure 
successful. The valuation of railroad property per mile having since been 

The year 1879 culminated the high assessment, it being the heaviest 
ever known, and the present year's assessment (1881) still falling short 
over $131,000 of the valuation of that year. 

In the assessment of 1879 we find that the returns were made in a differ- 
ent form, and we therefore give it in full. The number of acres taxed, as 
per tax book, was 276,280.27 acres. The real number of acres of land 
in the county is 273,357.39. The excess taxed being added to from 
sections which by rivers were cut short in actual acres; the difference in 
favor of the tax book being nearly 3,000. acres. The stock assessment was 
placed under the head of "all other property." 

ASSESSMENT — 1 879. 

Land, 276,280.27 acres $ 1,601,960 

Town lots, 1,056 357,180 

Money, bonds and notes 237,012 

Banks and dealers 39,500 

All other property 668,897 

C, K. I. & P., and I. S. & M. N 189,141 

Insurance companies 5.938 

Western Union Telegraph Co 1,849 

Total $ 3,101,477 

The amount of tax realized on this assessment was in 

State and State interest tax $12,381.90 

County, including school, railroad, and railroad sinking 

fund, etc .' 48,488.90 

Total $60,870.80 




The assessment the present year has been returned, and the assessors' 

books show in gross the following valuation: 

Valuation of land $1,552,005.00 

" " H. &. St. Joe Eailroad 3,520.00 

" Town lots 376,445.00 

'• Real estate total 1,921,970.00 

" " Personal property 1,037,159.00 

Total $2,969,129.00 

The valuation placed upon the land and machine-shops outside of the right 
of way, was $50,000. The total difference in the valuation of the rail- 
road property within the county is as follows for the years 1875 and 1881, 
thelatter year's assessment being satisfactory: Valuation, 1875, $321,393.59; 
valuation 1881, $215,979; being a reduction of $105,414.59. 


To persons seeking homes in the West the county of Grundy offers many 
advantages over any other portion of the State. Lying in one the northern 
tiers of counties, the climate is a blending of Northern winters with South- 
ern summers, inviting in its healthful results alike to the new-comer from 
any portion of this country. Good health and the pleasurable enjoyment 
of life is the rule in Grundy county. 

The soil is rich and fertile, well watered by running streams. The stran- 
ger has his choice of acres of rolling prairie or well-grown woodland. The 
first is unsurpassed as a grazing land, and offers extra inducements to the 
stock-raiser, whose labor in this direction yields a handsome income. Sheep 
raising may be attended with a success not attainable in many sheep grow- 
ing States. The finest breeds may be said to attain their highest perfection 
in this county, the fleece growing in silky luxuriance, while the meat is 
firm and solid. Horses and cattle are bred with little trouble. The fine 
blue-gra(is pasture lands aiding in the superiority of Grundy county stock. 
Persons wishing to engage in stock raising will find this county very 

All kinds of agricultural pursuits are well adapted to this county, and 
the farmer may feel reasonably sure of reaping a generous harvest for his 
labor. All cereal crops grow here in a greater or lesser degree. "Wheat 
and corn are never failing crops, and as many bushels are produced to the acre 
as in any part of the State. Oats, rye, barley and buckwheat attain a like 

Fruits of every variety grow in the greatest abundance and perfection. 
Orchards are almost as common as pasture lands. Trees growing on the 



rich soil of either hillside or valley are very prolific. Fruit culture is one 
of the most profitable sources of investment in the county, the soil and 
climate being naturally suited to the work. The cultivation of the grape 
may be attended with large profit at a very small outlay. Wine making is 
exceptionally attractive and the extra quality which may be manufac- 
tured from Grundy county grapes finds a sure market at very remunerative 
rates. The horticultural products of this county stand as high as any in 
the State. 

Coal mining is carried on within the limits of Trenton, the county seat. 
The best quality of soft coal may be purchased at very low rates. Trenton 
has direct railroad connections with all the large cities east and west, thus 
offering extra tacilities for the shipment of any kind of produce. These 
roads utilize the abundance of oak timber for bridge purposes and for rail- 
road ties, thus making the forests a source of income. 

There are good schools in every district. The_ buildings are properly 
equipped and paid for. The county debt only amounts to $155,000, thus 
making the taxation light. In fact, all the inducements of splendid farm- 
ing lands at cheap rates and easy terms, with none of the hardships attendant 
upon pioneer life are here found. The people are sociable and hospitable, 
and extend a cordial welcome and helping hand to all new-comers. Your 
politics and religion are your personal property, and you have perfect lib- 
erty to express your opinion on any subject without fear or hindrance. The 
people are progressive, industrious, and mind their own business and give 
everybody else the same privilege. 

To those seeking homes in the towns or villages, here again Grundj^ 
county steps forward with superior inducements. Those who wish to en- 
gage in commercial enterprises will find an ample field for their capital and 
talent. Trenton, the county seat, is the commercial metropolis, and is an 
energetic, bustling little city of some 3,500 inhabitants, always offering lib- 
eral encouragement to all worthy enterprises. Opportunities for profitable 
investment may be found at almost any time. Two railroads, excellent 
hotels, churches, good schools, three newspapers, all kinds of business, neat 
residences, with room for more, are among the attractions of Trenton. 

Then in the northern part of the county, on the line of the railroad, is 
Spickardsville, a flourishing village of three hundred and thirty inhabitants. 
In the eastern portion of the county is situated Lindley, a tliriving town 
with a population of two hundred and seventy. West of Trenton, Edin- 
burg, the seat of the Grand Rirer College, one of the leading educational 
institutions in the West, is situated, and has a population of one hundred 
and seventy-four. Alpha, in the southern part of the county, closes the list, 
a pretty country hamlet of one hundred and twenty-eight inhabitants. 

In conclusion it can be truthfully said that in Grundy county may be 
found suitable locations with pleasant surroundings for almost any pursuit 


a man wishes to follow. He has only to come, view the country, investigate 
its adaptability to his calling, make his choice and settle down to a life 
attended with many pleasures to lighten his labors and brighten his 


Election in 1842 — Sheriffs — Defalcation — Circuit and Countij Clerks — Missing Funds — Cost 
of Suit — Circuit Clerks — County Treasurers — Probate Judges- -Salaries — Members of the 
Legislature — State Senators — Circuit Judges — Circuit and County Attorneys — Judicial, 
Senatorial and Congressional Districts — Congressmen — County Judges- -County Officers, 


The first election for county officers, outside of the justices of the peace, 
took place in 1842, the appointments by the legislature holding until that 


Wm. Thrailkill was elected sheriff in August, 1842. He held his office 
by appointment at that time; was reelected in 1844 and was followed 
in 1846 by Ashley Gulley. Gulley appointed Wm. Metcalf his deputy, 
who attended to about all the business the last year of Gulley's term, Mr. 
G. being in the Mexican War. William Metcalf, at the end of Ashley 
Gulley's term, was elected sheriff, this being in 1848 and was again elected 
in 1850. Mr. W. 0. Harvey came next and having been reelected served 
two terms, ending January 1st, 1856. James S. Estes then came in 
for two terms, 1856 and 1858, and right after him came E. P. Harding in 
1860 and 1862. 


At the August term of the County Court, 1865, Mr. Harding had a final 
settlement with the county as sheriff and ex officio collector, and a warrant 
was drawn in his favor for $428 as a balan ce due him on settlement, which 
was certified to by the presiding justice of the court. There seems to have 
been an error in res-ard to the whole matter, and at the October term of the 
said court the order of settlement was rescinded and a deficiency was found 
against Mr. Harding for the sum of $433.75, as shown by the following pro- 
ceedings of the Grundy County Court, 1865: 

"Grundy County Court, October Term, 1865. 

"Whereas, At the August special term A. D. 1865 of this court, the fol- 
lowing appears of record among the proceedings of said court; to-wit, On 


a final settlement with E. P. Harding, late collector of Grundy county, Mo., 
there was found to be due said collector $428, said settlement embracing all 
the years for which the said collector was liable, embracing the years 1860 
up to 186i inclusive. 

(Signed) Jas. G. Benson, Pres. Co. Crt. 

"Whereas, Edson P. Harding, late collector of Grundy Co., Mo., has 
failed to make settlement with this court according to law and the orders of 
the County Court, the court proceeds to make settlement, which is as fol- 
lows; to- wit, Balance due county $433.75." 

Nothing satisfactory resulted from the abov^e, and it appears that Mr. 
Harding refused to take any notice of the new order of things, and on the 
6th of November, 1865, the following proceedings from the record show 
that the county immediately began suit against Mr. Harding's bondsmen 
for the amount alleged due Grundy county, as given below: 

"Grundy County Court, November Term, 1865. 

"Be it ordered by the court that whereas Edson P. Harding, late collector 
of Grundy county Mo., having neglected and refused to render true ac- 
counts and settle with the court, the court did at its October term, 1865, 
adjust the accounts of said Edson P. Harding, collector as aforesaid, ac- 
cording to the best information they could obtain, and found the balance 
due by said Harding as such collector to be $433.75, and whereas the said 
Edson P. Harding owes the sum of $433.75 with thirty per cent per annum 
until paid and that execution issue immediately. 

"Ordered by the court that Daniel Metcalf, county attorney, bring suit 
against the securities in the Grundy County Circuit Court on the official 
bond of Edson P. Harding, late collector of Grundy county, Mo." 

The case came up in regular order on the next day, Nov. 7th, and was 
continued over until the 15th, as per the following entry on the record of 
said date: 

"Grundy County Court, Novp:mber Term, 1865. 

In the case of Grundy County v. Edson P. Harding the motion came to 
be heard, the parties appeared, by their attorneys and the court doth order 
that the judgment rendered yesterday be set aside and that the cause be 
continued until Wednesday, November 15th, 1865." 

On the 16th day of November the case of Mr. Harding still hung fire, 
and a further investigation of the acounts ran the deficiency up in the 
neighborhood of $2,000, and said sum not having been paid ten per cent 
was added to the amount ten days after date, where the case stood until 
again brought before the court at the December term when the matter was 
turned over to the Circuit Court. The proceedings from the records are as 

306 history of grundy county. 

"Grundy County Court, November Term, 1865. 

"On a final settlement with Edson P. Harding, late collector of Gnindy 
county. Mo., the court finds said collector to stand indebted to the county 
and State as follows; to-wit, To the county $1,925.45 and to the State of 
Missouri $62.98. Also $50 balance on school funds recovered by execu- 
tion V. John T. Hughes and ordered same certified." 

"In vacation Nov. 26, 1865, said Harding having failed to pay the amount 
due within ten days from settlement, ten per cent is added." 

"Grundy County Court, December Term, 1865. 

"Edson P. Harding, late collector of Grundy county, Missouri, having 
failed to pay over the money found due the county on final settlement, it 
is ordered that the clerk make out and certify an abstract of any and all set- 
tlements made with the said collector since September, 1865, and deliver 
the same tcf clerk of the Circuit Court of this county and immediately on 
receipt of said abstract, the circuit clerk will issue execution for the amount 
vs. the said Edson P. Harding, drawing 30 per cent from this date, Decem- 
ber oth, 1865." 

On the first of January, 1864, Orville Moberly took possession of the 
oflBce and continued until the 1st of January, 1868, then came N. A. Win- 
ters for two terms, and following him in 1872 and 1874 was R. E. Boyce. 
S. J. Atkinson was sheritf from Januarj^ 1st, 1877, to January 1st, 1881, and 
the present sheriff is "W. H. Wilson, who was elected in November, 1880. 
This closes the list of sheriffs. 

CIRCUIT and county CLERKS. 

There were not so many changes in this office as in that of sheriff. It is 
an office, or was at that time, that required a knowledge of the routine bus- 
iness of the court and when once learned the court or courts seldom wanted 
a change. A clerk well (jualified and thoroughly knowing his business was 
a valuable person to have around either circuit or county judges, and espe- 
cially when the many changes in the county judges took place an able and 
willing clerk made the new judges feel at home. In fact, he would show 
them how it was done. The first circuit and .county court clerk was Thos. 
W. Jacobs and his name is pretty often found in this history because he 
held the position for several years and in the early records which have been 
liberally copied from, his name, so far as the clerk 's office is concerned, was 
always attached. He held the office from the date of his first appointment 
in 1841, to January 1st, 1848. The Hon. Geo. H. Hubbell was then elected 
and took charge of the office at the latter date. He proved a model clerk 
and held the position for nearly seventeen years. In 1865 the offices 
throughout the State were vacated by law, and in this county the offices of 
circuit clerk and county clerk were divided, each having its own clerk, in- 


stead of one to fill both offices. Gov. Tlios. C. Fletcher appointed N. T. 
Doane circuit clerk and E. P. Harding county clerk. 


The ap])ointTnent of E. P. Harding was not satisfactory, and it was also 
said to be illegal, and the case was brought before the Circuit Court; that 
court decided against the appointment, and Gov. Fletcher withdrcAv the 
name and gave the office to R. P. Carnes, who held and filled its duties 
acceptably until 1870. In this latter year "Wm. H. Roberts was elected 
clerk, and was again elected in the election of 1874. In the spring of 1876 
Mr. Roberts was found to be short in his accounts, failing to pay over to the 
county treasurer sundry fees, amounting in all to $1,917.95. Besides this, 
certain dram shop and billiard licenses were not to be found of record, and 
it appeared pretty clearly to the County Court that a serious defalcation had 
taken place. Mr. Roberts resigned, and the court employed counsel to 
assist the county attorney to recover from the bondsmen of Roberts the 
amouTit lost, stolen or missing. The net result was not, it seems, very 
encouragino^. The suit of record stands as follows: 

Total debt due by Roberts $1,917.95 

Amount short on licenses, not known. 


Retainer fee, Shanklin, Low & McDougal $ 50.00 

This firm's account was $700, allowed 450.00 

One fee bill of. 111.25 

Another fee bill of 114.30 

A discount on the original bill 215.95 941.50 

Net amount $976.45 

This was the net amount received by the county, and in addition to this 
the court received a letter of resignation and apology from the defaulting 
clerk, which was placed upon the records. 

On receiving the resignation of Mr. Roberts, Mr. E. B. Cooper was 
appointed temporary clerk for that session, and the court elected D. C. Pugh 
to fill the vacancy. However, Mr. Pugh failed to get the seat warm, as 
S. L. Harvey was appointed by Governor Hardin. It might be mentioned 
here by way of explanation that Governor Hardin and Clerk Harvey were 
Democrats, and the genial Pugh wasn't. Mr. Pugh vacated the office, but 
promised his friend and successor, Mr. Harvey, that he would see him again. 
Mr. Pugh fulfilled liis promise, and made a new year's call on Mr. Harvey 
January 1, 1877, which was duly acknowledged, and Mr. Pugh took his seat 
as county clerk by and with the consent of the people of Grundy county. 
Mr. Pugh was again elected for four years in 1878, and few counties in the 
State can boast of a better officer or a more perfect gentleman than D. G. 



The separation of the circuit clerk and county clerk's office, and forming 
two in place of one, resulted, as before stated, in Governor Fletcher ap- 
pointing N. T. Doane to the position of circuit clerk, who held the same 
until January, 1867. The election of 1866 being in favor of A. K. Sykes, 
who held tlie office for four years, and was again elected in 1870. In 
1874: Mr. J. B. Berry was elected to succeed Mr. Sykes, and in 1878 he 
managed to " pull through " and succeed himself. Mr. Berry proved a 
trifle more popular than was supposed, for it was intended that four years 
would end his clerkship. But mistakes will happen, and this particular 
mistake was perfectly satisfactory to Mr. Berry, and to this gentleman we 
are under obligation. 


The first county treasurer of Grundy county was one of the old pioneers, 
Mr. James R. Merrill. He held the office from the organization of the 
county, in 1841, until September, 1846. George W. Moberly was then ap- 
pointed by the County Court as treasurer, and performed the duties accept- 
ably to the court until his resignation, in August, 1848. Mr. James Austin 
was appointed to succeed Mr. Moberly, and held the same until February 
1, 1856, when he, too, resigned. Then followed in the order named: first, 
George M. Cooper, appointed February 1, 1856; S. Isom, elected August, 
1858; James R. Merrill, appointed April, 1862; Houston Renfro, elected 
November, 1862 ; William C. Benson, appointed February 3, 1863 ; William 
C. Benson, elected November 1, 1866: William C. Benson, elected Novem- 
ber, 1868; Robert A. Collier, elected November, 1870; Hugh S. Carnes, 
elected November, 1872; R. E. Boyce, elected November, 1874; William 
P, Lafferty, elected November, 1878; John E, Carter, elected November? 
1880, present treasurer. 


The first record or entry upon the records for probate judge was August 
7, 1849, and William Renfro was so designated. Just how long he held 
the office is not stated, but J. H. Shanklin was his successoj-, and Mr. 
Shanklin resigned June 5, 1855. Mr. Richard H. Musser was appointed to 
the vacancy, which he held until the August election of 1855, when John 
B. McDonald was elected for six years from date of said election. He, how- 
ever, held the office only about two years, when he resigned, and the County 
Court appointed as his successor Mr. Stephen Peery. Mr. Peery filled out the 
unexpired term and was elected probate judge August 6, 1861. Following 
Mr. Peery came William Metcalf, elected in 1863; D. C. Gibbs in 1865, 
and A. H. Burkeholder in 1866. During Judge Burkeholder's term the 
probate judge was made, January 14, 1867, ex officio president of the County 
Court, but the same was discontinued in 1870. Judge Geo. Hall was elected 



in 1870, succeeding Judge Burkeliolder, and Judge Hall held until the 
election of 1878, when the Hon. P. C. Stepp was elected as his successor, 
and is the present incumbent in this, the year of our Lord 1881. 


The salaries of the county officers are sufficient for a comfortable living, 
but not to warrant any extravagant enterprises, such as opening banks (un- 
less with a jimmy), or building palatial residences. The county clerk gets 
lifteen hundred dollars, if his fees amount to that much, and he is allowed 
a deputy at six hundred; the circuit clerk also gets wages to the amount 
of lifteen hundred dollars a year, provided the fees of the office amount to 
that sum, if they do not the circuit clerk falls short just that amount. All 
over lifteen hundred dollars he has to return to the county, the same as the 
county clerk, but if it fall short the county, for the people's interest, makes 
no provision to make up the balance, and it never does. The circuit clerk 
is also allowed a deputy at six hundred dollars a year. 

The collector, sherifi', assessor, and judge of probate, all receive fees or 
per cent, while the county attorney gets a salary of six hundred dollars and 
fees. The question of economy on the part of the several county courts, 
since the inception of Grundy as a county, has been a marked character- 
istic, and in many instances their prudence, caution and economy have been, 
it might be said, i-educed to a science. The only way anyone connected 
with managing county affairs can get rich, is either by stealing or resign- 
ing, and there have been one or two notable examples of each. 


The next in order to congressmen and State senators, comes the members 
of the lower house, and this member particularly represents the people. 
He comes directly from them and is their local servant to look after their 
pecuniary, social and political rights, and to secure to them the full priv- 
ileges of a citizen of the Commonwealth. 

The first election for the legislature, and in fact for an}' county office, 
excepting justices of the peace, and they may be styled more correctly as 
township officers, was August 2d, 1842. Major John C. Griffin, yet living 
in the city of Trenton, had the honor of being the first representative to the 
legislature from Grundy county. Major Griffin has held many other offices 
in the gift of the people, and in all has he done justice to them and reflected 
credit upon himself. Major Griffin served two terms, and was succeeded by 
Dr. James Livingston in 1846, serving also two years, and giving way to 
the brave and gallant Jacob T. Tindall, in 1850. Edson P. Harding was 
elected in 1852 and reelected in 1854, and was followed in succession by the 
following gentlemen, each holding but one term and in the order named: 
Wm. H. Nelson, John Cullei-s, Wm. D. McGuire, E. L. Winters, Lewis 


Myers. J. B. Freeman was elected in 1866 and reelected in 1868. Then 
followed Geo. H. Ilubbell, who was the author of the township law, which 
has proven of so much practical use to tlie people. He was, also, highly 
complimented in the Ivansas City Times^ as one of the most prompt and 
efficient legishitors in the session in which he served. E. F. Horton suc- 
ceeded Mr. Hnhbell in 1872, followed by K. C. Young in ]874. In 1876 
Mr. Paris C. Stepp stepped to the front, but concluded to remain only one 
term, Mr. Benjamin Lockhart taking- the position of the late incumbent in 
187S, when be declined to serve longer, as the election count of 1880 had 
proved that Thomas J. Taylor was elected, and he is now the member-elect. 


Tlie first senatorial district to which Grundy county was united and formed 
apart, was composed of the counties of Macon, Linn, Livingston and Grundy. 
This was in 1842. The next change put Grundy in an entirely separate 
district, which was composed of the counties of Daviess, Harrison, Mercer 
and Grundy. The legislature of 1862-63 again changed the district, and 
the following counties formed the Fifth State senatorial distinct: Carroll, 
Livingston, Grundy and Mercer. TJiis senatorial district remained until 
the session of the legislature of 1880-81. The legislature, failing to pass a 
re-districting act as required by law, in the census of 1880, it devolved upon 
the governor, secretary' of state and attorney-general to do so, as required 
by section seven, article four, ot the new constitution. Grundy was 
then associated with Livingston, Mercer and Putnam, the four composing 
the Fiftli State senatorial district. The names of the State senators who 
have represented the senatorial district of which Grnndy constituted apart 
are as follows: to-wit, 

Dr. John Wolfscale, Livingston county ... 1842. 

Jewett Norris, Grundy county 1846. 

Jolm C. Griffin, Grundy county 1850. 

Jewett Norris, 'Grundy county 1854. 

Wm. H. Lyda, Grundy county ... 1858. 

Jewett Norris, Grundy county 1862. 

Dr. John Ellis (two years), Livingston county 1866. 

W. B. Rogers, Grundy count}' 1868. 

M. T. J. Williams, Carroll county 1872. 

A. H. Burkeholder, Grundy county 1876. 

Wesley A. Jacobs, Livingston county 1880. 

So far as senatorial representation is concerned, Grundy county has noth- 
ing to complain of. She has lield the position seven times to the remain- 
ing counties' four, which is a very pretty compliment to the ability of her 



At the time of the ori^anizatiou of Grundy county in 18-il, James A. 
Clark held a commission as circuit judge, and he presided at the first ses- 
sion of the court held in the county, in April, 1841. Judge Clark held the 
position until 1862, when he resigned, having held some twenty-five years. 
The State convention which convened June 2d, 1862, passed an act embody- 
ing an oath which Judge Clark declined to take, hence his resignation. 
Jacob Smith, of Linneus, Linn countj^ was appointed Judge Clark's succes- 
sor, and he held the position until the election of E-. A. DeBolt, of Trenton, 
Grundy county, who took the office of judge on January 1st, 1864:, and 
held it until January 1st, 1875. The election of 1874 resulted in the 
choice for circuit judge of G. D. Burgess, of Linneus, Linn county, who 
was reelected in 1880 and is the j^resent incumbent. 



The first circuit attorney after the organization of the county was Benj. 
F. Stringfellow, who attended the first court in the county in April, 1841. 
Wesley Halleburton, Robt. D. Morris, John C. Griffin, Daniel Metcalf and 
L. W". Wright followed in succession, when, under the new constitution the 
office was done away with. These circuit attorneys acted in many cases as 
ex officio county attorneys. The County Court of Grundy county some- 
times appointed count}" attorneys and then again they did not. J. F. Tin- 
dall served as county attorney from 1855 to 1859; who, if anybody, served 
during the war is not of record. Daniel Metcalf, John M. Yorris, Fred. 
Hyde, A. H. Burkeholder, II. J. Herrick, Stephen Peery, serving since, and 
Melvin Bingham in 1880. 


Grundy county is in the Eleventh judicial district, composed of the fol- 
lowing counties; to-wit, Chariton, Linn, Sullivan, Mercer and Grundy, 
The Circuit Court for this county is held on the third Monday in April, 
and on the first Mondays in August and January. This is the law of 1881, 
which made a change in the time for holding the court in this county. 


The State senatorial district is the Fifth. 

The congressional district is the Tenth. 

The judicial district is numbered the Eleventh. 


There were no separate congressional districts in the State up to and in- 
cluding 1860, but the congressmen were all elected upon a general ticket. 
As far back as 1844 an attempt had been made to district the State. Con- 


gress liad passed a law in its session of 1843-44 dividing the State into five 
congressional districts, the number of members to which Missouri was then 
entitled, but the State legislature of 1844 declined to do so on the ground 
that Congress did not have the right or power to pass the law, but that it 
was entirely a State matter. However, the question was given to the people 
to vote upon in conjunction with one to amend the State Constitution. 
They defeated the constitutional amendment in August, 1846, by 9,000 
majority. At the State convention held in 1862, this district was numbered 
the Seventh, and the following counties were included within its bounds: 
Atchison, Holt, Nodaway, Andrew, Buchanan, DeKalb, Gentry, Daviess, 
Harrison, Mercer, Putnam, Worth, Sullivan, Grundy and Livingston. It 
had, also, before this been called the Third district. At this time, 1862, the 
census had given the State nine congressmen, and this remained until the 
new apportionment rendered necessary by the census of 1870. The cen- 
sus that year gave the State thirteen members of congress, and Grundy 
county was placed in the Tenth district, composed of the following coun- 
ties; viz., Randolph, Chariton, Linn, Sullivan, Mercer, Grundy, Livings- 
ston, Daviess and Harrison, nine counties in place of fifteen as in 1860. 
Missouri will gain one member if the house of representatives shall consist 
of 309 members, or over, up to 325, the highest number mentioned in con- 
nection with the new census that will be voted for. Under 309 Missouri 
will retain her present number of congressmen, thirteen, making the re-dis- 
tricting of the State unnecessary. 


The names of the members of congress who liave represented more par- 
ticularly this section of the State, and might be considered as the congress- 
men who served for this district, are as follows: 

John Bull, Howard county, 1832 to 1834. 

Albert G. Harrison, Callaway county, 1834 to 1839. 

John James, Callaway county, 1839 to 1844. 

Sterling Price, Chariton county, 1844 — resigned. 

Wm. McDaniel, Marion county, unexpired term. 

James S. Green, Lewis county, 1846 to 1850. 

Willard P. Hall, Buchanan county, 1850 to 1852. 

James J. Lindley, Lewis county, 1852 to 1856. 

Jno. B. Clark, Howard county, 1856 to 1861 and expelled. 

Benj. F. Loan, Buchanan count}', 1862 to 1868. 

Joel F. Asper, Livingston county, 1868 to 1870. 

Isaac C. Parker, Buchanan county, 1870 to 1872. 

Ira B. Hyde, Mercer county, 1872 to 1874. 

Eezin A. DeBolt, Grundy county, 1874 to 1876. 

H. M. Pollard, Livingston county, 1876 to 1878. 


(t. F. Rothwell, Rcindolph eouiity, 1878 to 1880. 

Jas. H. Burrows, Raudolpli county, 1880 — })resent incunibent. 

Grundy county has been l)lessed but a very few times with lier choice, as 
shown by lier vote, in the matter of congressmen, but what she lias lost in 
congressional timber her majority vote has made up in local sway. 


It has been impossible to get a complete list of the county judges between 
184:1 to 1846, no record having been kept — or being recorded on paper in- 
stead of in a book it has been lost. We give, liow^ever, nearly a complete 
list from the latter date. They are as follows : 

1839 — Dr. Wm. P. Thompson, of Madison township, and D. H. Dunker- 
son, of Taylor township, justices of Livingston County Court. 

184] — Jewett Norris, Robert Peery, Isaac J. Harvey and Benj. F. Wood. 

1846— Benjamin F. Wood, Al)raham Field, Carter B. Whitfield and 
James R. Merrill. 

1850 — Giles Songer, Abner Drinkard and James E. Merrill. 

1851-52— E. P. Harding, B. F. Wood, G. Songer. 

1853-54 — Giles Songer and Wm. Collier. 

1854-58 — G. W. Parker, Andrew Evans and Jas. Tolson. 

1858 — Zela Conkling, Abner Drinkard and Casey Tate. 

1860— S. Brooks, J. F. Downing and C. S. Reynolds. 

1862 — March 12th, Abner Drinkard resigned and John McIIargue was 
appointed and officiated until the following November, when James G. 
Benson was elected. 

1864— Wm. B. Dillon. 

1865 — May 1st, Casey Tate, Wm. B. Dillon and Jas. G. Benson ap- 
pointed by the governor. 

1866 — George A. Spickard and W. Y. Denslow. 

1870 — Gabriel Williams, two years; George W. Moberly, six years; 
James McLain, four years. 

1873 — Under new township law, five judges were elected at large, Val- 
entine Briegle, four years; 1st district, Clement A. Conrads, four years; 2d 
district, Felix Wild, two years; 3d district, Casey Tate, one year; 4th- dis- 
trict, Marshall Huinphreys, four years. 

1877 — C. A. Conrads, Charles Skinner and C. P. Brandon. 

1878 — James G. Benson, William Pond and Isaiah Brainerd. James G, 
Benson died before taking oath of office and T. B. Harber was appointed ■ 
bv the a-overnor. 

1880 — Isaiah Brainerd, Freeman Dunlap and Isaac Washburn. 



Bepresentative—Thova^^ J. Taylor. 

Judge of Frohate — Paris 0. Stepp. 

Presiding Judge County Court — Isaiah Brainerd. 

First District County Judge — F. Dnnlap. 

Second District County Judge— \. Wasliburn. 

Sheriff— ^. II. Wilson. 

Collector— B. F. Harding. 

Circuit Clerk and Becorder—Zwo. B. Berry. 

County Clerk — David C. Pugh. 

Frosecuting Attor7iey — M. Bingham. 

Coroner — C. L. Webber. 

Assessor — J. W. Conduit. 

Fuhlic Administrator — G. L. Winters. 

Treasurer — J. E. Carter. 

Surveyor — C. K. Brown. 

School Superintendent — T. B. Pratt. 


Description— Boundary— Frsi Election— Steady Progress— The Coming Storm— Railroad 
Fever— Qiiincy, Missouri d- Pacific Railroad— $40,000 Raised— Rejoicing— Schools— 

Trenton township is the banner township of the county in population 
and wealth, and, like Lincoln, is a central township, well watered, well tim- 
bered, rich in soil, fruitful yield, and has within its borders the only coal 
mine in the county. It has also a stone-quarry about two and a half miles 
from the county seat where an extra quality of line bnilding stone is pro- 
cured. It is heavily wooded on the ban ks of the Grand River and other 
streams which traverse its territory, and its bluffs along the river banks are 
of a broken and rocky nature. Next to Jackson, it is the best watered 
township in the county. Grand River runs through its entire western bor- 
der north and south. Muddy Creek and Honey Creek each also pass through 
it north and south, the former west and the latter to the east of the center 
of the township, while No Creek touches its southeastern border, crossing 
into Marion township about three miles from its southern line. 



It is bounded on the west by Madison, and a ccrner of Harrison townships; 
nortli by Lincoln: east by Marion, and south by Jackson. It has an ex- 
treme width of eight miles east and west, and six miles north and south, 
with forty-eight sections of land, in all 29,760 acres. 

The first settlers were Levi and Rachel Moore and quite a large family. 
Mr. Moore was also accompanied, as stated, by his sons-in-law. They 
settled on what is now a part of the city of Trenton. The most of th6 early 
history of Trenton and also of the city of Trenton is part and parcel of the 
county history in its early day. Its development and growth are blended so in- 
timately with that of the count}^ that a history of one is the record of the 
other. The first death, Mrs. Devaul; the first birth, Minerva Thrailkill; the 
first cabin and first store; the group of early se'^tlers, Moores, Thrailkill, 
McAfee, Cochran, Benson, and others, all represent not only Trenton town- 
ship, but the early history of the county and the first settlement of the city 
itself. The first corn planted in Trenton township was on the bottoms now 
occupied by the railroad machine-shops, and was nearly destroyed by pig- 
eons, there being a pigeon roost a short distance away. There were literally 
millions of them, and the limbs of the trees broke down with their weight, 
and the noise of their wings while flying or fluttering could be heard a great 

The dress of the early period was coon-skin cap, deer-skin pants, and 
moccasins. The living, corn bread, and for meat, wild game; and for 
months there was nothing to disturb the monotony ofWaily lilie. The ring 
of the woodman's ax or the crack of his rifle was all that was heard. How- 
ever, all that was to be found of progressive civilization was right here in 
this settlement. They had hand corn-mills, saws, broad-axes and such im- 
plements of advanced progress. The first hand corn-mill ever taken to 
Lincoln township, was purchased of Daniel Devaul by Jesse Bain, and taken 
to the Bain-Kelso settlement, some six miles northeast of Lomax Store. It 
was the point in the county which it was conceded that all business would 
radiate from, and although a strong fight was made a few years later, on 
the location of the county seat, nature had given to Lomax Store and Tren- 
ton township the appointed spot. 

The first election in Trenton township, and one of the first two held in 
Orundy county, was at the house of Daniel Devaul, on the 27th day of 
May, 1837. On the same day, at the house of Wm. Peery, in the Thomp- 
son settlement, on the west side of the river, was another election, and these 
two were the first ever held on the soil of Grundy county. The judges in 
the township were Daniel Devaul, John Thrailkill and Wm. Cochran. 
James R. Devaul, son of Daniel, was clerk. This township was then known 
^as Muddy Creek township, the name having been given it on the 7th of 



April, 1837, and its territory comprised all the land east of (-Jrand River, 
and the East Fork, afterwards known as Weldon Fork, to the Iowa State 


The next election was lield in May, 1838, and this election was of more 
local importance, being for the election of justices of the peace for Muddy 
Creek township. Three of these necessary adjuncts to civilization were 
placed upon a ticket and elected. Their names were John Thrailkill, Samuel 
Benson and Wm. Cochran. In 1839, General or Dr. Wm. P. Thompson, 
of Sugar Creek township, and D. II. Dunkerson, of Jefferson township (but 
a part of that township included congressional township iifty-nine, range 
twenty-five), were elected county judges of Livingston county, and among 
the first acts of that Livingston County Court, of which Dr. Thompson was 
the presiding judge the next two years, was to cut up these two townships, 
whose limits extended to the Iowa State line, into several smaller ones, of 
which the names and metes and bounds will be found in the general history 
of Grundy county. Yet this part of the township was still known as 
Muddy Creek township, so far as the records are concerned, nntil the organ- 
ization of the county, January 29, 1841. The first school land ordered 
sold in Grundy county, was in August, 1838, and the land was the sixteenth 
section in Trenton, township sixty-one, range twenty-four. The first road 
laid out in Grundy county was from Chillicothe, in Livingston county, 
through the present township of Trenton, to the south line of section thirty- 
five, of congressional|^ownship sixty-one, of range twenty-four. The peti- 
tion to view said road was granted August 20, 1838, and the reviewers 
appointed were James Conner, William Evans and Francis Preston. Geo. 
Tetherow presented the petition, and right where that road stopped was 
where the said Geo. Tetherow, three years later, made his gallant fight for 
the location of the county seat. It looks as if Mr. Tetherow had a pretty 
lonff head, and made his calculations sometime before it was necessarv to 
carry them out. James S. Lomax got his license for selling goods and liquor at 
retail in 1838, and from the month of June, that year, the city of Trenton 
was first named, though for several years after it was known as Lomax Store, 
and was so quoted in all legal documents. It was also called Bluft" 
Grove, but no legal documents liave been found with that name on them. 
The first school section organized in Grundy county was in Trenton town- 
ship, in June, 18-10. James P. Merrill was appointed school-commissioner, 
and Martin Winn and Samuel Benson were appointed school-inspectors. 
They were to meet at Lomax Store, at the house of James S. Lomax. It 
is thus seen that Trenton township, or what is now known as Trenton, was 
the initial starting jjoint of nearly every important step in the onward prog- 
ress of the county. All this, of conrse, was in a measure the result of its 


central location, and the fact that the business of the county seemed to 
drift naturally to this point. The township settled faster and improved 
more rapidly than any other part of the county, and where Trenton town- 
ship is spoken of at that time in its history, the greater part of the present 
township of Lincoln was included. 


The organization of the county and the permanent location of the county 
seat which was decided in the December term of the Circuit Court in 1841, 
the case of Tetherow having been at that term thrown out of court, gave 
stability to the town of Trenton which then began to grow, and from that 
time on there was but little to record in the history of the township. New 
settlers arrived, and when the Mexican War broke out this township led in 
the number of recruits and the first companj^ was organized in this town- 
ship. Not all were from here, but a majority over any other single town- 
ship in the county. And here again we find much of record that, while a 
part of the township history, is, perhaps, more correctly placed in that of the 
county where it will be found. The wild rush for the golden-shore in 1849 
and 1860, found many from this township added to the throng who made 
their way to the land of promise, and many who left found homes in the 
new State on the wild Pacific shore. Jas. S. Lomax, whose name is familiar 
to all in the early history of the county, and who stood prominent and 
foremost in pushing forward the interest of Trenton township and town, is 
still a resident of that far oif clime. Daniel Devaul, whose name is also 
identified prominently with Trenton's early history, remained in that coun- 
try, and was buried in 1871 in the land of his adoption. Other names 
might be added until the list would number a score or more of familiar 

In September, 1850, the township line of Trenton was extended to 
the center of the ridge or divide between Honey and No creeks, but as 
the early record was destroyed, just how much was added to her territory 
is not known, though her eastern boundary may have been the range line 
between 24 and 23. There were elections every year for justices, etc., but 
still there was little of moment transpired in the township for several years. 
The court-house was built, and a public well was dug on the northeast cor- 
ner of the square in 1855. 


Of course the mutterings of the coming storm which made our land a 
house of mourning began to be heard. The few years of peace and pros- 
perity were rapidly drawing to a close and the land so happy and fruitful 
was to drink deep, and of the bitter dregs of a fratricidal strife. These 
were dark days, full of bitterness, of crime and of woe. This section was not 


SO heavily cursed as wlien the footprints of armed men met in unhallowed 
strife, but mistrust and unnatural feeling were paramount until long after 
the white-robed angel of peace had closed her wings over all this broad 
land. Wliat Grund}^ county did in the cause of the LTuion is a record of 
the several townships, and in the county history will be given all that can 
be gathered of the part the county took in the civil w^ar. 

The board of education of Trenton township seem to have been in want 
of funds when the war closed, and borrowed of the school fund $1,350, No- 
vember, 1866. It was this year that the first inception of an agricultural 
and mechanical association found expression. Before the present fair 
grounds were purchased they held two fairs on the high ground where 
Prospect Street is, and northwest of it west of Elm Street. These were the 
first fairs held in the county. Trenton township's farmers were largely rep- 
resented in its inauguration, they having taken the initiatory steps to give it 
a corporate existence. The success of this agricultural institution will be 
found fully recorded in the history of the county. It has been of no small 
benefit to Trenton township. 


The railroad fever continued until the securing of a road was effected, when 
there was a rest preparatory to making another trial. This soon came along 
when the Quincy, Missouri & Pacific Railroad started west to grow up with 
the country. Numerous propositions were voted on and carried, and had 
the company been able to come west a few years sooner they would have 
secured several thousand more dollars than they received. The progressive 
spirit which had all along governed the people of this township- was ex- 
hibited toward this last road as toward the first. That spirit has been one 
of liberality, and has made Trenton township the most populous and 
wealthy in the county. Railroads sometimes kill a town, commercially 
speaking, but they always build a county, and Trenton township can thank 
the railroads and the press for her wealth and prosperity, more than any other 
two combinations of business within her borders. Railroads and the press 
are the pioneers of true civilization. A cDuuty that has neither may grow, 
but in comparison with a county which has these great engines of civiliza- 
tion, that growth would seem like decay. Trenton township started for- 
ward in the race for wealth rapidly after she had secured railroad commu- 
nication, and she showed her faith by her works for she subscribed largely. 


Perhaps we can not to better advantage show to the people of future 
generations the spirit which actuated the people of Grundy county in her 
material progress and her determined enterprise, than to coj»y into this his- 
tory an article from the Trenton Hepuhlican on the raising of $40,000^ for 


the Quiiicy, Missouri & Pacific Railroad. The company had demanded the 
above sum and the right of way, and it had to be raised by private sub- 
scription, and the new constitution prevented a heavier taxation tlian a certain 
per cent for any purpose. We give article, headlines and all. It was pub- 
lished August r2th, 188<». It is as follows: 

" It u liaised — Hip, Hi]), Hurrah ! ! ! — The Future of Trenton Secured 
— The Tovm of North Missouri— %}fi ,000 in Good Notes Secured— 
Firing of Cannon — W<(ving of Flags — Torchlight Procession, Speeches, 
Music, Singing, etc., etc. 

"The past three weeks have been one continual excitement over the raising 
of the necessary money to secure the Quincy, Missouri & Pacific Railroad, 
but nothing in Trenton has ever compared .with the effort for the past three 
days. Last Saturday night when the notes were all footed up, there were 
not quite twenty thousand dollars. When the people assembled at the court- 
house, Judge Moberly's subscription for five hundred dollars was announced 
and then the work commenced. Xat Shanklin doubled from five hundred 
to a thousand in addition to the five hundred of Mr. Austin's already sub- 
scribed. Dr. Kerfoot, J. B. Carnes, W. H. Hubbell, Fitterer & Hoffman, 
Wm. Holt and many others commenced raising one, two and three hundred, 
so that when the meeting adjourned it was in the neighborhood of twenty- 
eight thousand. Resolutions were passed requesting all business houses to 
keep closed Monday and Tuesday until two o'clock each da}', and then open 
only two liours, so that everybody could work for the railroad. The order 
was carried, out with one or two exceptions. An executive committee was 
appointed to have charge of the management of the work. Men were sent 
every direction into the country to work Monda}' and Tuesday. Farmers 
quit their work and joined the canvassers and when Tuesday night came 
only a few thousand were lacking. Tuesdaj^ night the most enthusiastic 
meeting of all was held and the amount swelled up to $39,060, when on 
motion of Col. Shanklin the meeting adjourned until next morning at eight 
o'clock, to push the work until the last dollar was raised, which was not done 
until late last night. Mr. Rowland, secretary of the company, came Mon- 
day morning and telegraphed Mr. Green to be here Tuesday night. He 
<iame, but not in time to see the excitement, until Wednesday morning. 

"A grand work has been done. One of the best roads in the west has been 
secured. Direct route to Quincy, St. Louis, Chicago, Toledo and all points 

"The ])eople have worked hard and nearly all contributed libei-ally. We 
would love to mention some of the names of those who have worked hard 
from the start, but it would not do to discriminate. Would love to mention 
some of the liberal subscribers, not those who have given the most, but 
mpst according to their means, but we must not even do that. jSTearly all 


have given liberally and they will not be forgotten by a generous public. 
The town has done well, but equal credit is due to the country, considering 
the circumstances. It will not be out of place to mention the subscription 
of Mr. W. Wild, of Mercer count}^, who gave fifty dollars just on account 
of the good feeling he had for the town and county. He has no property 
in the county although he was reared here. Another gentleman from Cin- 
cinnati, Ohio, gave twenty-five dollars. We only mention these two cases 
to show the interest that was worked up. Mr. Green assured our people that 
the road would be located immediately. It is the understanding that a 
proposition will be made to Lindley to make that town a point, and the imi- 
versal feeling of the people of Trenton is that they hope Lindley will suc- 

"The people of Edinburg als(5 hope to get a proposition, and, if they do,, 
some substantial aid can be obtained in Trenton. 

"There is now no question but that it will come to Trenton. The depot 
grounds and the right of way are yet to be secured, but there will probably be 
but very few cases where that will cost any money, except to pay some man 
to fix up the papers. There ought to be a few thousand dollars for that 
purpose. The people of Trenton are happy and the railroad men went back 
feeling well pleased. 

"Grandmother Collier, aged mother of the Collier family, gave one hun- 
dred dollars to secure the railroad. She said it was the best thing she could 
do with it." 

We close up the railroad matter by copying an article which was kept in 
the Trenton and Chillicothe papers as standing matter to be used semi-occa- 
sionally. It has been standing ten years and is still found to be of use and 
when it will be finally distributed is yet unknown to those interested, but 
seems to be in the far distant future. It reads: 

"The railroad connecting Trenton and Chillicothe is now almost a cer- 
tainty." Then is added, after a few weeks of hope deferred: "And in this 
year of our Lord, 1881, it is as yet a d -d barren ideality." 

The iron ])iers were placed under the iron truss bridge at Trenton, across 
the Grand River, in 1879, at a cost of $1,800. 

One of the institntions connected with the railroad repair and machine- 
shops is the reservoir, which is situated on the highest point of land belong- 
ing to the railroads and is full fifty feet in diameter and twelve feet deep,, 
six of which are below the surface of the ground. It holds 171,000 gallons 
and is filled from the river just one mile distant by pipes and is j^umped in 
by steam engines. 


The schools of Trenton township, outside of Trenton City, are seven in 
number, good frame buildings, with all the necessary school apparatus and 


all paid for. In fact, as we have said before in onr school history, Grundy 
county school property is free from debt. 

Trenton township offers every inducement for settlement. There is still 
abundance of land in its primitive state that can be purchased from eight to 
twelve dollars per acre, and improved farms from twenty to thirty-five. 
Every facility for a near market, cheap transportation and good prices are 
at command. The city of Trenton is in the western part of the township, 
and the county seat, where there is no branch of mercantile business but 
what has its representation. In reading the history of the city this fact 
will be patent to the reader, and it is therefore above all a most valuable 
and pleasant section for a home. No farmer can find better land, or a healthier 
climate than here, and all are invited to come. 


The above closes the history of Trenton township proper, and following, 
in conclusion, will be found biographical sketches of the most prominent 
•citizens of said township, many of whom have been identified with its vary- 
ing interests and steady growth since and before the organization of Grundy 


The subject of this sketch was born in Tazewell county, Yirginia, June 
4, 1833, and his parents were both natives of the same State. In the year 
1839 his parents removed to Grundy county, and with the exception of a 
two years' residence in Colorado, he has lived here ever since. Mr, Belshe 
passed through many of the trials and hardships of pioneer life incident to 
the settlement of this county. On the 4th of August, 1856, he married 
Miss Mary Ann Kilburn. She was born in Pulaski county, Kentucky, 
January 1, 1841. The ceremony was performed in the house in which Mr. 
and Mrs. Belshe still live. By this union they have seven children, as fol- 
lows:- John W., born September 4, 1858; Nancy B., born December 8, 
1861, now Mrs. Thomas May; Margaret, born November 7, 1864; Dale, 
born September 29, 1874; Leora, born. January 31, 1876; Cora, born De- 
•cember 29, 1879; and the youngest, born March 6, 1881. Mr. Belshe may 
be numbered among the successful farmers and stock-raisers of the county. 
He owns a tine farm of eleven hundred acres, well supplied with the nec- 
essary implements for cultivating the soil. His principal attention, how- 
ever, has been given to cattle raising, in which he has attained enviable 


The above named gentleman first saw the light of day on the second of 
June, 1828, in Howard county, Missouri, and was the seventh child of 
William and Susan Collier, His father was a native of Kentucky, and mi- 


grated to this State about fifty-five years ago. He m'rs a brickmason by 
trade, and bnilt the court-house which now stands in Trenton. 

The subject of our sketch was about fifteen years of age when he came, 
with his father, to Grundy county, with wliotn he continued working, at 
the occupation of building, until he had reached the years of manhood. 

In 1854: he married Miss Sarah A. Templeman, daughter of Thornton H. 
Templeman, at that time residents of Grundy county. In less than one 
year after his marriage Mr. Collier lost his wife. After her death he be- 
came engaged in farming, merchandising and other pursuits. 

September 14, 1871, he was united in marriage to Mrs. Samantba Telley, 
nee Leedy, Four children have been the result of this union. Their 
names are as follows: Lilly A., Carrie G., Mabel A., and James C. In 
1878 Mr. Collier moved to his farm about one mile south of Trenton, where 
he still lives. He is a member of the Christian Church, and of the I. O. 
O. F. His wife is a member of the Baptist Church. Mr. Collier lives a 
quiet life, enjoying the fruits of his early labors. 


Son of Joseph and Mary (Campbell) Campsy, was born on the 6th of February, 
1823, in Washington county, Pennsylvania, and'died in July, 1881, in Grundy 
county, Missouri. He attended the common schools of his native county until 
he reached the age of- fifteen, when his parents removed to Morgan county, 
,Ohio, where he resided until 1856. It was during his residence in Morgan 
county, that he met and married Miss Priscilla Nelson, on the 24th of Feb- 
ruary, 1842. She was a native of Morgan county, and born March 9, 1819. 
From his Ohio home, he sought a'location in the i^orthwest, and settled in 
Van Buren county, Iowa, in the latter part of 1856, where he followed his 
occupation of farming, until 1871, when he became a citizen of this county. 
Mr. and Mrs. Campsy became the parents of ten children, eight of whom 
are still living, and their names are here given: Mary J., born July 27» 
1843; Margaret, born March 28, 1850; John C, June 22, 1851; David, De- 
cember 6, 1852; Joseph D., October 11,1855; Martha, September 21, 1858; 
Hattie E., February 11, 1861; Katie, September 20, 1863. They have all 
received the benefits of a good education and are highly respected by their 



The subject of this sketch is a native of Germany, and was born July 23, 
1819. At the age of twenty-two he departed from the " Faderland," and 
crossing the deep blue ocean, landed in this country. After his arrival he 
went to New Orleans, but remained only a short time, and next came to- 
St. Louis, where he worked three years, saving enough from his earnings 
during that period to buy a small farm in Monroe county, Illinois, in 1845. 
He remained in Illinois until 1870, when he came to Grundy county and 


[)urchased the hind which now constitutes his present liandsoinely improved 
farm of sixty acres. By frugality and industry he has placed himself in 
comfortable circumstances, December 17, 1848, Mr. Doorr was joined in 
holy wedlock to Miss Mary Nagle. The issue of this marriage was three 
children: Frederick W. C, born November 22, 1849, now a resident of 
Monroe county, Illinois; Mary, born July 7, 1851, now Mrs. Augustus 
Ad ler, of the same county; Elizaljeth, born 'July 26, 1855, now Mrs. Chas. 
Biskim, of the same county. Mrs. Doerr departed this life October 12, 1857. 
Mr. Doerr was married a second time December 17, 1859, to Miss Louisa 
Banikeng, of Monroe count}', Illinois, who was born November 16, 1839. 
They have four children: Louisa, born January 3, 1861; Annie, born June 
27, 1863; Henry, born October 22, 1866; and Laurena C, born August 10, 


George E., son of Philip and Ann Delano, was born in Stowe, Vermont, 
February 8, 1825. His parents were also natives of the Green Mountain 
State, the year of his father's birth being 1779, and that of his mother 1804. 
He grew up and received an education in his native place. In 1854, he mi- 
grated to California, where he was engaged in mining and the dairy busi- 
ness during his four years' stay. Returning to Yerraont in 1858, he re- 
mained there nine years, spent three years traveling in the Southern and 
Western States, and in 1870, located in Grundy county, where he has since 
followed the pursuits of the farm. 

Mr. Geo. E. Delano and Miss Louisa Macomber were married September 
1st, 1859. She was born in Green Island, Vermont, April 13, 1830. By 
this marriage they have had four children. Caroline L. was born Septem- 
ber 27, 1860; Philip P., born December 15, 1862, died May 29, 1869; Ben- 
jamin M., born Angust 28, 1864, died March 28, 1869; and Annie E., born 
April 18, 1869. 


Was born in Fayette county, Pennsylvania, April 8, 1836. His parents, 
Adam and Louisa Dunlap, both natives of Pennsylvania, removed to Bel- 
mont county, Ohio, when our subject was but a child, and afterwards 
changed their residence to Morgan county, in the same State, where he 
lived until 1863, and then removed to Grundy county and settled upon the 
farm he now owns. Starting out with nothing but his determination to 
make his way, he has now a splendid farm of three hundred and forty acres, 
well stocked, as a result of his persevering industry. Mr. Dunlap married 
Miss E,. M. Buchanan, November 17, 1857. She was a native of Ohio, 
born in Harrison county, February 19, 1840. Eight children have been the 
fruits of this union; namely, Samuel T., born March 24, 1859; John, born 
January 21, 1862: Edgar, born September 24, 1864; Charles, born Decern- 


ber 10, 1866; Jessie, born February 20, 1869; Carrie, born September 14, 
1871, died June 5, 1874; William, born April 13, 1874; and Mary, born 
November 21, 1876. 


Hezekiali Daughertj^ was born in Morgan count}', Ohio, June 9, 1839. 
Was the son of John and Mtvrgaret Daugherty, the former a native of 
Pennsylvania, and the latter of Ohio. He attended the common schools of 
his native place and worked upon his father's farm until he was twenty-two 
years of age, when, on the 31st of November, 1861, he enlisted in the ser- 
vice of the Union as a private in companj^ I of the Sixty-second regiment 
of Ohio volunteer infantry, and served three years in the army of the 
Potomac, participating in the many severe engagements of that wing of 
the service. Receiving his honorable discharge in 1864, he returned to his 
home in Morgan county and pursued his avocation of farming. December 
29, 1868, he married Miss Sarah J. Much, a native of Ohio, born November 
8, 1849. Four years after his marriage he removed to Grundy county, 
where he has since resided an esteemed citizen and farmer of Trenton town- 
ship. Mr. and Mrs. Daugherty are the parents of three children, whose 
names and dates of birth are as follows: George T., born October 14, 1870; 
John A., April 15, 1877; and Lenora B., born April 29, 1881. 



Is one of the prosperous farmers of Grundy county, and owns a beautiful 
farm of three hundred and thirty acres in Trenton township. Mr. Delano 
was born March 19, 1830, in the State of Vermont, where he lived until he 
reached the age of seventeen, when he accompanied his parents in their 
change of residence from their native State, to Massachusetts. After a five 
years' residence in the Bay State, at the age of twenty-two, he went South, 
and was engaged in various pursuits in Mississippi and Louisiana, among 
which was boating, on the Yazoo River. Returning home, he remained in 
Massachusetts one year, when he caught the "golden fever," and in 1854 
we find him in California, where he was engaged in mining and ranching 
for eight years. In 1862 he traveled eastward, and settled in Portage 
county, Ohio, where, on the 30tli of x\ugust of the same year, he married 
Miss Alma Collins, daughter of Rev. George S. Collins. She was a native 
of Ohio, and born on the 15th of March, 1843. By this marriage they have 
three children: Caliste A., born July 10, 1863; Louis H., January 11, 1866; 
and Cora E., February 15, 1868. Mr. Delano moved to Grundy county in 
1865, and purchased the pleasant farm which he now lives on. 


On the 13th of January, 1826, in Spartansburg District, South Carolina, 
Samuel W. Elmore was born. He Avas the fourth child of Samuel K. and 


Jane Elmore, both natives of Soutli Carolina. Samuel K, Elmore was 
reared in Soutli Carolina, and during the latter years of his sojourn there 
followed the occupation of school-teacher. From South Carolina he re- 
moved to Kentucky and thence to Indiana, in which State he died in 1848, 
his wife havinir preceded him to the grave about three years. 

The subject of this sketch was reared principally in Daviess county, Indi- 
ana, and received liis education in that county, where, up to the time he left, 
he was en_i>^aged in the drug business and the practice of medicine. March 
13tli, 1851, Dr. Samuel W. Elmore was married to Miss Sarah E. Dillon, 
dav.ghter of Isaac Dillon, of Daviess county, Indiana. One child, now liv- 
ing, Avas the fruit of this union. His name is Thomas T. Elmore. 

In 1854 Dr. Elmore lost his wife, and October 9, 1856, was united in 
wedlock to Miss Lydia Ream, daughter of Henry Ream, then of Grundy 
county. After his second marriage Dr. Elmore spent one winter in Indiana, 
and in April of 1865 he returned to Grundy county, settled permanently in 
the neighborhood where he now lives, and engaged in the practice of medi- 
cine and in farmiuff. 

By his second wife Dr. Elmore is the father of eight children living, 
whose names are: Elizabeth C, Stephen D., Victoria, Henry H., John L., 
Ada W., Keturah and Ethel A. Dr. Elmore is a member of the Masonic 

B. M. FOKD. 

B. M. Ford, son of Laban and Elizabeth Ford, was born in Howard 
county, Missouri, October 21, 1826. His parents were natives of Ken- 
tucky. In Howard county he lived until 1854, receiviug his education 
there, and marrying there on the 10th of April, 1849, Miss Eleanor Thorpe, 
a native of that county, born January 13, 1831. He has made farming his 
business through life, and now owns a finely improved farm of two hun- 
dred and forty acres, and a comfortable home. Mr. and Mrs. Ford have had 
seven children, five of whom are living. Their names are as given: James 
T., born February 20, 1850 : Sarah J., born January 19, 1852, now Mrs. J. 
L.Steele; John H., born October, 20, 1854, died January 16,1855; Eliza- 
beth F., born January 9, 1856; Mary A., born November 21, 1858, died 
June 14, 1874; Benjamin F., born March 1, 1861, and Nancy E., born May 
11, 1863. 

Tl. B. CxILL 

Was born in Mason county, Kentucky, on November 13, 1808, the son 
of James Gill and Elizabeth Gill, nee Moss, both natives of Kentucky. 
His father was a very efficient soldier in the War of 1812. The subject of 
this sketch lived in Mason county until he was forty-seven years of age, and 
in the year 1855 came to Missouri and located in Livingston county, where 
he resided till he moved to Grundy county, in 18T5, where he has since 


lived and engaged in farming. He was married in Kentucky, to Miss 
Lydia W. Moss, on June 19, 1828. She was a native of Fleming county, 
Kentucky, and born March 14, 1810. By this union seven children were 
born; viz., William W., born March 25, 1829; James A., August 23, 1830; 
Vincent Ct., born December 8, 1832, and died July 21, 1862; Elizabeth, 
born April 6, 1835; Hendren, born May 23, 1837; Judith, August 18, 1839, 
and Baldwin B., born August 1, 1842. Mrs. Gill died March 19. 1843. 
Mr. Gill was again married in 1844, to Sarah Moss, a sister of his first wife. 
She died in 1863, and he again married, on November 10, 1864, Mrs. Susan 
E. Ball, the widow of Edward Ball. She M^as a native of Bedford county, 
Virginia, and born October 16, 1832. They have had three children: 
Annie, born November 15, 1865, and died August 16, 1866; Elvira V., 
born May 25, 1867, and Nannie B., born February 25, 1872. 

When the civil war broke out, Mr. Gill was the owner of one of the finest 
farms in Livingston county, containing three hundred and sixteen acres. 
He was a member of the National G uards, and upon his return from service 
with them, was called upon to take part in a meeting for the purjxjse of 
organizing a company of bushwhackers, which measure he so ably and 
strenuously opposed that he broke up the attempted oi-ganization, and this 
was the means of saving Livingston county from the terrible effects that 
would inevitabl}' have followed. Sliortly after this a company of Federal 
soldiers took him as a prisoner of war, and kept him at Quincy, Illinois, 
for three months. At the same time they appro])riated several very valua- 
ble horses and other property. As soon as the authorities at Quincy learned 
the facts in the case, he was released, and sold his farm (which is now worth 
$80 per acre) for $14 per acre, and bought a small farm upon which he 
lived till lie moved to Grundy county. He has seen many of the ups and 
downs of life, yet, in his seventy-third year, is a man of remarkable vigor 
both of body and mind. Mr. and Mrs. Gill are consistent members of the 
Christian Church. 


Mr. Griffith is one of the most worthy and prosperous farmers in Tren- 
ton township, and has, for a number of years, been extensively and success- 
fully-engaged in the business of sheep raising. His principal attention lias 
bieeii given to the cultivation of the long-wool breeds, in which he has 
obtained gratifying results. 

George Grifhth was born in Carroll county, Ohio, on the 22d of March, 
1838, and ten years later accompanied his parents in their removal to Lick- 
ing county, in the same State, where he grew to manhood on his father's 
farm. March 14, 1861, he was united in marriage t<» Miss Jane A. Thomas, 
of Licking county, by which union they have four children. The first, 
Amelia, is a young lady of nineteen, the date of her birth ]>eing April 5, 



1862; oil the 25th of August, 1804, tlie second eliild, Ellsworth, was born; 
Fannie, the third, was born Ma}' 15, 1866; Lulu, the youngest, and pet of 
the family, was born on the 23d of September, 1877. 


This gentleman, now one of the most prominent citizens of Grundy county, 
was born at Ogdensburg, St. J^awrence county, Xevv York, on the 11th day 
of February, 1818, and was a resident of the Empire State until he reached 
his sixteenth year, when in the early winter of 1835 he left the city for the 
vast west, with his destination fixed in the growing State of Missouri. He 
became a student at Marion College, an institution of learning under the 
auspices of the Presbyterian Church, located in Marion county. Here he 
remained during a period of three years, paying his board and tuition by 
his labor. Leaving the college he went to Howard county, where he taught 
school and occupied his leisure hours in the study of law, and was licensed 
to practice by Judge Leland, of the same county, in 1841. Remaining in 
Howard until February, 1842, he removed to Buchanan ccnmty and settled 
at Sparta, then the county seat, where he made his home until May of the 
same year, when again starting upon his travels he is next found a resident 
of the county of Grundv, where he has remained an honored citizen. Mr. 
Hubbell engaged in the active pi-actice of his profession until 1847, in 
which year he was elected clerk of the Circuit and County Courts for a 
term of six years. The prompt and efficient manner in which he performed 
the duties of the office led to his reelection in 1853, and in 1859, aftA- 
twelve years' service, the people again called upon him; once more he took 
the oath as clerk, and most satisfactorily were the affiiirs of the clerk's 
office administered. The rural pleasures of farm life have always been 
attractive to Mr. Hubbell, and at the expiration of his last term as clerk he 
retired to his pleasant country home, two miles from Trenton, and gave his- 
whole attention to the farm pursuits which he had been, in a measure, 
forced to neglect while holding office. However, he was not allowed to 
remain in seclusion long; his services were needed, and in 1870 he was- 
unanimously nominated by the Democratic party to represent the county 
of Grundy in the legislature. He accepted the call and his high standing 
and great popularity were never better illustrated than by the triumphant 
majority which elected him to the General Assembl}^ notwithstanding the 
fact that the political party which tendered him the nomination was largely 
in the minority. During the sessions of which he was a member Mr. Hub- 
bell served his constituents faithfully and well, and retired tVom the House 
of Representatives with an honorable record. Mr. ELubbell has since lived 
on his farm, where his whole time is occupied in the supervision of his 
broad and well-cultivated fields of growing grain, and his herds of fine cat- 
tle which lazily browse upon the rich pastures. In conclusion it may be 


mentioned that Mr. Hnbbell was chosen to write the history of Grundy 
county for delivery at the centennial celebration, and how well he performed 
the task may be judp^ed when the author acknowledges that he is indebted 
to that "Centennial Sketch" for many of tlie important facts and incidents 
■of Grundy's history. 


Warren Harris, son of Daniel and Libbie Harris, was born in Champaign 
•county, Ohio, May 12, 1833. His father was of Virginia birth, and his 
mother a native of Vermont. Reared upon a farm, he attended the com- 
mon schools of his native count}', where he continued to reside until 1862, 
when he made his home in Grundy county. He married Miss Henrietta 
L. Cranston, November 1, 1855. She was born in Champaign county, 
Ohio, September 28, 1837. By this union they have had six children, four 
of whom are now living. Their names are as follows: Randolph C, born 
July 12, 1857, died Janufiry 19, 1865; C. D., born December 21, 1858; 
Eugene G., born October 31, 1863, died July 12, 1865; Glenn C, born 
March 4, 1867; Annie L., born December 21, 1868; W. Guy, born Decem- 
ber 19, 1871; and Louis H., born March 26, 1875. Mr. Harris lives upon 
a fertile farm of two hundred and eighty acres, and is engaged largely in 
stock raising, oM'ning one of the finest herds of thorough-bred Short-Horn 
<}attle in the State, liis stock having been purcliased from the best breeders 
in Ohio and Kentucky. The raising of thorough-bred Cotswold sheep and 
Berkshire hogs has received attention, and his success in this business has 
been most complete. 

T. M. HARD. 

The subject of this sketch was born on a farm in Addison county, Ver- 
mont, May 5, 1829. His parents. Lancing and Rillie Hard, were also na- 
tives of the Green Mountain State. He attended the common schools in 
winter and worked on his father's farm in the summer, until he had ac- 
quired a fair education. After attaining his majority, in 1850, he went to 
Illinois and located in McHenry county, where for twenty years he was 
engaged in farming and in handling fine horses. November 18, 1857, he 
wedded Miss Carlinda Field, of Addison county, Vermont. By this union 
they had one child, May, born March 26, 1861. Mrs. Hard died August 
15, 1861, and Mr. Hard was a second time married, November 25, 1866, to 
Miss S. A. St. Clair. From McHenry county, Illinois, he removed to 
Lewis county, Missouri, in 1870, where he remained four years, and then 
moved to Grund}' county. He lives upon a farm of eighty acres, and gives 
his attention to its cultivation and dealing in stock. 



Son of Jolin L. and Rebecca Herbert, was born in Muskingum county, Ohio,, 
on the 31st of January, 1843. His father hailed from Virginia, and his 
mother was a native of Ohio. When Henry was three years old the family 
removed to Missouri and made their home in Grundy county. The rude 
alarms of war sounded in 1861, and Henry C. Herbert was among those 
who responded to their country's call. He enlisted as a x^rivate in com- 
pany G, Thirty-third regiment Missouri volunteer infantry, and served four 
years, passing unscathed through many fields of carnage, where the groans 
and wails of the wounded mingled with the hissing of the flying shot and 
shell. He participated in the battles of Helena (Ark,). Gains' Hill, and 
Yicksburg, in the spring and summer of 1863. The Thirty-third Missouri 
formed a part of the third brigade, first division of the sixteenth army corps,, 
under General N. P. Banks, and, with his company, he accompanied, on 
the 11th of March, 1864, the memorable a/id disastrous expedition up lied 
River to capture Shreveport, the seat of the Confederate government in 
Loiisiana, and took part in the assault and capture of Fort de Russy, the 
skirmish and retreat at Mansfield, the bloody engagement at Pleasant Hill 
and consequent retreat to Alexandria, and by gunboats down Red River 
on their return, reaching Vi'i'ksburg on the 22d of May, 1864. He partici- 
pated in the skirmishes at La Grange, Holly Springs, Oxford, Waterford, 
and the three days* fight at Tupelo on the 13th, 14th and loth of July, the 
same year, arriving at Memphis, Tenn., August 30tli. Here he was on the 
sick list, and on the 2d of Xovember, 1864, went liome on a furlough, re- 
maining until his recovery, March 19th, 1865, when he rejoined his com- 
pany and went down to Xew Orleans. After a short sickness he took part 
in the siege and capture of Spanish Fort, near Mobile; accompanied the 
march to Montgomery, Ala., thence down the river to Selma, where he was 
stationed until July 21st, 1865, when the regiment went by rail to Yicks-^ 
burg, up the Mississippi to St. Louis, receiving his honorable discharge 
from the service on the 10th of August, 1865, and reaching home on the 
14th of the same month. 

On the 16th of September, 1866, Mr. Herbert married Mrs. Mary Lee- 
per, widow uf Andrew C. Leeper, by whom she was the mother of two 
children, James M , born January 20, 1863; and Andrew C, born ]Sovem- 
ber IS, 1864. Mr. and Mrs. Herbert have been the parents of eight chil- 
dren, six of whom are living, as follows: John W., born July 27, 1S67; Ivan 
B., May 5, 1868; Hugh L., April 13, 1S70; Martha M., March 10, 1872; 
Hiram B., December 12, 1873; and Benjamin F., December 7, 1876. Mr. 
Herbert is a farmer and his farm is among the best cultivated in Trenton 


A. J. LEE 

"Was born in Fleming county, Kentucky, October 12, 1837. His parents 
■were Joseph and Abigail Lee, the former a native of Virginia and the latter 
of Kentucky. He received a common school education in his native place, 
where he remained until 1857, when he removed to Kansas, remained three 
years, and then settled in Grundj' county, where he has since lived and en- 
srao-ed in fartninar. Mr. and Mrs. Lee have had nine children: William J., 
born June 9, 1860, died December 23, 1878; Cora E., born May 5, 1861; 
James L., born December 5, 1862, died September 15, 1864; John R., 
'born January 28, 1865; Benjamin F., born November 14, 1866; Laura B., 
born May 4, 1869, died October 30, 1869; Thomas E., born October 12, 
1870; Elizabeth G., born December 17, 1872, died January 14, 1874; and 
Charles B., born January 10, 1877. Mr. and Mrs. Lee's wedding day was 
August 29, 1859. 

.tames' leeper 

Came to Grundy and settled in Trenton township in 1845, and after years 

■of painstaking industry is now the possessor of a handsome farm of five 

lumdred and seventy acres under cultivation, a cozj- home and fine orchard. 

He was born in Pennsylvania, February 13, 1814, and his parents, William 

and Eaehel Leeper, were natives of the same State. The family migrated 

to Ohio and settled in (ruernsey county, where they remained a few years, 

and from thence went to Muskingum county, in the same State. While 

living here Mr. Leeper was joined in the marriage covenant to Miss Martha 

Crawford. This lady was born in Muskingum county, Ohio, on the 16th of 

July, 1816, and has proved a most worthy companion for her husband. Ten 

children have come of this union, whose names and birth are here given: 

Mary M., born February 3, 1837, died February 5, 1837; Mary J., born 

May 6, 1838, died November 24, 1840; Andrew C, born August 4, 1840, 

.died October 15, 1864, leaving a widow and two children; Elizabeth, born 

August 7, 1842, died February 23, 1843; Sarah E., born March 15, 1845, 

•died February 25, 1862; Martha E,., born January 29, 1849, wife of J. A. 

French; Euphemia, born February 28, 1854, wife of R. E. Boyce; James 

E., born February 28, 1856, a physician in Morgan county, Ohio; Norvin, 

.born October 3, 1857, died February 27, 1862; John W., born April 4, 1859, 

is the only one the large family at home. 


Benjamin Franklin Lehew was born in Muskingum count}', Ohio, Sep- 
tember 5, 1834, where he was reared and received a common school educa- 
tion. Leaving home when twenty-four years of age, he went to Allen 
county, Indiana, and settled down. February 8, 1859, Mr. Lehew was 
united in marriage to Miss Sarah C. Comstock, a young lad}- of Ohio birth, 



horn in Janesville, June 13, 1836. The family resided in Indiana until 
1872, when they removed to Grundy county. Mr. Lehew is one of the sub- 
stantial farmers of the county, and is also a successful fruit-cultuiist and 
sheep-raiser. He has a comfortable home and. pleasant surroundings. Mr. 
and Mrs. Lehew have a family of eight children, whose names are here 
given: Lewis W., born October 26, 1859; Mary M., born November 3, 
1861; Alpha, born December 10, 1863; Myra J., born September 14, 1865; 
Annie R., born August 4, 1868; James C, born May 16, 1870; Franklin 
G., born March 20, 1872; and Leora G., March 21, 1878. 


Thomas Luke, a native of Lawrence county, Illinois, was burn December 
6, 1839. When nine years of age his parents removed to Wayne county, in 
the same State, where they remained six years, when they again jmcked 
their liousehold goods and started for the West, arriving in Grundy county 
in June of 1854. From the age of fifteen he grew to manhood in Grundy 
county. April 1, 1860, Mr. Luke and Miss Sarah P. Marshall were joined 
in the marriage covenant. By this union Mr. and Mrs. Luke have a family 
of nine children; viz., Nancy J., born June 8, 1861; Martha F., born 
November 9, 1862; Mary M., born March 30, 1864; Abraham L., born 
December 15, 1866; Samuel D., born January 23, 1868; Minnie L,, born 
October 13, 1869; William T., October 15, 1871; Parmelia B., born Decem- 
ber 10, 1873; and Rutli N., born July 21, 1879. Mr. Luke, though carry- 
ing on all the various pursuits which constitute farming, has given his at- 
tention largely to the cultivation of fruit. He has a line orchard of forty 
acres, in which he cultivates nearly every fruit which will grow in Grundy 
county soil, and has, perhaps, the largest number of apple trees of any 
orchard in the State. He raises many choice varieties of both large and 
small fruits, and has met with remarkable success in cultivating so as to 
produce an abundant yield. 

w. s. m'lain. 

W. S. McLain was born in Sangamon county, Illinois, June 2, 1836, of 
Kentucky parentage. When six yeai-s of age his parents removed to Ken- 
tucky, where he grew up and received his education. In 1857 he removed 
to Grundy county and settled upon a farm near where he now lives. Sep- 
tember 20, 1863, he married Miss Eliza A. Adkins, of Grundy county, born 
November 17,1846. They have had seven children: Lucy, born August 12, 
1864; Mary E., born November 20, 1866; William, born March 19, 1869; 
Alice, born November 26, 1871; Minnie, born June 3, 1874; Lenora, born 
May 21, 1877, died August 27, 1878; and Arthur, born January 19, ISSO. 
Mr. McLain is engaged in agricultural pursuits, giving special attention to 
the raising of fine hogs of the Berkshire and Poland-China J)reeds. He 
has a fine farm of one hundred and ninety acres. 



Is one of the old pioneers of Grundy county. He was born in Bi-acken 
county, Kentucky, on February 10, 1820. His father was a native of 
Maryland, and his mother of Virginia. His father, George W, McCread}-, 
was an officer in the War of 1812; he died in March, 1836, and his wife 
died about three weeks afterwards. When the subject of this sketch was 
about three years of age his parents moved to Worcester con nt}^ Maryland^ 
and there he remained till 1839, when, on June 16th, he located in Grundy 
county, Missouri, where he has since remained, engaged in farming. Thus 
he has known this countv from that early day when it was an unbroken wil- 
derness up to the present time, with its beautiful and well cultivated farms, 
and its population of thrifty and intelligent farmers. 

Mr. McCready was married on June 6, 1840, to Mrs. Laura Knight, a 
native of Schuyler county, Oliio, and born in 1820. This lady and her first 
husband were on their way from Ohio to seek a home in the far west, when 
as he was taking his gun from the wagon one da}^, to shoot a squirrel, he 
accidentally- shot and killed himself. By her first marriage, Mrs. Knight 
had one child, named Anna. By her marriage with Mr. McCready, six 
children were born, whose names are Melissa, Jane, George W. and Alonzo, 
who are still living, and W. R., who died when four years old, and Mary, at 
the age of eleven months. Mrs. McCready died February 11, 1853. Mr. 
McCready again married on June 6, 1853, to Mrs. Martha A. Grubb, widow 
of F. B. Grubb, who died in Grundy county in 1850. Mrs. Grubb was a 
iiative of Tennessee, and was born December 16, 1823. She had three chil- 
dren by Mr. Grubb: Amanda E., James M. and Erastus. By her marriage 
with Mr. McCready the following named children were born: Albert J.,. 
Walter M., Sophronia E., Alice Ann, Stephen B., Hattie Lee and Augusta 
B. Mr. McCready owns a fine home of sixty acres, pleasantly located in 
Trenton township. 


Abrani Pernell was born in Morgan county, Ohio, April 20, 1841. He 
j'eceived a common school education, and learned the wagon-maker's trade, 
at which he was employed the first years after his school days. In 1859, at 
the age of eighteen, he removed to Grundy county, and engaged in farming. 
On the first of September, 1865, he was united in matrimony to Miss Elsie 
Weeden. She was born June 13, 1840. Mr. and Mrs. Pernell have a 
famil}^ of four interesting children, named respectively, Carrie, born Decem- 
ber 8, 1866; Frank, born February 13, 1868; George E., born September 
1, 1870; and Charles A., born September 14, 1873. 

I « V ; 






Was bom in Greene couiitj, Ohio, May 27, 1844, and there resided until 
1861, when lie enlisted in company 11, of the Thirty-ninth regiment of 
Ohio volunteer infantry, serving through the entire four years of the late 
momentous struggle. Receiving his honorable discharge from the United 
States service, he returned to his home in Ohio, and September 20, 1865, 
Avas united in marriage to Miss Jane Millon, of Xenia, Ohio. lie engaged 
in the grocery busijiess until the fall of 1867, when he removed from Xenia 
to Muncie, Indiana, and there went into the black walnut lumber trade, but 
remained only a short time, when he returned to Ohio, locating in Fayette 
county, still continuing in the lumber trade. October 21, 1870, he removed 
to Grundy county, bought a farm, and has since been engaged in its 
cultivation and also dealing extensively in black walnut lumber throughout 
northwest Missouri. Mr. and Mrs. Rudrow have a family of four children 
to bless their fireside; namely, W. T. Sherman, born July 18, 1866; Mag- 
gie, born May 5, 1870; Minnie, born September 5, 1877, and Samuel N., 
born February 21, 1880. 


Giles Songer settled in Trenton township, Grundy county, in the year of 
1846, and gave his attention to farming. He was a native of Indiana, and was 
born in Washington county, in that State, on the 25th of October, 1818, the 
son of Abram and Catherine Songer, both natives of Pennsylvania. When 
quite small his parents removed to Clay county, Illinois, where he grew up 
and received his educatioji. 

On January 21st, 1837, Mr. Songer was united in matrimony to Miss 
Nancy Childers. Miss Childers was a native of Lincoln county, Kentucky, 
and was born July 20, 1820. This union was blessed with thirteen children, 
eight sons and five daughters, eight of whom are still living. William, the 
eldest, was born January 13, 1838, and died April 10, 1869, leaving a wife 
and three children; Julia, born February 27, 1839, became the wife of 
Joseph Keeder, and died December 10, 1870, leaving her husband and six 
children to mourn her loss; Joseph W., born March 1, 1842, is a resident of 
Grundy county; Mary A, was born November 7, 1843, and is Mrs. William 
Luke; Thomas B., born October 25, 1845, died in the U. S. hospital at St. 
Louis, November 18, 1864, having served during the W'ar in company A, 
Forty-fourth regiment of Missouri volunteer infantry; John B., born No- 
vember 9, 1847, is still living in Grundy county; Albert G., born Decem- 
ber 17, 1850, died February 10, 1871; Richard H., born September 19, 1851, 
died March 25, 1852; Franklin J., born February 27, 1853; Missouri A., 
born February 4,1855; Elizabeth, born February 11, 1857; Flora Belle, 
born July 6, 1859, and Lyman T., born October 25, 1862. Mrs. Songer is 
still living. 

336 • niSTOKY OF grundy county. 

Mr. Soiiger became one of the prominent citizens ot Grundy county, and 
served in several official capacities, having been elected county judge two or 
three terms. After a long life of usefulness, he-died on the 13th of Decem- 
ber. 18S0. in the seventv-third year of his a^e, 


One of the substantial farmers of Grundy county, was ushered into e.xist- 
ence on the 16th of January, 1821, in the District of Columbia, where he 
passed the first two years of his life, when death deprived him of both father 
and mother. Oliver was then placed in care of an aunt, who took him to 
Loudoun county, Virginia, where he grew up. When eighteen years, of age 
he bid farewell to '' Ole Yirginny" and sought a home farther west, locating 
in Guernsey county, Ohio, but remained there only a few years when he 
made his home in Morgan county, in the same State. On the -Ith of June, 
18-1:6, he wedded Miss Ruth Walters, an estimable young lady of Morgan 
county. January 10, 1828, was the date of her birth. This marriage was 
blessed with four children; namely, Mary A., born June 8, 1847, died May 
9, 1847; Benjamin F.* born March 2, 1850; Jonah W.. born January 14, 
1853; and Mary E., born August 24, 1855. In 1864 Mr. Smith removed, 
with his family, to Grundy county, where he now has a farm of six hundred 
and thii-ty acres of fertile land, well stocked, a comfortable homestead, 
orchard, etc., all of which he has acquired by patient industry and the wil- 
ling help of his wife. They have toiled long together and can now enjoy 
the fruits of their labor. 


In Clay county, Illinois, on the 1st day of March, 1842, Joseph W., son 
of Giles and Nancy Songer, was born. His father was by birth an Indi- 
anian and his mother a Kentuckian. Joseph had reached the age of four 
years when his parents migrated to Grundy county. He received his edu- 
cation in the early log school houses of the county, and being very fond of 
music, acquired quite a reputation as a pleasing vocalist and officiated as 
teacher in many of the singing-schools in vogue when he reached manhood. 
He was also engaged in sabbath-school work, and assisted in the organiza- 
tion of a number of schools throughout the county. Mr. Joseph W. Songer 
:and Miss Sarah T. Taylor were joined in wedlock, April 6, 1862. She was 
a native of Grundy county, and August 6th, 1841, is the date of her birth. 
Seven children have gathered around their lireside, all of whom are yet liv- 
ing: Eichard E., born December 31, 1862; Kancy H., August 30, 1864; 
Elizabeth M., July 8, 1866; James A., February 15, 1868; Myrtle A., Feb- 
ruary 19, 1870; Monta M., March 10, 1872; Robert G., October 1, 1874. 
Mr. Songer is a thrifty farmer, and has given much of his time for the last 
few years to growing line wool sheep, and has attained most gratifying results. 


The Spaiilsli Merino breed is his preference among the several strains of 
long-wool sheep. From one animal he took nineteen pounds of wool last 
spring, at one shearing. 


J. 1.. Steele, son of L. .J. and Caroline Steele, was born in Pike county, 
Illinois, February 13, 1847; his father being a native of Kentucky, and his 
mother of Ohio. AVhen the subject of this sketch was three years old, his 
parents removed to Adams county, in the same State. He received an ed- 
ucation in the common schools, and completed a course in the Perry High 
School, of Pike county, and afterward attended and graduated at Eastman's 
National Business College, of Chicago. February 21, 1864, when but seven- 
teen years of age, he enlisted in company G, of the Seventh regiment of 
Illinois reserve militia, and served until the close of the war. In 1868 he 
came to Grundy county, and engaged in farming and teaching school, in 
both of which avocations, he has attained considerable success, December 
24th, 1871, Mr. Steele was united in marriage to Miss Sarah J. Ford of 
(irundy county, born January 19, 1852. By this union they have had three 
children: Minnie, the eldest, was born October 1, 1872, and died October 
31, 1873; the second, Bertha, was born August 1, 1874; and the youngest 
Mary L., was born October 27, 1877. 


Was born April 25th, 1826, near Richmond, Virginia, and is the third 
child of William N. and Ann C. Smith, both natives of the " Old Dominion." 
In 1837 our subject, with his father, migrated from Virginia to Missouri, 
and settled in Glasgow, Howard county, and lived in that place with his 
parents, working at the carpenter's trade, until May, 1846, at which time he 
moved to St. Louis. 

On the. 27th, of December, 1849, he was married to Miss Sarah A. 
Humphreys, daughter of Edward Humphreys, all of St. Louis. 

The issue of this marriage was three children, whose names are Mrs. 
P. Hunt, nee Anna M. Smith, Sarah A. Smith, and James H. Smith. De- 
cember 8th, 1860, Mr. Smith lost his first wife, 'and on the 15th of the same 
month, in 1862, with his three children left St. Louis to settle in Trenton. 

On the 15tli of October, 1863, he married Miss Susan E Lowen. By 
his second wife Mr. Smith is the father of five children now living. 
Their names are Emma F., Lura M., Arthur P., Jennie L., and Luther C, 

Mr. and Mrs. Smith are both members of the Christian Church. He is 
nlso a member of the I. O. O. F. 

Mr. Smith moved to Trenton in time to build a great many of the oldest 
houses now standing in that place, and is still actively engaged in the pur- 
suit of his trade. 



Son of Giles and Nancy Songer, was born in Grnndj county, Missouri, 
November 9, 1847. Farming has been his business since he has been old 
enough, and his life has been spent upon the same section of land he was 
born upon. Mr. Songer was united in marriage to Miss Nannie V. Sliank- 
lin, December 31, 1870. She was also a native of this county, born May 
27,1847. They have had four children: Carrie, born Februarys, 1872; 
Frederick W., born March 14, 1874; Homer, born March 28, 1870, died 
April 10, 1876; and Carl A., born February 3, 1878. Mr. Songer has a 
good farm and is one of the prosperous farmers of the township, and he 
and his wife are highly esteemed by their neighbors. 


And his aged wife rank among the pioneers of Grundy county. He was 
born in "Worcester county, Maryland, October 20, 1808. Kobert was 
reared on a farm and lived in Maryland till he was twenty-six years of age. 
In 1829 he married Miss Nancy Blades, a native of Maryland, and born 
November 13, 1809. By this marriage eleven children were born, seven of 
whom are still living; viz., Caroline, born April 15, 1830; Mary J., born 
April 7, 1832; Sarah T., born August 6, 1841; Robert T., born November 
30, 1842; William D., born November 30, 1846; Levin H., born January 
18, 1849; Luther, born July 6, 1851. John P., Harriet, Nathaniel and 
Melinda E. are dead. About the year 1833 Mr. Taylor and his young 
wife came to Missouri, located in Lafayette county, and lived there about 
three years. In 1836 the family located in Grundy county, on the same 
farm they now occupy. He converted three hundred acres of the wilder- 
ness into a fertile farm and a beautiful iiome. The old cabin erected in 
1836 still stands, and is yet used by this venerable couple as a summer 

Mr. Taylor takes great pride in his orchard, which is a very fine one and 
of the choicest varieties of fruit. Mr. and Mrs. Taylor are members of the 
Baptist Church, and are quietly and peacefully passing their declining year& 
under the shadow of the trees their own hands have planted. 


Was born in Jefferson county, Kentucky, on the 24th of June, 1825, the 
son of James and Jane Urton, the former a native of A^irginia, and the lat- 
ter of Kentucky. After his school days were over he became an overseer 
on a plantation, which situation he lield until early in 1854, when, at the 
age of twenty-nine, he went to Illinois and located on a farm in Adams 
county, where he lived five years and then moved to Pike county. While 
living here he was united in matrimony to Miss Ann Eliza Bowles. She 


was born January 5, 1834, and was a native of Adams county. In 1866 
Mr. Urton removed from Illinois, and settled in Grundy county, where he 
still lives. Mr. and Mrs. Urton iiave liad eight children, whose names and 
dates of birth are as follows: Selina J., born Kovember 11, 1854, died April 
12, 1878; William C, born June 1, 1858; Olive, born March 15, 18G2; 
Edwin, born May 31, 1864; Alva, born October 9, 1866, died September 
19, 1867; Elma, born June 20, 1870; Alfred B., born March 29, 1872; 
Effie, born July 22, 1874, Mr. Urton has a line farm of one hundred and 
seventy-four acres, and a comfortable home. 


Was born in Grundy county, Missouri, January 21, 1848, son of Benja- 
min and Mary Ann (McCoy) Wiggins. His father was a native of Seneca 
county, New York, but when quite young came with his parents to Ohio 
and settled in Cincinnati, afterwards went to Kentucky, and in 1820 settled 
in Howard county, Missouri, and in 1846 removed to Grundy county, and 
thence to California, where he died in 1850. His mother was a native of 
Kentucky, and born in 1818, but when one year of age her father came to 
Missouri and located in Howard county. After the decease of Mr. Wig- 
firins she married J. R. Merrill, and now lives in Trenton. 

The subject of this sketch was reared on a farm. When sixteen years of 
age he went to Colorado, remained two j'ears, and then returned to Grundy 
county, where he engaged in the stock business for three years. Novem- 
ber 14, 1875, he married Blondina Mueller, a native of St. Clair county, 
Illinois, and who was born September 28, 1854. Two children, Bertha E., 
born February 12, 1879, and Richard M., born March 1, 1881, are the result 
of this union. Mr. Wiggins purchased a half interest in twenty-two acres 
of land adjoining the town site of Trenton, which is now (in 1881) all oc- 
cupied by buildings, and known as Wiggins & Murphy's Addition to Tren- 
ton. After quitting the stock business he dealt in real estate till the fall 
of 1875, when he returned to his farm, and has since resided there. He is 
a man of fine business ability, while socially he and his family are highly 


This name was given to a son born to John and Patience Wymer, on the 
18th of February, 1829, in Bristol township, Morgan county, Ohio. The 
family removed to Lawrence county, in the same State, in 1845, where the 
subject of this biography grew to manhood and learned the carpenter's 
trade. On the 20th of October, 1850, John N. Wymer and Miss Celia E. Dil- 
lon were united in the holy bonds of matrimony, at the home of the bride's 
parents in Lawrence county. Miss Dillon was a native of Franklin 
county, Virginia, where the first two years of her life were spent. She 
was born September 20th, 1828, and, with her father's family, became a 


resident of Ohio, in 1830. Six years after his marriage Mr. Warner re- 
moved to Indiana, and located in Boone county, where he continued to 
make his home until the close of the civil war, in which he served as a pri- 
vate in company A, of the Indiana State militia. After the close of hos- 
tilities, in 1865, he came to Grundy county and settled on a farm some ten 
miles northeast of Trenton. He continued to cultivate his farm until 
March, 1881, when he disposed of it, and took up his residence in Trenton 
and resumed work at his trade, in which he is still engaged. 

Mr, Wymer's father died in February, 1880, having reached the advanced 
age of ninety-five years. His mother, in her seventy-fifth year, still pur- 
sues the journey of life. 

Mr. and Mrs. Wymer have four children living and two dead. Merada 
M., the first, was born March 3d, 1851, and died September 20th, 1854; 
Electe Ann, born February 12th, 1852; Mary C, born August 17th, 1854, 
died in 1857; John W., born July 1st, 1855; Rhuama P., born October 
3d, 1857; George W., born April 17th, 1859. 

Mrs. Wymer was a member of the Baptist Church before her marriage, 
and Mr. W. was baptized and received into the same church in 1852, two 
years after that event, and both remain consistent members. 


Peter H. Yakey was born on the 5th of March, 1829, in Guernsey 
county, Ohio, and was the second child of Joseph and Sarah Yakey. 

His father, Joseph Yakey, was born in Maryland, August 12th, 1802, 
and at the age of twenty migrated to Ohio, where he married Miss Sarah 
Shafer, in Guernsey county, in 1826. Mr. Yakey was a farmer. He died 
July 16th, 1875. Mrs. Yakey is still living in Indiana. 

Peter H. Yakey lived with his parents until he became of age. On the 
17th of March, 1853, he was united in the holy bonds of matrimony to Mis& 
Isabella McBurney, daughter of John McBurney, resident of Guernsey 
county. After his marriage, Mr. Yakey commenced farming for himself,, 
which occupation he continued until October, 1858, when his wife died. 

Next we find Mr. Yakey in cliarge of the post-office and railroad office at 
Gibson station, Ohio. 

January 19th, 1860, he married Miss Martha E. Braden, daughter of 
John Braden, all of Guernsey county. On the 2d of April, 1860, he mi- 
grated to Grundy county, where he has since resided, engaged in farming. 
In August, 1861, he enlisted in company A of the Missouri volunteer 

Peter H. Yakey is the father of seven children living, two by his first 
wife and five by his second. The names of his first wife's children are 
Albert L., and Mary C., now Mrs. W. R. Saddler; and those of his second 
wife are Joseph S., John B., Annie M., "Willie G., Frank L. Mr. Yakey i& 
a member of the Masonic order and A. O. U. "W", 



Commandinfi Situation — New Life — Business — Second Railroad — Manufacturing — Deed of 
the Town Site — The City Charter — Plat of Trenton — Incidents — Continued Progress — 
Milk Wagon — ''Iron Horse and Jotj Unspeakable" — Crossing the Line — Machine-shops 
—Close of 1811. 

Trenton, the contity seat of Griiiidy county, Missouri, lias a beantifnl 
and coiiiiiianding situation upon risint;^ ground on the east bank and in the 
pleasant rolling valle}^ of the Grand River, just below the junction of the 
Weldon and Thompson forks — the former also known as the East fork of 
the Grand River, and the latter as the Middle fork — about three aiid three- 
fourths miles southwest of the exact center of the county. Thus situated, 
Trenton is the metropolis of a rich and prosperous country 'round, which 
makes it the life and center of the commercial affairs of the county and the 
fountain-head of the various enterprises which have diffused the life-streams 
of energetic industry and business intelligence over the fruitful soil of the 
entire county of Grundy. 

Bearing a name made famous by her aged namesake upon the classic 
banks of the fast flowing Delaware, in the memorable canapaigns of 1776, 
Trenton started out in 1841 with an historical prestige which she has ev^er 
endeavored to preserve and hand down to future generations brightened 
with the record of good deeds and remembered triumphs in the days of 
peace as well as in the days of strife. Founded in 1841, Trenton Avas built 
upon two ridges, whose inner edges almost touched, l)ut whose outer ends 
extended out at right angles, leaving the town nestling in the trianguhir spot 
between, and giving a quaint peculiarity to the streets and a pictui'esque 
appearance to the town. And thus she stood during the years that flew by 
on the fleeting wings of time, slowly plodding her way along, but always 
with her energies alive with the fires of a substantial ambition for a future 
greater than she was or had been, until in 1870, with a population of 920 
souls, her dormant activity was aroused, and she sprang at once into the 
maelstrom of the bustling, busy, growing era at the prospect of her first 
railroad. The citizens went to work with a will, and it was a bright day 
for Trenton when their eflbrts were crowned with the laurels of success, and 
the steam horse, with fire dropping from his nostrils, sped over the iron 
rails into the city. 


From the time the engine of the Chicago ct Southwestern Railroad 
pulled her first train into the depot, the city of Trenton began to feel the 
inspiration of a second growth. She snuft'ed the smoke of coming conquests. 


from afar. With the raih'oad and her coal mines, and the immense possi- 
bilities of the future, Trenton began to spread herself, and it must be admit- 
ted that she has succeeded admirably. It is enous^h to cause a genuine 
glow of pride to beam from the honest countenance of every citizen when 
lie contemplates the material progi-ess of the last ten years, and notes the 
increase of population from 920 in 1870 to 3,340 in 1880. With the 
increasing population the corporate limits have kept apace, and with the 
rapid growth and steady demand for more room, additions have been made 
nntil they have numbered twenty-two, and Trenton still grows. These 
new additions have been laid off at right angles from the old town, the new 
streets running north and south, east and west, from Water Street, the main 
thoroughfare of the city, thus leaving old Trenton with her angles and tri- 
angles, her " five corners " and her " seven corners," while the new city 
starts out fair and straight with the world, lier streets lined on either side 
with neat, handsome residences, and tasty front yards with flowers and 
shade trees plentifully bestrewn, showing cultivation, refinement and a love 
of the beautiful in natnre. Adding to this the social characteristics of her 
people, Trenton makes a pleasant and attractive location for homes and 
home enjoyment. 


In point of business enterprise and solid improvement, Trenton is still the 
peer of any town in northern Missouri, in truth she has in the last few 
years distanced all competitors. With her modern outlets for traffic, Tren- 
ton has left behind the slow gro^vth of her early years, and has now fairly 
entered the arena of busy life, to battle with the world for a foothold anions: 
the flourishing cities of the country, and with every muscle strained and 
every nerve at a tension she goes steadily forward on her conquering way, 
the leading commercial city of the Grand River Valley, with no equal 
between Kansas City and Rock Island. 

As before mentioned, twenty-two additions have been made to the city, 
most, if not all, since the advent of the railroad in 1871. The main portion 
of the city lies west of the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific Railroad, and 
south of the Quincy, Missouri (k Pacific. The two roads run nearly at 
right angles. The Quincy, Missouri & Pacific depot is situated just outside 
the city limits, about three-quarters of a mile from the business center. It 
could have been placed nearer but a difficulty appeared in crossing the 
Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific tracks. However, the town will grow, and 
the cheap property out there will serve to draw in that direction. There 
was money in that location to the railroad, but it is not just what was due 
to Trenton. Business has grown with the demands of the people, until 
there is scarcely a branch of trade that is not represented here. The peo- 
ple have become able to indulge in the luxuries as well as the necessaries of 
'life, and this, as a matter of course, has increased trade and caused a demand 


for a class of goods which a few years since woiikl have fomul no buyers, 
hut to-day conmiands a liberal sale. Churches and scliools ai"e nunierous, 
and will receive, as they deserve, notice under a separate bead elsewhere. 

HER SKCOM) i:.\n,I«)AI). 

The completion (»f the Quincy, Missouri cVr Pacific Railroad marks an- 
other pei'iod of [)ro<^"ress for the magic city of the Grand River Valley. It 
gives Trenton a direct eastern outlet, placing her U])on a footing with her 
heretofore more favored sisters. The benefit of this road can be already 
seen by the increase of arrivals looking for business openings. The trade 
of Trenton, after an exhaustive review of the merchants and business men 
by the Trenton Republican, in January, 1876, showed the sales of that 
year, by a fair computation, to exceed $1,200,000. 


Trenton is fortunately located on a site offering all the facilities of a 
large manufacturing towMi. Coal is mined at her door, timber is within 
easy reach and there is not an article manufactured of wood which could 
not be produced here as cheaply as at any point in the State, or in the West. 
Water power, also, is abundant. Furniture, wagon, farm implement, hub 
and spoke factories should find locations here where there is ample room for 
untold development. Cattle and sheep find homes upon the prairies of 
Grundy county and the increased attention given to this branch of farm 
industiy adds other valuable features, in woolen factories and tanneries, and 
these would make a market for the oak bark, while e,^^, beef and pork-pack- 
ing houses would undoubtedly pay. All these industries could and should 
have a location within or near the limits of Trenton. The population would 
double. The completion of the new road M'ould make her freighting facili- 
ties equal to the best, leading to all competing markets and nunierous 
enough to prevent extortion. Taking these advantages altogether, it is 
plain to be seen that the future of Trenton lies in her proper appreciation 
and employment of these benefits, and in consequence, becoming a gieat 
manufacturing city, with the ceaseless buzz and whirr of machinery making 
music from early dawn 'til dewy eve. The stave factory, the woolen and 
flouring-mills, the macliine and repair shops, have already shown to the 
people of Trenton the value of manufacturing development, and urge them 
onward to iiicreased exertion and a detei-mination to reach the goal beyond. 
There is no reason why success, grand, buoyant success, cannot be achieved if 
the people put their shoulders to the wheel and move with a united effort 
toward the one object in view of making Trenton the one leading city in 
population and wealth in this section of Missouri. With the completion of 
the railroads, the opportunity to grasp the scepter of supremacy is at hand 
and the hour is here. Let not the spirit of supineness or illiberality prevail, 
but put fortli the friendly hand of encouragement to capitalists to make 


their homes witliin the borders of this fair city. Keep the good work going 
on and ever let the burnished armor of industry stand well to the front, 
and a future of flourishing prosperity is an assured fact— a practical and 
accomplished reality. 


As one of tlie interesting events in the history of Trenton, below is given 
a verhatim copy, except as to punctuation, of the original deed of eighty 
acres for, and in consideration of, one dollar, and the location of the county 
seat thereon. The deed will be found of record on page 181 of " Book A," 
in the circuit clerk's office, and reads as follows: 

"J. S. LoMAx • 1 

TO V Deed. 

"County of Grundy. ) 

"This ijidenture made and entered into this Sixth day of August in the 
year of our Lord, one Thousand eight hundred and forty-one, by and be- 
tween James S. Lomax, of the county of Grundy and State of Missouri, of 
the first part, and the County of Grundy of the second part, witnesseth: 
That for and in consideration of one dollar in Hand Paid and the Location 
of the County Seat of Grundy County on the Lands hereinafter named, 
adjoining other lands of the said party of the first part, he, the said party 
of the first part, his heirs and assigns, has granted, bargained and sold, and 
by these presents does grant, bargain and sell unto the said party of the 
second part all the right, title, claim and interest which he the party of the 
first part has in law and equity to the following described Land Lying and 
being in Grundy county; to-wit, beginning at the half mile corner stake, 
being the Northwest corner of the North East quarter of section No. 
Twenty, Township No. Sixty-one of Range Twenty-four, Running South 
One hundred and Twenty -five Poles to a steak; Thence East ninety Poles 
to a steak; ttience North Seventy-Eight Poles to a stake; Thence East sev- 
enteen Poles and four links to a stake; Thence North ninety-seven Poles to 
a stake; Thence West one hundred and five Poles to the beginning. Cou- 
tainino; Ei^htv acres. To liave and to hold the aforesaid Tract of Land 
with all and singular the Rights, privileges and appertenances thereunto 
belonging or in any wise appertaining to the said County of Grundy for ever, 
and the said party of the first part, his heirs, executors, administrators and 
assigns will warrant and forever defend the aforesaid Land to the party of 
the second part for ever free from the claim or claims of any and every per- 
son or persons whatevei'. In testimony whereof the party of tlie first part 
has hereunto set liis liand and seal, the day and year aforesaid. 

" (Signed) James S. Lomax [seal]. 


"State OF Missouri, ) g 

" County of Grundy, f 

"Be it remembered tliat on this sixth day of Au<^ust Eighteen hundred 
and fortv-one, personally appeared before me the undersigned clerk of the 
Circuit Court for Grundy county, James S. Loniax and acknowledges the fore- 
going to be his voluntary act and Deed for the purpose therein contained 
and he, the said James S. Lomax, is personally known to me to be the same 
person who signed said deed as having executed the same. Taken and cer- 
tified the day and year above said. In witness whereof, I, Thomas W. 
Jacobs, clerk of the Circuit Court of said County have hereunto Set my 
hand and private Seal affixed, there being no official Seal for said Court yet 
provided. At office the day and year above written. * 

" (Signed) Thomas W. Jacobs, 

" [seal.] ClerJi': 

" The foregoing deed was filed in my office for record on the 6 day of 
August, 1841. 

"(Signed) Th. W. Jacobs, C'Zer^." 

city charter. 

Such is the position, and such the prospect, of the city of Trenton. Her 
earliest record is already written in the pages of the general history of 
Grundy county, and there is little more to be added until the time comes 
when a charter was demanded by the wants of the people and the growth 
of the town. This question had been talked over, and a bill was brought 
before the legislature in the month of February, 1857, for a city charter. 
The bill was passed and became a law, and remained so, with amendatory 
acts, until March 9, 1872, when the charter and its amendment were consoli- 
dated into one act, of which the following is an official copy: 

An Act to amend an act entitled "An act to incorporate the town of Trenton, Grundy 
county," approved February 27, 1857, and all acts amendatory thereof and supplemental 
thereto, and reduce the same into one act. 


Be it enacted by the General Asseinhly of the State of Ifissouri as foU 


Section 1. That an act entitled "An act to incorporate the town of Tren- 
ton, in Grundy county," approved February 27, 1857, and all the acts 
amendatory thereof and supplementary thereto are hereby revised, amended 
and reduced into one act, so as to read as follows: 

Sec. 2. All that portion of country included in the following boundary; 
to-wit. Commencing at the point in the center of Grand River where the 
south line of the southeast quarter of the southeast quarter of section 
number twenty (20), township number sixty-one (61), of range number 


twenty-tour y2-i:), CYO!<:f^e^ saiil river; thence east to tlie soutlieast corner of 
said section number t\venty(^2(^V, tlience north to tlie northeast corner ot 
the southeast quarter of said section number twenty ['20^: thence east to the 
southeast corner of the southwest ([uarter of the northwest quarter of sec- 
tion number twenty-one {^"21^ of said t<>wn>lii|) and rauire: thence north to 
the northeast corner ot the south half of the southwest quarter of the north- 
west quarter of section number sixteen {16) of said townsliip and ranije; 
tlience west to the northwest coruer of tlio soutli half o\' the southeast quar- 
ter of the nortliwest quarter of section number seventeen (17) of said town- 
ship and rauire; thence south to the southwest corner of the northeast quar- 
ter of the southwest quarter ot' said section number twenty ['20); thence 
east to Granri l\iver: thence down said stream, in the center of the main 
channel thereof, to the place of beginning, anti the inhabitants thereof shall 
be. and ai'c hereby constituted, a body politic and corporate, by the name 
and style of "The Town ot' Trenton." and by tliat name ^hall be known in 
law; have ]ier}>etual succession, sue and be sued, plead ami be impleaded, 
defend and be defended against, in all courts of law and equity having com- 
petent jurisdiction, and in all actions and matters whatsoever; nu\v grant. 
lease, purchase, hold and receive property, real and personal. M-ithin the 
limits of said corporation, and no i»ther (burial-grounds excepted), that shall 
be necessary for said town in the exercise of its corporate powers, and may 
lease, sell and in any manner dispose of the >ame for the benetit of said 
town, and may have and use a common seal, and alter or change the same 
at pleasure. 

Sec. 3. If at any time an additi(_ai to said town shall be laid otl". as soon 
as a plat thereof shall be filed in the office of the recorder of (Trundy eonntv 
sucli addition, and tlie inhabitants thereof shall be, to all intents and jmr- 
poses. included in and liecome a part of the eorporaton hereby established. 


Section 1. The corj^orate powei*s ami duties of said corporation shall be 
vested in a mayor, four couneilinen. and a mai'shal and >ucli other (officers 
as are hereafter mentioned. 

Sec. 2 The mayor, conncilmen and marshal shall be chosen by the quali- 
fied voters within the limits of said corporation, and shall hold their offices, 
respectively, for the term of two years, and nntil their suecesors are elected 
and qualified. 

Sec. 3. The mayor shall be a citizen of the United States, and at the 
time of his election shall be at least tweutv-five vears of age, shall be a leo^al 
voter in Grundy county, and shall have resided in said town for the space of 
three months previous to his election ; and no person shall be mayor of said 
town who is in ari-ears in the payment of any tax or other liability due said 


Se(j. i. Tlifc councilinen and raar»hal shal! Vje citizens of the United 
States, and at the time of tlieir election ishall \te at leaAt twenty-one vears of 
age. and reside witliin the limits of .said town, and l^e legal voters under 
this act; nor »hall any jjerson hold the otiioe ot councilman or marshal who 
is subject to any of the disqualifications which, according to this act, prevent 
any jjerson from holding the oflBce of mayor. 

Sec. 5. The mayor and council men shall constitute a town council, of 
which the mayor shall be ex orffieio president, but he shall ha%-e no vote, 
except n case of a tie. 

Sec, 6. The councilmen, at their first meeting after each general elec- 
tion, or as soon thereafter as practicable, shall choose one of their number 
as Tvresident ^/'c- temjjore, who shall hold his office until the next general 
election, and who shall, in the absence of the mayor, preside in the meetings 
of the council, and exercise all the powers and prerogatives conferred upon 
the mayor by this act. 

Sec. 7. The town council shall be the judges of the election returns 
and qualifications of the mayor, members of the conncil, and marshal, and 
shall determine contested elections. 

Sec. 8. A majority of the conncil shall constitute a quorum to do bus- 
iness, but a smaller number may adjonm from day to day, and may compel 
the attendance of absent members, and impose such penalties for snch ab- 
sence as the council may prescribe. 

Sec. 9. The conncil may determine the rules of their proceedings, 
punish their members for disorderly conduct, and, with the concurrence of 
three-fourths of all tlie members, may expel a member for disorderly con- 
duct or breach of ordinance. 

Sec. 10. All vacancies that shall occur in the offices hereinbefore 
created shall be tilled in such a manner as may be provided by ordi- 

Sec. 11. Whenever a tie shall occur for councilmen or marshal, the 
mayor shall, by proclamation, order a new election; and if a tie shall oc- 
cur upon election for mayor, the same shall be determined by a vote of the 

Sec. 12. The stated meetings of the council shall be held as often, and 
at such times and places, as the conncil, by ordinance, shall designate; and 
other and further meetings may be convened by the mayor, or, in liis ab- 
sence, by the president j>/*o tempore^ at any time, in his discretion ; and the 
conncil mav adiouru anv meeting from dav to dav, or to anv time within 
the period fixed for their stated meetings. 

Sec. 13. The mayor or councilmen and marshal shall each, before en- 
tering upon the discharge of their duties, take an oath to support the 
Constitution of the United States and of the State of Missonri, and faith- 
fully to demean themselves in office; and the marshal and treasurer shall 


each enter into bond, in such amount as fixed by ordinance, which bond 
shall be filed with the clerk and approved by the mayor. 


Section 1. The town council shall have power within said town, by or- 
dinance, not repugnant to the laws of the land. 

First — To levy and collect taxes for general or special purposes, on real 
•or personal property, and license: Provided^ however. That no tax shall be 
levied on wearing apparel, nor shall the same be seized or sold for taxes. 

Second — To borrow money on the faith and credit of the town, in such 
form of bonds, notes, bills, tax certificates or warrants, and for such specified 
object and time, as they may think proper. 

Third — To appropriate the money of the town, and provide for the pay- 
ment of its debts and expenses. 

Fourth — To prevent the introduction and spreading of contagious dis- 
eases in the town, and enforce the same to the distance of one mile from the 
limits thereof; to secure the general health of the inhabitants; to estab- 
lish and regulate hospitals; to prevent or abate all nuisances on public or 
private property; to regulate the slaughtering of animals. 

Fifth — To establish, open, abolish, alter, widen, extend, graduate, pave, 
or otherwise improve all streets, avenues, alleys, sidewalks, public grounds 
and squares, and to provide for the lighting, cleaning and repairing of the 

Sixth — To construct and keep in repair all bridges, culverts, sewers and 
drains, and to regulate the use thereof. 

Seventh — To erect, purchase, or rent a town hall, work-house, houses of 
correction, and all other necessary buildings for the use of said town, in- 
side the corporate limits thereof, and to control, manage, sell or otherwise 
dispose of the same; to establish, license and regulate markets, market 
places and meat shops. 

Eighth — To license, to tax and regulate auctioneers, grocers, merchants, 
hotels, public halls, concerts, public lectures, porters, runners, drummers, 
patent-right dealers, brokers, banking or other institutions, hackney car- 
riages, omnibuses, carts, drays and other vehicles, and to fix the rates of 
carriage of persons, and of wagonage, drayage and cartage of property, 

Ninth — To license, tax, regulate or suppress ordinaries, peddlers, street 
exhibitions, dance-houses, fortune-tellers, pistol galleries, lottery ticket 
dealers, billiard tables, or any other table or instruments used for gaming, 
shows, theatrical or other amusements, tippling liquors in any manner, and 
to suppress and prevent gambling or gambling houses, bawdy houses or 
houses of ill-fame or assignation. 

Tenth — To prevent and extinguish fires, regulate, restrain or prohibit 
the erection of wooden buildings within prescribed limits; may regulate the 


storaj^e of gunpowder, coal oil and other combustible materials; the build- 
ino- of flues and chimneys, and the establishment of any manufactory or 
business that is calculated to cause fires or conflagrations. 

Eleventh — To restniin and prevent any riot, rout, noise, disturbance, dis- 
orderly assemblage in any street, house or place in the town, and prohibit 
the running at large of cattle, hogs, or other animals in the limits of the 
town; to prevent and remove all obstructions and encroachments on side- 
walks, streets, avenues, alleys, and all other public property; to prevent the 
firing of fire-arms; to prevent unnecessary and furious driving and rid'ng 
of any horse or other animal in said town; to establish night-watches and 

Twelfth — To impose, collect and enforce fines, forfeitures and penalties 
for the breach of any town ordinance. 

Thirteenth — P'inally, to pass all such ordinances as may be expedient in 
maintaining the peace, good government, health and welfare of the town. 

Sec. 2. Every ordinance or resolution passed by the council shall be 
signed by the mayor, or president jprotem. of the council, and attested by 
the clerk, before it shall take eftect: Provided^ however^ that if the mayor 
shall refuse to sign any ordinance or resolution passed by the council, he 
shall state his objection to the council; when, if such ordinance or resolu- 
tion is again passed by a vote of three-fourths of the councilmen, the same 
shall be considered to be duly passed. 

Sec. 3. The style of the ordinances of this town shall be, "Be it or- 
dained by the council of the town of Trenton.'' 

Sec. 4. All the meetings of the council shall be held publicly, and it 
shall be lawful, at any stated meeting of the council, for any qualified voter 
within the limits of the corporation, to present for the consideration and 
action of the council any ordinance, resolution, or business, and to appear 
by himself or counsel, at any meeting of the council, and discuss any busi- 
ness pending before the same. 

Sec. 5. No ordinance, resolution or order shall be finally passed by the 
council until the same shall have three times been publicly read in the coun- 
cil, and an opportunity shall have been given to discuss the same. 

Sec. 6, All ordinances of the town council may be proven by the seal 
of the corporation, and attested by the clerk; and when such ordinances 
shall have been printed and published by authority of the council, the 
same shall be received in evidence in all courts and places without further 



Section 1. The mayor shall nominate, and, by and with the advice and 
consent of the council, appoint all the town officers not ordered b}' this act 
to be otherwise chosen. He shall be a conservator of the peace within the 


limits of said corporation; and it shall be liis dut^' to see that all the or- 
dinances of the town are rigidly enforced. In case of riot or threatened 
breach of peace, in presence of the mayor, it shall be his duty, immediately, 
to arrest the offender or cause it to be done, in which case no warrant shall 
be necessary, but he may summon the marshal, or such other persons as 
may be there present, whose duty it shall be to assist the mayor in preserv- 
ing the peace, and in arresting and securing offenders, and all such as pre- 
vent the mayor or any of his assistants in the discharge of their duties. He 
may remit fines and grant reprieves in any case arising under the town or- 
dinances. He shall have exclusive original jurisdiction over all cases aris- 
ing under this act, and over all cases arising under any ordinance of the 
town, made in conformance to this act, subject, however, to an appeal or 
certiorari in all cases above the sum of five dollars, to the Circuit Court of 
Grundy county, and such appeal and certiorari shall be granted and taken 
in the same manner as appeals are granted and taken from justices of the 
peace in the Circuit Court. He shall have the same power to compel the 
attendance of witnesses as justices of the peace now have. He shall be 
eX: officio justice of the peace within and for Trenton township, in Grundy 
county, and have the same jurisdiction in all cases, and, when sitting as 
justice of the peace, be governed by the same laws; and transcripts from 
his docket shall, in all cases, have the same effect and be entitled to the 
same lien as transcripts from the docket of a justice of the ])eace. He may 
issue his warrant and cause to be apprehended and brought to summary 
trial all persons accused of violating any of the town ordinances; he shall 
grant the accused the right to be tried by six competent jurors, who, if they 
find him guilty, shall assess his fine according to the ordinances; and if any 
person fined, as aforesaid, shall refuse to pay such fine, the mayor may send 
him to jail or otherwise imprison him for a period not exceeding twenty 
days. Fines, penalties and forfeitures may be recovered in a summary man- 
ner, as aforesaid, or they may be recovered by action of debt in the may- 
or's court. He shall cause to be made out, at the end of each fiscal year, a 
complete and detailed statement of all moneys received and expended, which 
statement shall be published in such manner as the council shall direct. 

Sec. 2. In case of a vacancy in the otfice of mayor, or of inability of 
the mayor on account of absence, sickness or otherwise, to discharge the 
duties and powers prescribed in section one of article four of this charter, 
the same shall devolve on any member of the town council until such va- 
cancy be filled, or inability removed. 

Skc. '3. The mayor may be removed from ofiice for any misdemeanor 
by a vote of three-fourths of the councilmen. 

Sec. 4. There shall be a clerk of the town council, a town treasurer 
and assessor, a street commissioner, and a corporation attorney, who, in ad- 
dition to the duties prescribed by this act, shall perform such other du- 


ties as may be prescribed by ordinance. Tliere shall be such other officers, 
agents and servants of the corporation as may be provided by ordinance, 
who shall be appointed by the mayor, by and with the advice and consent 
(•f the councilmen, and who shall perform such duties and receive such 
compensation as may be provided by ordinance; and all the appointed offi- 
cers, before entering upon the discharge of their duties, shall take the same 
oath as prescribed in this act for mayor, marshal and councilmen, and shall 
be reniovable by the council at pleasure. 

Sec. 5. It shall be the duty of the clerk of the council to keep a journal 
of the proceedings of the council and to record in a separate book all the 
ordinances and resolutions appropriating money. He shall keep and pre- 
serve, in his office, the common seal of the corjjoration, and all records, pa- 
pers and documents of the town not properly belonging to some other 
office, and shall perform such other duties and receive such compensation 
as may be fixed by ordinance. 

Sec. 6. It shall be the duty of the treasurer to receive and receipt for 
all moneys belonging to said town, and pay out the same on warrants 
drawn by the mayor and attested by the clerk. 

Sec. 7. The marshal, within the limits of the corporation, shall possess 
the same powers, perform the same duties and receive the same fees and 
compensation as the constable of Trenton township in Grundy county, for 
similar services. He shall execute and return all process to him directed, 
and may serve criminal process and subpoena anywhere in Grundy county 
for offenses committed within the limits of the corporation. He shall collect 
all fines, forfeitures and penalties accruing to said town, and shall collect 
all taxes levied in said town, and pay the same over to the town treasurer, 
and settle with the council as often as the council may prescribe; and for 
collecting taxes, and for services not above enumerated shall receive such 
compensation as may be prescribed by ordinance. 

Sec. 8. The assessor shall perform such duties, and receive such compen- 
• sation as may be fixed by ordinance. 

Sec. 9. It shall be the duty of the corporation attorney to prosecute or 
defend on behalf of the corporation in all suits instituted by or against said 
town ; and if he have personal knowledge of the breach of any ordinance 
or if he have satisfactory information by verbal statement or otherwise, that 
any of the ordinances of said town have been violated, it shall be his duty 
to prepare a complaint, under his hand, against the accused, substantially 
setting forth the offense complained of, and present the same to the mayor 
who shall issue his warrant and cause the offender to be apprehended and 
summarily tried, as hereinbefore specified; and in all such cases it shall be 
his duty to prosecute to final judgment all suits instituted by him. In all 
actions for breaches of ordinances, if the accused is found guilty, or if, in an 
action in the mayor's court, judgment be rendered against the defendant, in 


addition to other costs of the proceedings, there shall be taxed against the 
defendant a fee of two dollars and fifty cents as corporation attorney's fee; 
and for all such other services he shall receive such compensation as may 
be fixed by ordinance. 

Sec. 10. It shall be the duty of the street commissioner to superintend 
in executing all ordinances of said town for removing nuisances, for erecting 
and repairing bridges, for opening and forming public squares, avenues, 
drains and sewers, and for keeping the same clean and in order, and for 
opening, cleaning, regulating, grading, paving or otherwise improving the 
streets and alleys within said town, and shall receive such compensation as 
shall be fixed by ordinance. 


Section 1. A general election for all officers of the cor^^oration, required 
to be elected by this act, shall be held on the first Tuesday after the first 
Monday in September, 1873, and every two years thereafter, at such place in 
said town as may be fixed by ordinance. 

Sec. 2. At all elections for town officers the voters shall vote by ballot. 

Sec 3. Three judges and two clerks shall be appointed by the town 
council previous to each general or special election, wlio shall each take an 
oath faithfully and impartially to discharge their duties. They shall open 
the polls at nine o'clock in the morniug, and keep them open until four 
o'clock in the afternoon, when they shall proceed forthwith to ascertain and 
certify the result of the election. 

Sec. 4. If, on the day appointed for holding any town election, the judges 
or clerks, or any of them, fail to attend, the electors may appoint judges or 
clerks to hold such election. 

Sec. 5. All persons who are qualified to vote at State elections in this 
State, and who shall have resided within the limits of said corporation three 
months, shall be deemed qualified voters at all elections for town ofiicers. 

Sec. 6. Special elections to fill vacancies shall be held under such regu- 
lations as may be provided by ordinance. 

Sec. T. All officers elected or appointed under the provisions of this act 
shall hold their offices until their successors shall be duly elected or appointed 
and qualified according to law. 

article VI REVENUE. 

Section 1. The town council shall have power by ordinance to prescribe 
the form of assessment rolls, and prescribe the duties and define the powers 
of the town assessor: Provided^ That the town assessor shall have the same 
power as State assessors. The council may also make such rules and give 
such directions in relation to the revising, altering or adding to the rolls as 
they may deem proper and expedient. 


Sec. 2. The council shall have power and authority to levy and collect 
upon all property, real and personal, taxable by law for State purposes, 
within the limits of said town, and not by general law exempt from mu- 
nicipal taxation, not exceeding one-half of one per centum ])er annum upon 
the assessed value thereof, to defray the contingent and other expenses of 
the town not herein otherwise provided for, which taxes shall constitute the 
general fund. 

Sec. 3. The council shall, each fiscal year, levy and cause to be collected 
a tax on all the real and personal property taxable by law for State pur- 
poses, within the limits of said town, and not by general law exempt from 
municipal taxation, sufficient for the payment of all interest and bonds for 
the payment of which said town is liable during said fiscal year, which year 
shall commence on the first day of April, and end on the thirty -first day of 
March following; and said tax, when collected, shall be applied exclusively 
to such payment and to no other. 

Sec. 4. The council shall have power to levy and collect a poll-tax not 
exceeding one dollar and fifty cents for every year, upon all male persons, 
residents of the town, over the age of twenty-one and under fifty years; and 
such additional tax upon all taxable property within said town as they may 
think proper, not exceeding one-half of one per cent, which poll and prop- 
erty tax shall be appropriated to the improvement of the streets within the 
limits of said town, and to no other purpose. All residents of the town 
shall be exempt from working on public roads or highways beyond the 
limits of the town, and from paying any tax on property within the town 
for keeping the same in repair. The council shall also have power to levy 
and collect a tax on dogs, not exceeding five dollars nor less than one dol- 
lar for each year, whether male or female. 

Sec. 5. Whenever it sliall appear to the town council that a sidewalk 
is needed for public convenience along any avenue or street, or whenever 
the owners of a majority of the real estate fronting on any avenue, street or 
block thereof, shall petition the town council to construct sidewalks along 
the side or sides of such avenue, street or block thereof, the town council 
shall order an assessment to be made of all property fronting on the avenue, 
street or block along which the proposed walk is to be constructed, and 
shall levy and collect a special tax, according to the extent of the respective 
fronts sufficient to make the sidewalk ordered to be made or petitioned for, 
which shall be applied to that purpose and no other: Provided^ That the 
council may permit any owner of property fronting on the proposed side- 
walk to construct the same, under direction of the street commissioner, in 
strict conformity in all respects with the remainder of the sidewalks on 
such avenue, street or block. 

Sec. 6. The general and special taxes, levied by the town on property 
in conformity with the powers granted by this charter, shall constitute a 


lien on the property against which they are levied until paid, and the town 
council shall have power to cause real estate to be sold for delinquent taxes^ 
in such manner as they may provide by ordinance, and to cause to be exe- 
cuted by the marslial, deed or deeds for lots or lands when sold for non-pay- 
ment of taxes due the town; and such deeds, when executed, shall be 
received in like manner and have the same force and effect as State tax- 
deeds by the general laws of the State; and the council may provide for 
the redemption of lots or lands sold for non-payment of town taxes, in such 
manner as shall not be inconsistent with the laws of this State, and may in 
the same manner give power to the marshal to levy upon and sell any per- 
sonal property delinquent for taxes. 


Section 1. When it shall be necessary to take private property for open- 
ing, widening or altering any public street, avenue or alley the corporation 
shall make a just compensation therefor to the person whose property is so 
taken, and if the amount of such compensation cannot be agreed upon,, 
the mayor shall cause the same to be assessed by a jury of six disinterested 
freeholders of the town. 

Sec. 2. When the owners of all the property on the street, avenue or 
alley, proposed to be opened, widened or altered, shall petition therefor, 
the town council may open, widen or alter such street, avenue or alley, 
upon conditions to be presented by ordinance, but no compensation shall in 
such case be made to those whose property shall be taken for the opening, 
widening or altering such street, avenue or alley, nor shall there be any as- 
sessment for the benefit or damage that may accrue thereby to any of the 

Sec. 3. All jurors impaneled to inquire into the amount of benefit or 
damage which shall happen to the owner of property taken for opening,, 
widening or altering any street, avenue or alley, shall be first sworn to that 
effect, and shall return to the mayor their verdict, in writing, signed by 
each juror. 

Sec. 4. The mayor shall have power, for good cause shown, within ten 
days after any verdict shall have been returned to him, as aforesaid, to set 
the same aside and cause a new assessment to be made, which new assess- 
ment shall be final. 

Sec. 5. In assessing the amount of compensation for property taken for 
opening, widening or altering any street, avenue or alley, the juroz-s shall 
take into consideration the benefit as well as the injury happening to any 
person by such opening, widening or altering such street, avenue or alley. 

Sec. 6. The council shall have the power, by ordinance, to direct and 
regulate the working and improving of all streets, avenues, alleys, sewers, 
and drains in said town, and provide for the lighting and cleaning of the 
streets, avenues and alleys. 



Section 1. The ordinances of said town, as revised under this cliarter, 
which are of a general cliaracter, shall l)e published within six months after 
the passage of this act; and it shall be the duty of the town council to cause 
to be printed in pamphlet form, for distribution at the end of each munici- 
pal year, all the ordinances passed during said year and then in force. 

Sec. 2. All ordinances passed by the council of said town shall provide 
for a single object only, which shall be clearly set forth in the title thereof. 

Sec 3. In pleading any ordinance of said town, or a right derived 
therefrom, it shall be sufficient to refer to such ordinance by the title and 
the day of its passage. 

Sec. 4. All ordinances, regulations and resolutions now in force, and not 
inconsistent with the provisions of this act, shall remain and be in full force 
until altered, modified or repealed by the town council. 

Sec 5. This act is hereby declared to be a public act, and may be read 
in evidence in all courts of law or equity in this State, without proof. 

Sec 6. The general assembly may, at any time, alter, amend or repeal 
this charter. 

Sec 7. All acts or parts of acts heretofore passed inconsistent with this 
act are hereby repealed. 

Sec 8. This act shall take effect and be in force from and after its pa 

Approved, March 9, 1872. 


Below will be found a verhatim copy of the original survey of the town 
of Trenton, dated August 7, 1841. The document is yellow with age and 
almost a total wreck. For years it was thrown around the court-house, 
sometimes reposing on dusty shelves and at others stowed away in some 
forgotten pigeon-hole or drawer. In a general cleaning up made in 1875, 
the old relic was found, and filed for record just thirty-four years after it 
was drawm up. It is indorsed : " Plat of the county seat of Grundy county"; 
and further down appears: "Filed for record, August 20th, 1875. J. JB. 
Berry, recorder." The document reads: 

" By order and under the directions of the commissioners appointed by 
the legislature to locate the permanent county seat of Grundy county, I 
precedes, after being duly qualified, to procession the land selected by said 
commissioners; to-wit. Beginning at the half-mile corner stake, being the 
northwest corner of the northeast quarter of section twenty, range twenty- 
four and township sixty-one. Thence south 125 poles to a stake bearing s. 
46, w. 17 links from a white oak and N. 67, w. 23 links from a hickory. 
Thence east 90 poles to a stake bearing n. Q^, w. 21 links from a small white 



oak, also s. 23, e. 1 pole from a large white oak. Thence north 28 poles to 
a stake, thence east 17 poles and 4 links to a stake. Thence north 97 poles 
to a stake. Thence west 105 poles to the beginning. Containing eighty 
acres. The fields notes of which survey is hirin reported to the County 
Court of Grundy county. August 7, 1841. 

" (Signed), Geoe&e W. Poage, Sur. 

" Surveyors fees 16. dollars." 

On the opposite page appears the following: 






S; : 
C : 



1 1 

— 1 )— -* 


90 P. 1 1 



"A plat of the county seat of Grundy county. Laid down on a scale of 
fifty poles to the inch, with a vernation of 9^ digrees to the left of the nedle, 
with the exception of the line B C which is laid ofi' with a vernation of 10 
digrees to the 1-eft. 

" The boundary A M L K, represents n. e. J of section 20, township 61 
and range 24, out of which the county seat plat is taken. 

" (Signed), Geokge W. Poage, Sur." 


There are several incidents of the early days of Trenton, and some claims- 
to be spoken of which cannot be admitted. Rev. Elijah Merrill is supposed 
to have been the first preacher in Grundy county, and it is said he preached' 


in the log Baptist clinreli which served as a])hxce foi' holding court as well 
as preacliing. Tliere are at least two who antedate the Rev. Mr. Merrill, 
Miss Bernettie Moore was, and is sup])Osed to be the first white child born 
in Grnndy county, and yet she was born in 1840; we have mentioned one, 
if not two who were born previous to that date. 

Back to the above date, or a little earlier, Geo. W. Moberly opened the 
lirst tailor shop in the town of Trenton, and also kept some fine spirits, 
which were supposed to be very good. Some put this back to 1838. The 
price was from eighteen to twenty-five cents ])er gallon. 

The first school was at the house of Levi Moore and he employed James 
Carson at fifteen dollars per month as teacher. This was not earlier than 
1837; and 1838 has been mentioned as the date. This information came 
from a son of Levi and Rachel Moore. 

The first tavern, for there were very few hotels in those days, in Trenton 
was kept by Jeremiah Snyder, in 1840. 

After Lomax, Thrailkill, and others, John C. GrifUn opened a general 
store in Trenton, in February, 1841. 

In 1842 Mr. Wm. Collier fixed up some seats in a building he had and 
gave it free for a temporary place of worship. This was the next place of 
worship to the old Baptist log church spoken of. Mr. Collier proved to be 
one of the most public spirited men of that day, and pressed the work of 
keeping up religious worship, and in 1848 a church was organized, and he 
became an elder and deacon. Mr. William Collier was the first P. M. we 
have any account of. 

In 1850 an inn-keeper's license was granted to J. H. Cooper, and he 
opened the Union Hotel on Water Street, The town of Trenton was incor- 
porated that year, 1850, and the above license was the first issued that any 
account can be found of. The petition for the incorporation of the town has 
not been found, nor the names of the petitioners, but the following refers to 
it, and is the order of the County Court granting the same. It reads: 

" March Term County Court, 1850. 

" Daniel Wright and other citizens of Trenton presented a petition to the 
court praying for an incorporation, the metes and bounds of which are laid 
down on plat of said town, which petition was received and their prayer 


[^The plat referred to is incorporated in the city charter. — Ed.] 

" Ordered, That Dr. James Cooper, Jeremiah Snyder, Wm. Benson, Joseph Winters and D. 
T. Wright, be and are hereby appointed trustees for the incorporation of said town of 

Still, Trenton might be considered as slow of growth. What she gained, 
however, was solid. The county itself was improving slowly in regard to 


population. Quite a number of immigrants came in in 1850-51 and tlie town 
o-rew, but only as the demands of the people of the county warranted, 

A map of Trenton was authorized by the County Court June 5, 1855, and J. 
H. Shanklin was the person named to get it up, the sum of fifteen dollars being 
allowed by the court for the purpose, but at this time very little is known 
of said map. 

The completion of the Hannibal & St. Joseph Railroad to Chillicothe in 
February, 1858, was quite an era in the history of all this country. It was 
a great benefit to Grundy county so far as it gave the people an outlet by 
rail from that point. This was taken advantage of by the citizens, and 
Chillicothe was made the focus of Grundy county trade when home mer- 
chants failed to fill the bill. Undoubtedly Trenton would have grown and 
prospered materially, and far more rapidly, if the break had not come in 
the deadening eifects of the civil war. It was not only the time the war 
continued that was lost, but it so demoralized everything that the popu- 
lation of 1860 was little more than a natural healthy increase without im- 
migration. Those years were dark and gloomy ones for Trenton, as it was 
a period of gloom and despondency for the whole country. Organized 
bands of thieves raided the whole country, and Trenton appointed a patrol 
to guard the city at night from these migratory bands. The men were 
allowed twenty-five cents an hour while in performance of their duty. The 
first organization of a patrol was in December, 1860, and was for the town- 
ship. Jos. Kennedy was made captain and his men were Chas. G. Chand- 
ler, Wm. Collier, Jr., John W. Rice, Alfred Blew. They patrolled three 
hours each night. Jos. Kennedy declined to serve and so Reuben Shinn 
took his place as captain and was engaged for one year. 


The progress of Trenton the next few years was marked by her struggle 
for railway communication, and on the success of that project depended al- 
most the life of the town. She began to make solid improvement and was 
growing fast after it was ascertained that the Chicago & Southwestern Railway 
would really make Trenton a point. In 1869 buildings were put up to the 
value of $65,707, and for a town of something less than a thousand people 
showed wonderful progress. Her energies, however, were far from being 
exhausted, and the year 1870, though not quite as heavy building operation 
went on, still the amount reached $56,735. Other business had also rapidly 
improved and 1870 was one of general prosperity. 

In 1871 Trenton was represented by the following business houses, which 
shows a pretty good assortment. There were five dry good stores, three 
drug stores, five family groceries, one hardware and agricultural implements, 
two agricultural agencies, one furniture store, one hotel, three meat markets, 
one lumber yard, four carpenter shops, three blacksmith shops, three wagon 


makers, one tin and stove store, one harness shop, five boarding-houses, one 
restaurant, one boot and shoe store, two milliners, three paint shops, two 
livery stables, two barber shops, one tannery, three ilouring-mills, one woolen 
factory, one marl)le yard, one printing oftice, one seminary, two school- 
liouses, three churches, three land agents, one photogra])h gallery, one bank, 
one gunsmith, two jewelry stores, one tailor shop, six doctors, fifteen law- 
yers, and insurance agents too numerous to mention. Each taxpayer had 
personal property to the value of $300 exempt from taxation. The popu- 
lation had increased from 920 to 1,075, and the valuation of city property 
was $214,685.75. The school building was finished, of which will be found 
a description in the school history of Trenton. 


•About this time Trenton took a new departure, put on city airs, and by 
and with the consent of P. Y. Yakey came out with that article of a city's 
prime necessity, a milk wagon. Mr. Yakey inaugurated this necessary re- 
form, but the first time around his modesty got the better of his judgment 
and he walked into the house of each customer and announced his presence 
and his milk. All this, however, wore oft', and in a few days Mr. Yakey 
could give his little l)ell one of those sharp taps which bids a lazy customer 
to hurry up, with the twang of an expert. This necessary luxury Mr. 
Yakey was prepared to keep up winter and summer. Mr. Yakey started 
on his first round of delivery November 30, 1870. 


It was on June 24, 1871, that the citizens of Trenton were fully per- 
suaded that the " year of jubilee" had come: their faith was the size of a 
mountain in that belief, and there never was a people so tired as they were 
that night and so supremely happy. They could talk and shout, that is the 
few that were not alread}^ hoarse from undue exertion in that line, but they 
could not sleep, and quite a number went down in the morning to see if the 
thing had really staid all night. But to the feature of all this happiness. 


On the morning of June 14th, 1871, at precisely nine o'clock in the morn- 
ing the tfack laying of the Chicago & Southwestern Kailroad crossed the 
line of Mercer into Grundy county. On the morning of June 24th, 1871, at 
eleven o'clock, the first rail was laid within the corporate limits of Trenton, 
and at three o'clock p. m. of the same day the last spike had been driven at 
the depot. A vast crowd was gathered and ere the ring of the hammer had 
ceased " three cheers and a tiger" rent the air, and Trenton was in railroad 
communication with the outside world. A free ride to Tindall and return 
was given those who wished to go on the construction train, the people 


returning that night in the lirm belief, that no matter what the futnre might 
bring forth, Trenton's fate would be a happy one and her progress i-apid. Of 
this belief, the past ten years have proven the truth and from a population of 
920 she has one of quite 4,000. 


While their joy was great and their hopes high, there was still one more 
event which they were very anxious should happen and if that were obtained 
for Trenton then their cup of joy would not only be full but running over. 
As the saying is, it never rains but it pours, or that one streak of luck brings 
another, proved true in Trenton's case, and it was not long before the 
grand prize was dropped into her arms. The machine works and repair 
shops were located here. When that was decided, it was necessary that 
some demonstration should be made to let oif a little of the joy which was 
too much to bear. A big meeting was called, the people cheered and 4th of 
July oratory, real spread eagle style, was indulged in. Col. Shanklin, and 
C. H. Manson, who was up from Chillicothe, succeeded in doing the wind 
work in a surprisingly graceful and popular manner. The people of Tren- 
ton retired to their homes throughly convinced that they had won the stakes 
and that there were no more worlds to conquer. 

CLOSE OF 1871. 

The first merchant tailor, that is, exclusively in the business, in Trenton, 
was S. V. Spnrling and he opened that year, 1871, and in March of the same 
year R. F. Derick opened the first exclusively boot and shoe house. 


Onward March. 1872 — First Fire-company — Building Association — Brewery — Financial 
— Crash — Railroad Business — Public Library — Gas Works — Hotels— Banks— Trenton 
Silver Cornet Band — Passing Events — Prehistoric— Gala Day — Depot Burned — Tele- 
graph— ^Trenton's Business Houses. 

The Elmore House and other first-class buildings showed the energy and 
enterprise of the Trentonians, and the year 1872 proved a boom in the build- 
ing line. Trenton expended $101,000 that year to increase her residence 
and business property. That was progress, and progress of that kind makes 

The business of Trenton in 1872 amounted to the handsome sum of $502,- 
000. In excess of that tlie freight paid on shipments and receipts amounted 


in the ag^grc^ate, to $80,000, and tlie inaclune-sliops and departments showed 
an expenditure the same year of $125,000. 

There were fines assessed for the year 1872 amounting to $560.50, and 
the amount the city received from licenses, from saloons, billiards, circuses, 
etc., reached the sum of $1,091.50. By order of the city council this last 
sum was appropriated for the grading and repairing of the streets and side- 
walks, and this history records the tact that it would be a great improve- 
ment to the city of Trenton if more saloons were in full blast, if thereby the 
sidewalks could be improved. In choosing between the evils of saloons and 
the present condition of the sidewalks, all will favor the saloons. The side- 
walks are simply execrable. 

In August, 1873, the stave factory was started by J. M. Robertson and 
J. M. Leedy, and it was for a while one of the institutions of the city. 

The house known at that time as the Central Hotel, near the depot, was 
opened in August, 1873, with D. S. Miller as proprietor. The house is 
known at this date as the Trenton House. 


The first fire-company was organized in Trenton April 2, 1873, with 
thirty-eight members. The following oflScers were selected to take charge 
of the company and look to an increase of membership: Foreman, Levi 
Greer; first assistant, James Guerin; second assistant, George W. Smith; 
secretary, Robert A. Collier; treasurer, J. W. Smith; and the name given 
it was the '' Trenton Fire King." In June of the same year the organiza- 
tion had increased to sixty members on the roll, the limit being eighty, 


One of those wild vagaries which always strike a gi-owing town got a 
slight grip on Trenton in the year 1873. The town was growing and thei-e 
were man}" new projects started. They had secured a railroad, machine- 
shops, even put up a first-class hotel and started a national bank, and not 
finding anything more of a practical nature and within the scope of their 
financial resources, concluded to step outside of both, and the grand idea 
culminated in the organization of a grand building association, with a modest 
capital of only $600,000. To be sure the real and personal property of Trenton 
had been assessed at just $445,467 the same year, but there was not a parti- 
cle of doubt that the citizens, or rather the incorporation could, after taking 
in the city and its assets, secure the small sum remaining of $155,000, or 
thereabouts, to make up their capital stock. It was a " big thing," and the 
wealthiest men in the city were put in as directors to give the association a 
handsome start. The idea was worthy of the genius of those who love to 
build air-castles, but to the plain, matter-of-fact business man, just where 
tlie money was to come from, or where the profit would come in, was past 



their judgment, and so they looked on and wondered at the magnificent 
scheme, but kept their grip on their pocket-books. They took a just pride 
in the fact that sucli a rich corporation or association could be started, and 
even the suggestion of such a scheme caused them to feel proud of their 
leading citizens. Still they preferred to get rich by the sweat of their 
brows, and the author of this history is sorry to record that the association 
was a dead failure after six months of a not over healthy existence. The 
following were the first and last directors of the association : W. B. Eogers, 
E. O. Carscadin, Robert P. Carnes, C. E. Dudley, E. Eeams, J. E. Eupp^ 
E. V. Young, George W. Smith, W. T. Beachem, John Tannehill, Joseph 
McMullen, Solomon Stewart and J. M. Leedy. The capital stock, as before 
stated, was $600,000, divided into 1,200 shares of $500 each. Directors 
were to be elected annually, on the first Monday in May of each year. The 
board of directors were to elect their own officers from the directory, which 
would secure a close corporation. Those who couldn't pay all down for a 
share could do so in weekly installments. Notwithstanding this last accom- 
modation the scheme failed, and in November, 1873, the most magnificent 
project ever offered to the citizens of Trenton "passed in its checks." 


In the winter of 1873-74 a brewery was built just outside the city limits 
on the banks of the Grand Eiver, not far from the river bridge, and on the 
corner of what is known as the Gilham farm. The building was in size 
forty by eighty feet, the machinery was received December 12, 1873, and it 
commenced operation as soon as it could be arranged. Its proprietors were 
Messrs. Bauer, Kraner & Schaub, and they were from Ottumwa, Iowa. 
Mr. Schaub took the active management of the business, and for a year suc- 
ceeded very well; but the business seemed to decline after that and he lost 
all he had, and what his partners put in they lost. The brewery burned 
down in the fall of 1876, and the ground fell into the hands of the Shank- 
lin & Austin Bank. The unfortunate termination of this business venture 
made it the last as well as the first brewery in Trenton. 


The crash of 1878 and 1874, which swept thousands of business men into 
bankruptcy and ruin, and brought other thousands to the verge of starva- 
tion, passed Trenton with scarcely a breath of its destroying force. What 
proved in some parts of the county a simoon, carrying poison in its breath, 
and wilting all that came in its path, passed Trenton as mildly as a zephyr. 

Buildings continued to go up, business prospered and the growth of the, 
town kept pace with its business. The coal mines and the machine-shops 
came to the front, and with the money they distributed monthly kept stag- 
nation away from the doors of its citizens. All around was the crash felt. 



Chillicothe felt its poisonous faiifrs sink dce]> into its business vitals, and she 
lies tu-day a wreck, scarcely a hundred more in population than a decade ago, 
and the value of ])roperty far below its former price. Trenton was growing- 
and it has continued to grow, and in this year 1881 nearly rivals in popu- 
lation and wealth her sister city, Chillicothe, while a decade since she 
had but one-fourth of her population. This is the age of progress, and the 
city or the man that waits for something to turn up, is destined to be badly 
left in the race for wealth — wealth that is so necessary to build a town or 
secure a home. Trenton continued to move forward, adding to the area of 
her boundary, building business houses and residences, and making sure by 
active work that her progress should not be impeded or her future become 
less promising. 

In 1875 the demand for new buildings continued, and it was seen that a 
more extensive building arrano-ement would have to be made than at first 
contemplated. Many new-comers found rents high while many more were 
forced to board, because vacant houses could not be found. With this de- 
mand on its hands, Trenton put forth her exertions and by January 1st, 1876, 
had put up buildings to tlie value of $71,850. That was what the year 1S75 
brought and it added w^onderfully to the growth of the city. 

The railroad property was assessed at $98,246.51 within the city limits- 
of Trenton. There were paid out for telegraphic dispatches by the citizens 
of Trenton for the year 1875, $1,551.75, and right on top of that light- 
nino- business a " silver cornet band" was oro-anized, but it died, and those 
living in the neighborhood where they practiced uttered thanks and sang- 
paeans of joy. 

December, 1875, had the honor of inaugurating street lamps, and one 
here and there can be found at this day. 

A cold blooded murder was committed on the 15tli day of October, 1875,^ 
by a rough, named Dick Mitchell, and the victim of the shooting and of 
his brutal revenge, was a Mrs. Jane Sayers, alias Fitzgerald, a courtesan. 


The railroad business of Trenton, for 1875, amounted to 452 car loads 
shipped, and the sum of $35,722.07 was taken in on freight received, and 
on shipment the amount was $33,911.24. In the passenger department 
tickets to the amount of $12,349.20 were sold during the year. 

The amount of money paid out for labor, which included all making their 
home or stopping at Trenton, the machine-shop workmen, engineers, etc., 
was $93,806. 

There were used by the engines and shops at Trenton 13,360,000 pounds 
of coal the same year. There were also used at this point 13,396 gallons of 
oil, and 19,116 pounds of waste. 

Perhaps future generations could have no better idea of what the soil of 



Grundy produces, the variety of her productions, and her stock-raising bus- 
iness, than to give the contents of those 452 cars. Here it is: 


Horses and mules 4 Cattle 61 

Hogs 149 Sheep 11 

Wheat 35 Oats 65 

Rye 31 Corn 10 

Seed, grass and hay 23 Apples 6 

Potatoes. . . 2 Lumber 21 

Staves and heading 11 Hoop-poles 15 

Wool 8 

Total car loads 452 


An attempt was -made January 4, 18Y6, to establish a public library in 
Trenton, and a meeting of gentlemen took place at the office of Luther 
Collier. A committee was appointed to seek subscriptions of membership, 
which was placed at five dollars. Another committee was appointed to 
draft a constitution and by-laws, and after some talk, and further matters 
considered, the meeting adjourned to meet at the same place in one week, 
January 15th. It never met, if it did it is not recorded in the papers of 
that day, or by any other sign, that a library association was ever one of 
the institutions of Trenton. Yet good men attended that meeting, men 
•of attainment and public spirit, but they were too few, and they are 
still too few for Trenton's good. However, this attempt was undoubtedly 
the starting which gave to Trenton her public school library, which was 
secured the following 3'ear. * 


The fourth of July, 1876, and the centennial day of our national exist- 
ence came along, and while all the people could not attend the Philadelphia 
Exposition and see the wonders of man's genius from all parts of the globe, 
they could come to Trenton and enjoy themselves, and air their patriotism, 
which was just as strong and enduring as if the}' had exhibited it in the 
halls of the World's Exposition. It was the biggest " fourth of July " ever 
seen in Trenton. The day was splendid, and the celebration was carried on 
in a magnificent manner. It wasn't exactly a centennial for old Grundy, 
but she put in four decades of life and celebrated it by one of the most 
attractive features of the day, and that was a short but very interesting his- 
tory of Grundy county, from its first white settlement to that day, by Geo. 
H. Hubbell, and added to that was a centennial poem, read by its author. 
Dr. Cole. These were productions of high merit, and both the gen- 
tlemen were handsomely complimented by the large concourse of people, 


for the rich literary treat given tliein. Thiis, with fireworks, ended the cen- 
tennial fourth in Trenton, and it will be to those who were there to enjoy 
it, the " fourth of July " of their history and remembrance. 


A proposition was made the same year to the city of Trenton, to build 
gas works. The city council met, discussed the merit of the proposal, and 
concluded to accept it. The party or parties were notified that while Tren- 
ton boasted a supply of the article manufactured from wind by some of her 
best legal and oratorical lights, that it was a poor quality for illuminating 
purposes, so to speak, and that coal gas for lighting the streets would be 
preferal)le, and their proposition was accepted. Just what scared the j^er- 
sons who made the proposition was not known, but they were not heard of 
afterward, and Trenton still glories in her street lamps, and the illumination 
of Qoal oil. 

Of course it is not known whether the people of one generation are like 
another, but while the following may not be exactly history, yet future gen- 
erations, who may happen to have the style of people mentioned below, 
will know they bloomed and flourished in earlier days, and that this class of 
people, like history, repeat themselves. 

The editor of the Trenton Republican was constrained to publish August 
2, 1874:, the following from personal observation: 

" It is remarkable to see how easy it is for some men to raise money to 
hire a horse and buggy to go out and see afoot-race, who never have a nickel 
to give to the Sunday-school or church." 

Undoubtedly it is somewhat remarkable, while it is a solemn fact, yet 
such is life, and Grundy county and the city of Trenton probably have their 
full share, and history will so record it. 


In December, 1871, the night of the 16th, a meeting was held to inaugu- 
rate the building of a first-class hotel. Mr. J. M. Eoberts, of Centerville, 
Iowa, was present, and offered to take from $8,000 to $10,000 worth of 
stock in a building of that kind. A committee was appointed to solicit 
subscriptions, but the project fell through. The matter, however, was not 
allowed to die out, and in June, 1872, the plan for the Elmore House was 
accepted, and the work begun. The house was to be of brick, three stories 
high, 70x100 feet, and substantially built. The owners were Spitler, Her- 
ring ct Elmore, the house being named after the latter gentleman. It was 
finished in 1873, and met with varying success, changing hands several 
times in the matter of landlords, until June 1, 1878, when it was leased by 
L. D. Baily, of the Baily Brothers, the popular dry goods merchants of 
Trenton, and since that day the house has continued to grow in popularity. 


The '' Elmore Honse,'" under its present able management, has achieved a 
wide-spread reputation as a first-class hotel, and Mine Host " Baily," has 
proven himself a prince among landlords. 


In April, 1877, Mr. J. Meloney, who owned the property, gave out a con- 
tract to build a hotel on Water Street, near the Chicago, Kock Island & 
Pacific depot, and the contract was taken by Mr. C. Hall. Mr. Meloney 
and his father-in-law, who was with him, came from Washington, Washing- 
ton county, Iowa. Mr. Hall finished his work, and announced August 1st 
that the building was completed. It was named the " American House,'^ 
and Mr. Meloney took charge as landlord and proprietor. The house had 
cost rather more than contemplated, and beyond Mr. Moloney's financial 
ability to meet, and he gave up the property and returned to Iowa. The 
property is owned by Mr. Milton Crow, and lie leased the house to Mr. 
Thomas B. Harber soon after. The hotel has sustained a well merited 
reputation, is quite a favorite with the traveling public, and Mr. Harber has 
realized a handsome competency by his successful management- In July 
quite an addition was added to accommodate an increased patronage. 


This well-known hostelry is the oldest of the trio which find their loca- 
cation near the depot of the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific Railroad. It 
was built in 1860, by the Patterson Brothers, who, also, became the land- 
lords and held sway for some eighteen months. At the end of that time 
they traded the house to Mr. Ohmart who assumed its management at once 
and gave it his name. The house has held a very steady run of customers, 
is known far and wide among the traveling public and has been the source 
of a steady and remunerative patronage to its proprietors. It is still owned 
and under the management of Mr. Ohmart. The Patterson Brothers came 
from Ohio; one is dead, the other is a resident of the State of Iowa. 


This is one of the oldest hotels of Trenton, and has always received a 
fair and steady run of custom. The house was built in 1871 by Jas. G. 
Benson, who conducted the same until the fall of 1878. He died ]S"ovember 
22d of that year and since that time his widow has taken charge of the 
house and been successful in its managment. 


This is the oldest hotel in Trenton, a frame building built in the old- 
fashioned style, low ceilings and windows with 7x9 and 8x10 glass. The 
house was erected in 1844, and the corner upon which it stands was, when 


Tttt NEW YdfiK 


the hotel was built, about the center of the town or the business portion 
thereof. It is now on what might be considered the west end and be called 
a rural and out of the way corner. In its long career it has seen many 
strange customers within its walls, and it has had many landlords to welcome 
its guests. It has had its name changed several times and it is now named 
as at the head of this article, Mr. Milton Cloudas having kept tlie house a 
couple of years. Its landlord is now llobt. McAfee a genial host and pleas- 
ant gentleman. 


This house was built in 1874, by D. 8 Miller, and was kept by him for a 
short time. He sold to Ed. Landers who in turn sold to O. G. Newton, present 
proprietor, who took posses